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techiary

techiary

Description

School: Georgia State University
Department: Biology
Course: Introductory Biology I
Professor: David blaustein
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: study, guide, exam1, and Biology
Cost: 50
Name: biology 1 exam 1 study guide GSU
Description: attached is the study guide for GSU Biology 1. I went in-depth on everything he said was going to be on the test as well as marked what was not going to be on the test. I broke down the differences between mitosis and meiosis as well as the differences between fission and fusion. remember there is also the study session Saturday prior to the test. Best of luck guys.
Uploaded: 09/16/2016
7 Pages 17 Views 9 Unlocks
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Bio Study guide exam 1:


what is Ecological niche ?



Organized structures  

-Biosphere

-ecosystem

-community

-population  

-organism  

-organ system

-organ

-tissue

-cell – life emerges, basic unit of all life, can be multicellular  

-organelle  

-molecule  

-atoms

homeostasis (remaining stable)- active maintenance of complex structures

Cell growth

1. increase in size— surface area increases at slower rate than volume (S.A/ Vol.)

**** cell is 60­90% water, there has to be enough surface area to support the volume.  once the cell gets to big it either dies or it has to divide to support the volume.  Volume  goes up faster than surface area. The denominator goes up faster than the numinator****

2. Division

a. duplication ­ replication DNA

            b. separation

chromosomes are vehicles of DNA


what are the two principles of inheritance?



Biology is the study of life.  

YOU WILL NOT NEED TO KNOW KINGDOMS FOR THE TEST 

Scientific principles  

1. Natural causality  

2. Uniformitarianism  time and space

3. Common perception  

Scientific method  

1. Observation  

2. Hypothesis-> doesn’t have to be be correct  

3. Experimentation  

4. Reevaluation  

5. Conclusion  theory

Trophic levels  

1. Producers

2. Primary  

3. Secondary  

4. Techiary  

Ecological niche  

- The role of organisms in its environment  

- Include physical home and lifestyle  

- Intraspecific competition  

** no two specifies can occupy the same niche overlap  

reduce overlap:

1. Competitive exclusion  

2. Niche speciation- evolutionary trend (change overtime)

Symbiosis ( any long term interaction between members or species) score  relationship!


what is Genotypes?



- Parasitism (+,-) (good for one species negative for another) - Commensalism (+,0) ( good for one, does not effect another) - Mutualism (+,+) ( both parties benefit)

Predication  

- Predator/ prey cycles  

- Predator regulates population size

- Keystone predication  

o Ie. Sea star feeds on 13 species of animals… low interspecific  competition.  Don't forget about the age old question of unf computing

Population patters (demographics)

- Spatial  

- Temporal – time  

Special distributions  

1. Aggregate – gathering for a reason  

2. Uniform- territorial  

3. Random  

Exponential growth – birthrate > death rate

Autotrophs- monosaccharides  

- Self feeders  

- Glucose and carbs  

- Chemical bond energy  

- Photosynthesis  

- Chlorophyll and acc. Pigments  

Heterophs – E from autotrophs  

- Consumer  

- Sugars and starch vs. cellulose  

- Strategies  

o Primary heterotroph  

 Leaf vs. seeds and fruit  

o Secondary  

o Tertiary  

o Omnivores  

o Decomposers  

o Detritus feeders

Food chains – linear chain

Food webs- all chains together  

every cell has a living outer boundary

• cell membrane

• eukaryotic

the nucleus is the difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote

cytoplasm

­cyto =cell the liquid between the nucleus and the outer membrane pro=before the nucleus

eukaryotes have some kind of membrane bound organelle

prokaryotic: without nucleus

Eukaryotic: with nucleus

Prokaryotic Cells ** <—— fission——> ——> prokaryotic cellsIf you want to learn more check out psy 270

Binary Fission (cell reproduction process)

1. duplication (replication) of circular DNA

2. fissure in cell membrane, grows inward

3. DNA strands pulled apart via attachment to cell membrane 4. fissure splits into two daughter cells

*fission occurs when there is not enough surface area for volume** Eukaryotic Cells<—— Mitosis—>> 

Mitosis = Nuclear Division

Cytokinesis = cytoplasmic division

Mitosis: DNA exists as a chromosome strands

**Placenta is mitosis without cytokinesis**

Life cycle:

1. interphase (replication occurs) (longest part of the cycle)

∙ g1 phase (longest part of interphase, growth phase) (growth 1) ∙ s phase (Synthesis phase, replication in preparation for Division) ∙ g2 phase (final stage before cell division)

2. cell division (separation)

a. Mitosis

a. prophase (the chromosomes condense and shorten, the  

nuclear envelope breaks down, and the spindle begins to  

form. Sprinkle microtubules attach to the chromosomes at the

centromeres) (the nucleus and nucleolus have disappeared,  

the centromere and spindle fibers, coiled chromosomes  

become visible)

b. metaphase- alignment phase ( the spindle is fully formed. the  spindle microtubules have moved the chromosomes to the  We also discuss several other topics like bil quiz

equator of the cell.

c. anaphase- migration phase ( chromatids separate at the  

centromere, becoming independent chromosomes. one former

chromatid from each chromosome moves toward each pole of  

the cell.

d. telophase- ( the one complete set of chromosomes has  

reached each pole of the cell. the chromosomes relax into  

their extended state, the spindle disappears, and the nuclear

membranes begin to reform)

3. Cytokinesis- Usually simultaneously with the end of telophase, they  cytoplasm is divided along the equator of the parent cell with each  daughter cell*

Plant cells and animal cells divide differently

• both undergo cytokinesis

• plants - cell plate formation

• animal - cleavage

*Kinetochore are where the spindles attach*

mitosis- what ever number you start with you end with.

** as long as the chromosomes are held together at the centromere they are  one chromosomes— two chromatids held together at the centromere**

** late interphase : the chromosomes have been duplicated but remain  intertwined together, enclosed within the nucleus**

** Replicate before you separate**

** chromosomes spend there time as a single strand*** when the cell is  ready to replicate they form an X, when they are about to replicate they coil  for protective means, this is the only time they can be seen under the  microscope.

 Control of Cell division If you want to learn more check out florida atlantic university economics

 contact inhibition 

 external controls on cell divisions 

growth promotors

growth inhibitors

cancer- out of control cell division

contact division- when cells run into each other during division.

Meiosis: Forming of new organism  

Ploid = chromosome setup

Sperm Male gamete (1N2, Haploid) +

Egg Female gamete (1N, Haploid) zygote (2N, Diploid)

Zygote- first restoration cell we divide from after fertilization  

Any cell after fertilization has to be Diploid.  

Any cell after sperm or egg has to be haploid 

Haploid is 1 – number stays the same  

Diploid is 2…. Multiply number by two  

How are sex cells produced?

- Meiosis or Reduction Division (two rounds of division) 1) First meiotic division - homologous chromosomes  

separate

2) Second meiotic division- chromatids separate We also discuss several other topics like austin community college spanish
We also discuss several other topics like clcv uiuc

Synapsis- they find each other and coil so they move together  Any synaptic event you have the chromatids stick together  The two homologous chromosomes attach together to form tetrads  

Meiosis 1- synapsis happens, cut in half  

Meiosis 2- separation of chromatids and restoration of chromosome structure

 Sperms get equal cytokinesis hence multiple eggs  

Eggs- one cell gets almost all of the cytoplasm during division. Hence one  egg is produced at end process.  

Animal life cycle  

Meiosis in humans is only for sperm and egg.

Mitosis- what you start with you end with  

Meiosis- ends with half of what you started with (diploid to haploid)

Fungus go through haploid cycles- spores

Summary of Mendel’s monohybrid experiments: 1)Two principles of inheritance

Principle of segregation  

 Heredity via genes (diploid)

 Two *alleles per adult gene (same expression of the same  trait)

 Segregated in reproductive cell (diploid to haploid)

Principle of Dominance  

 One allele may be dominant over another when both allele  types present in the same organism  

 Purple is dominant over white  

- Punnett square  

-half sperm get dominate other half gets recessive  

- the outside of the Punnett scale represents the possible outcomes  

2) Genotypes and Phenotypes  

a. Genotypes = genetic make up  

b. Phenotype= actual expressed characteristic; product of  gene and environment  

3) More than one allele for same gene  

a. Homozygous= identical alleles for same gene  

b. Heterozygous= contrasting alleles for same gene  

*no such thing as heterozygous dominant

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