CHEM 101 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE (CHAPTERS 1-3)
CHEM 101 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE (CHAPTERS 1-3) CHEM 101
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrew Guidroz IV on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 101 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Yuemin Liu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Survey of Chemistry I - 002 in Chemistry at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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CHEM 101 – 002 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE (CHAPTERS 1-3) CHAPTER 1: 1. PRINCIPLES of SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY CHEMISTRY is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes (Everything we do involves chemistry) GREEN chemistry uses processes and materials that are intended to reduce pollution at its source with the thought of the present/future generation (Uses renewable resources & considers cost of money as well as the cost to the environment.) SUSTAINABLE chemistry is designed to meet the needs of the present generation without guaranteeing be able to meet the needs of the future generatio (Uses nonrenewable resources) We're either conserving or using resources inefficient (Over allocation of these resources leaves a question mark for the future generations to come.) SCIENCE is the process of seeking & understanding the underlying processes of nature. It involves technology (factual) and philosophical (theoretical) understandi(Science grew out of natural philosophy, or the philosophical speculation about nature.) A scientific HYPOTHESIS is a testable explanation of observed data which is tested by designing and performing experiments(Example: A chemist proposes a solution to make gum less stickier in order to prevent sticking to surfaces.) Scientific LAWs summarize large amounts of data in order to provide brief descriptions of natural phenomen(Law of gravity, law of conservation of mass/matter, etc.Many scientific laws can be stated numerically via formulas (P*V=K, E=mc^2, etc.) A scientific THEORY is based on a set of already tested hypotheses that explain natural phenomena at the moment, meaning it can be improved later (The Big Bang Theory). They are the best way to explain current phenomena because we are limited to knowledge (With time we begin to be able to develop new ideas and improve theories. Theories are always tentative and may change as observations of nature change). Scientific MODELs represent natural phenomena, they are central in the science world. Both in research as well as in communicating explanations (Molecular models are three dimensional representations of molecules, example: "How drugs interact with proteins"). TECHNOLOGY is the direct application of knowledge to solve problems (Example: Nanotech is the study of manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular level which is applicable in many fields). ALCHEMY is the medieval prelude to chemistry; it was based on the transformation of matter (It was concerned particularly with attempts to convert base metals into gold or to find a universal elixir.) The Desirability Quotient (DQ) is an estimation determined using a RiskBenefit analysis (DQ = BENEFIT/RISK) EXAMPLE: The chances of dying by a specific cause in a given year are calculated by dividing the population by the number of deaths, by that cause, in that year. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH solves society's problems. 2 APPLIED research involves studying a specific problem in an industry or in the environmen (Example: George W. Carver in his research invented more than 300 uses for peanuts). BASIC research involves the search for knowledge for its own sake. The findings of basic research may someday be applied to a specific problem in an industry or environment, mainly conducted at universities or instit(Example: Gertrude Ellion's work with purines and their role in the cell gives you an idea how to modify the structure). MASS & WEIGHT Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object. The mass in an object will stay constant whether it's on Earth or on the moon. Weight is the measure of the gravitational force on the matter within an object. Weight will change between the Earth and the moon(On an airplane your gravity becomes smaller). PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL CHANGES Physical changes occur without changes in the chemical identity. Chemical changes can only be studied by forming new substances. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER GAS is characterized by indefinite shape and indefinite volume. LIQUID is characterized by indefinite shape and definite volume. SOLIDs are characterized by a definite shape and definite volume. SUBSTANCES: Elements & Compounds MIXTURES: Homogenous & Heterogenous 3 DENSITY is the amount of matter in a given amount of space. ENERGY is the ability to change matter either physically or chemically. It exists in two major forms: Potential (stored energy & Kinetic (energy in motion). TEMPERATURE is the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules that make up an object. (Higher temp. = higher avg. Kinetic energy) < END OF CHAPTER 1 > CHAPTER 2: 1.ATOMS ARISTOTLE (384 B.C.) suggested all matter is composed of four elements, all matter is continuous, not atomistic. DEMOCRITES & LEUCIPPUS (450 B.C.) suggested the idea of atomos (matter is not cuttable). LAVOISIER (Early 1700's) is the "father of modern chemistry." Constructed the Law of Conservation of Mass: The ability to recycle aluminum, glass, or plastic is a model of the law its (During a chemical change, matter is neither created nor destroyeMeasured the mass of substances before & after chemical reactions then summarized his findings into a law. PROUST (1799) The Law of Definite Proportions: a compound always contains the same elements in certain definite proportions (Example: Copper Carbonate always has the same composition). 4 10.00g (Lead) + 1.55g (Sulfur) = 11.55g (LeadSulfide) 10.00g (Lead) + 3.00g (Sulfur) = 11.55g (LeadSulfide) + 1.45g (Sulfur) JOHN DALTON (1803) The Law of Multiple Proportions: Elements may combine in more than one set of proportions with each set corresponding to different compounds. The postulate: "All matter is made up of very small particles called atoms" has since it was formulated been modified in later discoveries. N (Nitrogen) + O (Oxygen) = N2O, NO, NO2 The Atomic Theory of Matter: All matter is composed of atoms. All atoms within an element are alike, and differ from other atoms within a different element. Elements combine to force compounds into fixed proportions. MOLES = 6.022 X 10^23 atoms (Avagadro's number) elements are measured by their atomic mass. MENDELEEV arranged the elements by their atomic masses. Dobereiner's Triads was a precursor to the construction of the periodic table by Mendeleev. Many of his predictions were formed to be accurate for the undiscovered elements. < END OF CHAPTER 2 > CHAPTER 3: 1. ATOMIC STRUCTURE 5 ELECTRICITY & THE ATOM An ELECROLYTE is a compound that conducts electricity when molten or dissolved in water. (It's an important substance in the chemistry of living systems.) An ION is an atom or group of atoms w/charge o Anion: Negative ion o Cation: Positive ion J.J. THOMPSON EXPERIMENT (1897) determined the massto charge ratio of cathode rays, thus discovering the electron. Measured the deflection of cathode rays in electrical and magnetic fields(Cathedor). GOLDSTEIN'S EXPERIMENT (1886) observed positive rays using perforated cathode. Verified the existence of positively charged particles in gas discharge tubes. ROBERT MILLIKAN (1909) ELECTRON CHARGE: using the oil drop experiments Millikan determined the charge of an electron. Combining with Thompson's determination for his masstocharge ratio experiment, Millikan was able to determine the mass of the electron. WILKAN ROENTGEN (1895) XRAYS: using a cathode ray tube, Roentgen discovered xrays. 6 ERNEST RUTHERFORD (1911) GOLD FOIL EXPERIMENT: published a paper that was equivalent to the volume of three atoms. Concluded that the nucleus of an atom is positively charged due to some positively charged alpha particles being deflected by the nucleus. Alpha source passed through (77%) of the paper. Alpha rays are the least penetrating particle. The mass of one NUCLEON is 1 atomic mass unit (amu). ELECTRON ARRANGMENT BOHR MODEL: FLAME TESTS: different elements give different colors to flame. CONTINUOUS SPECTRA: light emitted from a solid substance passes through a prism. LINE SPECTRA: light from a gaseous substance; Attempting to explain the line spectrum of hydrogen, Bohr suggested that the energy of electrons within atoms is quanitized. QUANTUM: a tiny unit of energy produced or absorbed when an electron makes a transition from one energy level to another. When electrons are in the lowest energy state they are said to be in the ground state. When energy from a flame or other source is absorbed by the electrons, they are promoted to a higher energy state (excited state) When an electron is in the excited state it returns to a lower energy state, it emits a photon of energy, which may be observed as light. 7 PRINCIPLE ENERGY LEVELS (shells) roughly correlate to the distance that an electron is from an atom's nucleus. SUBLEVELS (subshells) each principle energy level (n) is divided into 'n' sublevels. ORBITALS: regions in space that represent a high probability of locating an electron. Each sublevel has one or more orbitals. The quantum mechanical view of the atom shows that electrons are confined to these charge clouds (orbitals). 8
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