POLI201 Exam 1 Study Guide Materials
POLI201 Exam 1 Study Guide Materials POLI 201 -001
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POLI 201 -001
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cleopatra Shabazz on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLI 201 -001 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by David Darmofal in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
POLI201 Exam 1 Study Guide Important Term Definition/Main Idea Court Case Chapter 1 Government Institutions and procedures through which a land and its people are ruled Forms of Government Inclusiveness o Autocracy: one person rules o Oligarchy: small group of landowners, military officers or wealthy merchants rules o Democracy: citizens rule in a system where they play a significant part in the government process Recognition of Limits o Constitutional: powers of government have limited control over citizens o Authoritarian: government does not have formal limits but are limited by other social institutions (semicontrol over citizens) o Totalitarian: powers of government have total control over citizens Politics The conflicts and struggles over the leadership, structure, and policies of government Five Principles of Politics 1. Rationality All political behavior has a purpose 2. Institution Structure politics a. PrincipalAgent Relationship: a relationship motivated by selfinterest in which the principal has to monitor and validate what the agent is doing 3. Collective Action Gathering resources and coordinating a group to achieve common goals a. Public Good: a commodity or service provided to the public that cannot be denied to anyone once provided 4. Policy Political outcomes = Individual preferences + Institutional procedures 5. History How we got here matters Chapter 2 Five Sectors of Colonial Society 1. New England merchants 2. Southern Planters 3. Royalists 4. Shopkeepers, artisans, laborers 5. Small farmers British Taxes Become a Major Problem British government was dealing with debts and numerous financial problems beginning in the 1750s. British crown felt that funding the colonies during French and Indian war caused the debt Began taxing the colonists to pay some of the costs Colonists were angry because stamps and commercial goods (sugar and molasses) were being taxed Articles of Confederation First American Constitution Great Compromise House of Representatives: based on state population Senate: each state has equal vote (regardless of size) Three-Fifths Compromise 5 slaves = 3 people Slaves can’t vote, but help boost representation in slave states Constitution Legislative Branch Bicameralism: divides legislative assembly into two chambers (houses) Necessary and Proper Clause: gives national government the power and strength to make laws (elastic clause) Executive Branch President = commanderinchief + chief executive + chief diplomat Judicial Branch Supreme Court and federal courts established by congress Full Faith and Credit Clause States must respect “public acts, records, and judicial proceedings” of every other state Amending the Constitution 1 . Pass House and Senate by 2/3 vote, ratified by legislative votes of ¾ states 2. Pass House and Senate by 2/3 vote, ratified by conventions of ¾ states votes 3. Pass national convention in response to petitions by 2/3 states, ratified by legislative votes of ¾ states 4. Pass national convention in response to petitions by 2/3 states, ratified by conventions of ¾ states Ratification Constitution can only be ratified by majority vote of 9 states (out of 13) Federalism Power is divided between central and regional governments Bill of Rights People are ensured certain rights and liberties that are stated in the first 10 amendments Federalists Strong, national government Believes excessive democracy can lead to the tyranny of the majority Antifederalists More state control Believes government will have too much power over the people Federalist10 10 essay written in the Federalists Papers by James Madison The Amendments to the Constitution Bill of Rights 1. Freedom of speech, religion and press, right to petition and assembly 2. Citizens can bear arms 3. Citizens do not have to quarter soldiers during peacetime 4. Search and seizure must be reasonable 5. Right to due process (fair treatment of judicial system), no double jeopardy 6. Fair, speedy trial 7. Right to jury trial (criminal cases) 8. No excessive bail or cruel, unusual punishment 9. Unenumerated Rights: legal rights that are not explicitly stated 10. Power of the State Other Amendments 11 . Citizens can sue a sta e 12 . President and VicePresident are placed on separate ballots 13 . Slavery is ill gal 14. Freed slaves have the right to vote 15 . Citizens of any race can vot 16 . Federal Income Tax 17 . Senators can be electe 18. Prohibition (Alcohol) 19 . Women can vote 20 . Shorted time frame between outgoing and incoming presidents 21. Repealed 18 Amendment 22 . President is limited to two terms 23 . District of Columbia can vote 24 . No more poll t x 25 . Outlines protocol for presidential disability, vacancy or inability 26 . Citizens 18+ can vo e 27 . Congressional salaries can only be changed after the election Created more voters Strengthened relationship between elected offices and voters Affected the power of the government Chapter 3 Four Stages of Federalism 1. Dual Federalism (1789-1937) Federal and state governments shared powers However, the most important powers were exercised by the state governments 2. Cooperative Federalism (1937-1960s) Federal government and state governments developed partnerships and supportive relations 3. Regulated Federalism (1960s-1990s) States now have to follow standards and rules as stated by the federal government 4. New Federalism (1990s-Present) Create more national policies that will provide states with more freedom Separation of Powers Seeks to limit power of federal government against itself Checks and balances o Legislative, Executive and Judicial branches are able to keep an eye on each other o Each branch has agenda and veto power over the other branches o Allows each branch to negotiate, moderate, and compromise their decisions o Helps the branches stay on the same page Chapter 4 Civil Liberties Personal rights and freedoms guaranteed to citizens that protects them from unjust, governmental laws Dual Citizenship Americans are both citizens of the national government and citizens of their native state. Fourteenth Amendment Strives to apply the Bill of Rights to State Governments Anyone born or naturalized in the US are US citizens and citizens of the state they live in States cannot create or enforce laws that take away the privileges of US citizens States cannot deprive anyone of “life, liberty or property” without fair treatment of the law (due process) Selective Incorporation The onebyone application of liberties stated in the Bill of Rights to state governments Miranda Rights Anyone under arrest must be read their legal rights before the police can interrogate them Protects against selfincrimination Establishment Clause separation of church and state Strict Scrutiny The Supreme Court has to make sure that a law shows “compelling state interest” before the law can be deemed as constitutional Chapter 5 Civil Rights Citizens are entitled to making legal or moral claims on the government Equal Protection Clause Guarantees that the law must equally protect all citizens Voting Rights The Constitution did not include the right to vote States originally restricted voting based on religion, property, gender and race Amendments that allowed more people to vote o 14th:AfricanAmericans o 15th: citizens of any race o 19th: women o 23rd: District of Columbia o 24th : no poll tax (anyone regardless of their financial status) o 26th: citizens 18+ Segregation Plessy v Ferguson (1896): any public facility can remain segregated, provided that the accommodations for all races are equal Brown v Board of Education (1954): integrated public schools Civil Rights Movement A historical movement led by AfricanAmerican citizens to end discrimination in America Discrimination in Employment Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII): prohibits job discrimination by all employers Griggs v Duke Power (1971): employers must display their employment policy and show that the qualifications are a necessities and not ways to discriminate employers Americans with Disabilities Act (1990): guarantees equal employment rights to citizens with disabilities Ledbetter v Goodyear (2007): an employee who had been discriminated by their job must bring a discrimination charge within 180 days of when the discrimination allegedly occurred Fair Pay Act (2009): overturned Ledbetter v Goodyear
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