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# Study Guide - Exam One CHM 111

Elon University

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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hailey N Detrick on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHM 111 at Elon University taught by Amanda Watson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.

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Date Created: 09/16/16

General Chemistry Exam: Chapters 1-3: Week One Review: 1. Fundamental Building Blocks of Matter: a. Atom i. Protons ii. Neutrons iii. Electrons 2. States of Matter: a. Gas/Vapor b. Liquid c. Solid 3. Physical vs. Chemical: a. Color – physical b. Flammability - Chemical c. Melting Point – Physical d. Boiling Point – Physical e. Burning Gas – Chemical 4. Units of Measure: a. Metric System i. Kelvin (temp) 1. C (Celsius) x 273 = Kelvin 5. Significant Figures: a. Minimum number of digits needed to write a given value without the loss of accuracy i. Ex. .006302 (4 sig. fig.) > Zeros at the beginning of the number are never significant b. **If a number is exactly even (#5), round it to the nearest even digit** c. Multiplication and Division: i. Uniform number-5f significant digi-5 // lowest significant figure ii. Ex. (3.26 x 10 ) (1.78) = (5.8 x 10 ) Week Two Review: 1. Stoichiometry: a. Based on the conversation of mass b. Depends on the property balanced equation c. Balance the equation: H2 + O2 à H2O i. Answer: H2 + O2 à 2H2O 2. Rules: a. Write the complete chemical reaction
b. Count the total amount of each atom on each side
i. i.e. H:2 O:2àH:2 (4) O:1 (2) c. balance the elemtents one at a time d. start with elements OTHER than C, O, and H
e. balance C,O, and H last
f. use whole number coefficiants
i. i.e. 2H not 2.345H
g. Edit previously placed coefficient if necessary
h. Reduce coefficients
3. Calculate the formula weight of a molecule: a. H2O: i. H (1 amu) x 2 (for 2 H atoms) + O (16 amu) x 1 (for 1 O atom) = 18 amu 4. Conversion from amu to grams: a. 1 amu = 1.66 x 10 -24 5. Mols: a. Conversion to mols i. 23 1 mole = 6.02 x 10 1. 23 ex. If I have 1 mole of students, I would have 6.02 x 10 students 6. Atomic Theory of Mass: a. Law of conservation of mass: i. the total # of mass before the reaction will always be the same # of mass after the reaction 7. Atomic Structure: -19 a. Electronic charge: 1.602 x 10 C
b. The atomic mass unit: amu = 1.66054 x 10 -24g
8. Atomic Weight: a. Determines the average atomic mass of an element: i. ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯ ▯▯▯▯ (▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯) ▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯▯▯▯ ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯ 9. Molecules and Chemical Formulas: a. Halogens: H 2 O 2 N 2 F 2 Cl2, Br2 2I
b. Molecular compounds:
i. Composed of molecules containing more than 1 type of atom ii. Chemical Formulas:
1. Indicate the actual number of atoms in a molecule iii. Empirical Formula:
1. Relative number of atoms of each type of molecule Week Three Review: 1. Mole 23 a. 6.02 x 10 b. Formula Weight: i. C H O 6 12 6 1. C: 12 x 6 = 72 amu H: 1 x 12 = 12 amu O: 16 x 6 = 96 amu Total = 180 amu 2. 1 mol C H6O 12186 g c. Calculation: mol à # atoms i. Question: How many atoms: 1 mol CeO ? 2 ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯.▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯ ▯▯ ii. = 1.2 ???? 10 ???????????????????? ???????? ???? ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ d. Calculation: g à mols i. Question: how many mols in 3g of Fe O ? 2 3 1. Fe: 56 amu (2) = 112 O: 16 amu (3) = 48 Formula Weight: 160 amu ▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ ii. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ = .019 ???????????????? ???????? ???????? ???? ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ e. Calculation: g à # of atoms i. Question: how many H atoms of in .636g of C H SNO 3 7 2 ii. S: 32 x 1 = 32 C: 12 x 3 = 36 H: 1 x 7 = 7 N: 14 x 1 = 14 O: 16 x 2 = 32 Formula Weight: 121 amu .▯▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯▯▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯.▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ iii. ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯▯ = 2.21 ???? 10 ???????????????????? ???? f. Calculation: Empirical Formula i. Question: assume 100g sample (ALWAYS STATE @ TOP OF PROBLEM) a. 40.92% C à 40.92g b. 4.58% H à 4.58g c. 54.5% O à 54.5g 2. using molar mass, calculate moles of each element: ▯▯.▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ a. = 3.41 ???????????????? ???? ▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯ b. ▯.▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ = 4.58 ???????????????? ???? ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯.▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ c. = 3.41 ???????????????? ???? ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ 3. divide by the smallest outcome about (3.41): a. 2C: 3.41/3.41 = 1 b. H: 4.58/3.41 = 1.33 c. O: 3.41/3.41 = 1 4. convert to whole numbers (in this case multiply by 3 to get H to whole number): a. 3(CH 1.33) = C H3O 4 3 2. Quantitative Balanced Equation: a. Chemical Equation: Fe + H O à Fe2O + H 3 4 2 b. Balance: 3Fe + 4H O à F2 O + 4H 3 4 2 ▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯ c. Analysis: = .476???? ???? ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ d. Percent Yield: when expierament was carried out only .310 H was used. W2at is the percent yield?: .▯▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯▯▯ i. .▯▯▯▯ ▯ ▯ = 65% ???????????????????? ▯▯▯▯▯▯ ▯▯▯ ii. = 65% ???????????????????? ▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯▯ ▯ 3. Limiting Reactant Equation: a. 4NH + 73 à 4NO2+ 6H O 2 2 i. 45.6g NH 3 ii. 75.4g O 2 b. Find which is the limiting reactant: i. ▯▯.▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ = 2.67 ???????????????? ???????? ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯▯.▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ = 1.35 ???????????????? ???????? à li▯iting reactant ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ c. Find the g of NO Usin2 the Limiting Reactant (O ): 2 ▯.▯▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯▯.▯ ▯ ▯▯ i. ▯ ▯ = 62.1???? ???????? ▯ ???? ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ d. What’t left?: NH 3 ▯▯.▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ i. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ = 23.9???? ???????? ▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯ ii. 45.6g ???????? - ▯2.9g ???????? = 22.▯g ???????? left over▯ 4. Combustion Analysis Equation: a. Question: given x + y à CO + H O 2 2 CO :2.279g , H O:2.0350g , Compound: .105g b. Convert g CO to g2of C: .▯▯▯▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ i. = .07???? ???? ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ c. Convert g of H O to2g of H: .▯▯▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯▯ ▯ i. ▯ ▯ = .004???? ???? ▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ d. subtract from given compound: i. .105g - .07g C - .004g H = .031g O e. Figure out mols: i. .▯▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ = .006 ???????????????? ???? ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ .▯▯▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ ii. ▯ ▯▯ ▯ = .004 ???????????????? ???? .▯▯▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ iii. = .002???? ???? ▯ ▯▯▯ ▯ f. Divide by the lowest number to find empirical formula: i. C 3 O2 g. Find molecular equation: i. C: 3 x 12g + H: 2 x 1g + O: 1 x 16g = 54g ii. 54g goes into 108g 2x h. multiply the empirical formula by 2: i. C 6 O4 2

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