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biology 1 exam 1 study guide GSU

by: Alex Weiers

biology 1 exam 1 study guide GSU BIOL 1103K

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > BIOL 1103K > biology 1 exam 1 study guide GSU
Alex Weiers

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attached is the study guide for GSU Biology 1. I went in-depth on everything he said was going to be on the test as well as marked what was not going to be on the test. I broke down the differences...
Introduction to Biology
Dr. Blaustein
Study Guide
study, guide, exam1, Biology
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex Weiers on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1103K at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Blaustein in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 287 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Bio Study guide exam 1: Organized structures -Biosphere -ecosystem -community -population -organism -organ system -organ -tissue -cell – life emerges, basic unit of all life, can be multicellular -organelle -molecule -atoms homeostasis (remaining stable)- active maintenance of complex structures Cell growth  1. increase in size— surface area increases at slower rate than volume (S.A/ Vol.) **** cell is 60­90% water, there has to be enough surface area to support the volume.  once the cell gets to big it either dies or it has to divide to support the volume.  Volume  goes up faster than surface area. The denominator goes up faster than the numinator**** 2.  Division a. duplication ­ replication DNA             b. separation  chromosomes are vehicles of DNA Biology is the study of life. YOU WILL NOT NEED TO KNOW KINGDOMS FOR THE TEST Scientific principles 1. Natural causality 2. Uniformitarianism  time and space 3. Common perception Scientific method 1. Observation 2. Hypothesis-> doesn’t have to be be correct 3. Experimentation 4. Reevaluation 5. Conclusion  theory Trophic levels 1. Producers 2. Primary 3. Secondary 4. Techiary Ecological niche - The role of organisms in its environment - Include physical home and lifestyle - Intraspecific competition ** no two specifies can occupy the same niche overlap reduce overlap: 1. Competitive exclusion 2. Niche speciation- evolutionary trend (change overtime) Symbiosis ( any long term interaction between members or species) score relationship! - Parasitism (+,-) (good for one species negative for another) - Commensalism (+,0) ( good for one, does not effect another) - Mutualism (+,+) ( both parties benefit) Predication - Predator/ prey cycles - Predator regulates population size - Keystone predication o Ie. Sea star feeds on 13 species of animals… low interspecific competition. Population patters (demographics) - Spatial - Temporal – time Special distributions 1. Aggregate – gathering for a reason 2. Uniform- territorial 3. Random Exponential growth – birthrate > death rate Autotrophs- monosaccharides - Self feeders - Glucose and carbs - Chemical bond energy - Photosynthesis - Chlorophyll and acc. Pigments Heterophs – E from autotrophs - Consumer - Sugars and starch vs. cellulose - Strategies o Primary heterotroph  Leaf vs. seeds and fruit o Secondary o Tertiary o Omnivores o Decomposers o Detritus feeders Food chains – linear chain Food webs- all chains together every cell has a living outer boundary • cell membrane  • eukaryotic  the nucleus is the difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote  cytoplasm ­cyto =cell the liquid between the nucleus and the outer membrane  pro=before the nucleus  eukaryotes have some kind of membrane bound organelle  prokaryotic: without nucleus  Eukaryotic: with nucleus  Prokaryotic Cells ** <—— fission——> ——> prokaryotic cells  Binary Fission (cell reproduction process) 1. duplication (replication) of circular DNA 2. fissure in cell membrane, grows inward 3. DNA strands pulled apart via attachment to cell membrane 4. fissure splits into two daughter cells *fission occurs when there is not enough surface area for volume** Eukaryotic Cells<—— Mitosis—>> Mitosis = Nuclear Division Cytokinesis = cytoplasmic division Mitosis: DNA exists as a chromosome strands **Placenta is mitosis without cytokinesis** Life cycle: 1. interphase (replication occurs) (longest part of the cycle)  g1 phase (longest part of interphase, growth phase) (growth 1)  s phase (Synthesis phase, replication in preparation for Division)  g2 phase (final stage before cell division) 2. cell division (separation) a. Mitosis a. prophase (the chromosomes condense and shorten, the nuclear envelope breaks down, and the spindle begins to form. Sprinkle microtubules attach to the chromosomes at the centromeres) (the nucleus and nucleolus have disappeared, the centromere and spindle fibers, coiled chromosomes become visible) b. metaphase- alignment phase ( the spindle is fully formed. the spindle microtubules have moved the chromosomes to the equator of the cell. c. anaphase- migration phase ( chromatids separate at the centromere, becoming independent chromosomes. one former chromatid from each chromosome moves toward each pole of the cell. d. telophase- ( the one complete set of chromosomes has reached each pole of the cell. the chromosomes relax into their extended state, the spindle disappears, and the nuclear membranes begin to reform) 3. Cytokinesis- Usually simultaneously with the end of telophase, they cytoplasm is divided along the equator of the parent cell with each daughter cell* Plant cells and animal cells divide differently • both undergo cytokinesis • plants - cell plate formation • animal - cleavage *Kinetochore are where the spindles attach* mitosis- what ever number you start with you end with. ** as long as the chromosomes are held together at the centromere they are one chromosomes— two chromatids held together at the centromere** ** late interphase : the chromosomes have been duplicated but remain intertwined together, enclosed within the nucleus** ** Replicate before you separate** ** chromosomes spend there time as a single strand*** when the cell is ready to replicate they form an X, when they are about to replicate they coil for protective means, this is the only time they can be seen under the microscope. Control of Cell division contact inhibition external controls on cell divisions growth promotors growth inhibitors cancer- out of control cell division contact division- when cells run into each other during division. Meiosis : Forming of new organism Ploid = chromosome setup Sperm Male gamete (1N2, Haploid) + Egg Female gamete (1N, Haploid) zygote (2N, Diploid) Zygote- first restoration cell we divide from after fertilization Any cell after fertilization has to be Diploid. Any cell after sperm or egg has to be haploid Haploid is 1 – number stays the same Diploid is 2…. Multiply number by two How are sex cells produced? - Meiosis or Reduction Division (two rounds of division) 1) First meiotic division - homologous chromosomes separate 2) Second meiotic division- chromatids separate Synapsis- they find each other and coil so they move together Any synaptic event you have the chromatids stick together The two homologous chromosomes attach together to form tetrads Meiosis 1- synapsis happens, cut in half Meiosis 2- separation of chromatids and restoration of chromosome structure Sperms get equal cytokinesis hence multiple eggs Eggs- one cell gets almost all of the cytoplasm during division. Hence one egg is produced at end process. Animal life cycle Meiosis in humans is only for sperm and egg. Mitosis- what you start with you end with Meiosis- ends with half of what you started with (diploid to haploid) Fungus go through haploid cycles- spores Summary of Mendel’s monohybrid experiments: 1)Two principles of inheritance Principle of segregation  Heredity via genes (diploid)  Two *alleles per adult gene (same expression of the same trait)  Segregated in reproductive cell (diploid to haploid) Principle of Dominance  One allele may be dominant over another when both allele types present in the same organism  Purple is dominant over white - Punnett square -half sperm get dominate other half gets recessive - the outside of the Punnett scale represents the possible outcomes 2) Genotypes and Phenotypes a. Genotypes = genetic make up b. Phenotype= actual expressed characteristic; product of gene and environment 3) More than one allele for same gene a. Homozygous= identical alleles for same gene b. Heterozygous= contrasting alleles for same gene *no such thing as heterozygous dominant


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