Nutrition and Wellness Module 1
Nutrition and Wellness Module 1 APPH 1040 L
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sayali Punyarthi on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to APPH 1040 L at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Dr. Snow in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Wellness: Unit 1 Key Objectives: - Increase daily physical activity levels - Increase proportion of physician visits to include nutrition/weight counseling or education - Reduce number of adolescents engaged in disordered eating to control body wright - Increase proportion of adults who get sufficient sleep - Reduce binge drinking of alcoholic beverages Genetics: pre-disposed to certain diseases- get screening A holistic approach: Looking at the individual as a whole, rather than part by part. o Almost every medical condition affects people psychologically as well as physically Top impediments for college students: stress (time management skills), sleep difficulties, anxiety.. Physical activity v. Exercise o Physical Activity All physical movement, regardless of the energy expenditure or reason for it Can involve occupational, lifestyle, or leisure activities Sitting could lead to health problems o Exercise Type of leisure-time physical activity Performed specifically to enhance health and/ or fitness Involves planned, structured, repetitive bodily movement, so includes all conditioning activities and sports Regular physical activity decreases: o Incidence of anxiety, stress, insomnia o Risk of back injury, back pain, bone thinning, arthritis o Risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, heart attack o Risk of type two diabetes o Risk of colon, breast, other cancers Benefits of regular PA o Prevention of weight gain o Prevention of falls o Improved cognitive function (older adults) Coronary occlusion: what causes the myocardial infarction (heart attack) If you’re going have a heart attack have it after exercise- because muscle cells are going to be more resilient and more likely to last than die What are other behaviors you can control/modify to ensure optimal wellness? o Eating healthy (finding strategies) o Exercise o Sleep on time What is your role? o Be a critical consumer of health information o Be aware of your risk factors and how to minimize them o Education isn’t enough, you must take action Monitor behaviors Tremendous ability to do things- when we decide to accomplish something- mentality- start working on goals instead of putting them back forever What is holding you back? Behavior Modification We become very conditioned to convenient methods of travel due to the adaptation of new places- want to get everything quick o Value meals- less money and quick Healthy behavior does take an effort: need a regular structured exercise program o Half of the individuals who start an exercise program quit within the first 6 months Prioritize other things first: “ill go the next day ill go the next day” o 35% of Americans meet the criteria of obesity o Obesity rates are increasing in children o 80% of American adults don’t get recommended exercise o CDC guidelines- 30 min a day o Maintain the behavior o Helps stress, function, and memory What factors influence health behaviors? o Environment- makes you naturally a little bit more active due to tech’s campus o Motivation Most behaviors are a product of our environment o “toxic” environment: modern conveniences and increased portion size- generally a better deal than getting something of a smaller portion size 2000 calories a day How do children spend their average day? o On the internet o Listening to music o Watching tv All sedimentary activities Average age you get a phone: 10.3 years of age 31% parents say that kids text when they are in the same place 50% of children have social media accounts by the age of 12 Activity for Health v. Performance Taking something we want people to do changing it to punishment- running laps City planning shapes behavior o Shaping transportation o You can put bikes on buses now o Have to make it safe- crosswalks on highways o Modify designs in order to make it safe and conducive for people to be physically active o Wide sidewalks, safe- well lit places, parallel parking – induces physical activity- mental work as well Active design is critical to addressing obesity and its related diseases- building it in so people naturally put it in their schedule and burn calories o ATLANTA STREETS ALIVE Obesity bills passed for cats and dogs How do people change their health behaviors? (Nutrition) Health Belief Model Change is more likely if: o The health problem is perceived to be serious o The individual perceives that the health problem poses a threat o These are cues to a problem Social Cognitive Theory Personal: Self-Efficacy toward the behavior Behavioral: Involves the response an individual receives after they perform a behavior Environmental: Influences the individual’s ability to successfully complete a behavior o Individuals always start out a pre-contemplation where they are not think about change o Something then gets them to start thinking o Then they go into preparation: work out attire, running shoes, gym membership o Formal action stage: regularly trying to stay on task with their physical activity schedule Minor set backs could get them to different stages o As they get more and more comfortable, new behavior turns to maintenance of a regular behavior: goes to improved lifestyle o Focus on one behavior change: once you get a handle on that change- then you can move to other things o Action and Maintenance may take much longer- some individuals have to keep working on it- general timeline o Have to weigh pros and cons o If you’re not motivated than you’re not going to be successful o Find MEASURABLE goals: help you stay on track and be focused o Self-efficacy and ability is important o Shortcoming of behavior change models o The intention-behavior gap o Past experiences o Attitudes towards the behavior o These behaviors are learned and reinforced over time- going ot be difficult- easier as you progress o Analyze the behavior: antecedents that lead to the behavior o What were you engaging in when this behavior occurred o What were the consequences of this behavior- was it unpleasant, or did you not feel good? o Quantify the behavior: o Frequency of occurrence: number of hours spent on working out v, video games, money spent on junk food, weight o Reinforce desired behavior o Rewards can be very helpful reinforces- short term, weekly goals and have rewards in place o Barriers to change: o Procrastination o Cultural Expectations or Beliefs o Gratification- short term. V. long term o Risk complacency- wait until a problem occurs to deal with it o Complexity o Write the plan of action down- hold you accountable- somewhere you can see it o Must shift from denial to awareness- realize what you have to change o Find out what motivates you- think of alternative behavior o Cognitive restructuring o To be successful: o S: specific o M: Measurable o A: achievable o R: realistic o T: time based o Including rewards o Don’t forget to modify your environment, involve friends and family o Identify a target, look at the behavior objectively o Monitor your progress o Make a contract: while in the process of change o Modify your strategies, if something doesn’t work o What’s the real barrier? o Tend to get focused on deadlines- bigger things in lives may not have deadlines Friday, September 9, 2016 A lot of people still eat fast food- getting people to decrease: higher calorie foods TEST Q: Restaurants are putting calories in the restaurant- more accurate in fast food restaurants o Sit down restaurant- a lot of disparities when making the entrées- not necessarily accurate nutritional information Empty calories: o Eat things that are more stable in sugar level so you don’t get this huge energy rush- can affect your intellectual performance as well Essential nutrients are those which must be obtained from the diet o Either the body doesn’t make it or it doesn’t make an enough of it Nonessential nutrients can be either produced in the body from other nutrients or consumed in the diet. o Vitamin A- can be produced in the body if needed Proteins: o Form important parts of the body’s main structural components: muscles and bone: found in enzymes, the blood, hormones, cell membranes Amino acids: building blocks of proteins: (9 essential, 11 non-essential) o Complete sources ( contain all the essential amino acids)- animal products such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk and cheese o Incomplete sources: are usually low in one or two essential amino acids: plant products such as nuts and legumes Combining vegetable sources throughout the day can provide all required amino acids Recommended Protein Intake: o Consume more protein than they need each day o Protein intake should be between 10-35% of the total caloric intake- about 0.8-1.6g of protein per kg of body weight o Protein from animal sources should be limited (3-6 oz./day). Protein from animal sources is generally high in fate, saturated fat, and cholesterol and sodium (23 mg per day- depends if you’re exercising a lot). o Excess protein and excess carbohydrates are stored as fat Protein as an Energy Source o Four calories of energy per gram of protein o Body’s least preffered source of energy o Converted to fat and stored in the body- most people should stay at the low end of the recommended range Fats (lipids) o Provide 9 calories of energy per gram of fat o The act to insulate the body and cushion the organs: also form a part of the basic cell structure o Fat aids in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K) o Act as a regulator of cell temperature o When taking fat out of food people thought food started tasting bad and therefore added sugar and salt to make it taste better- haha ironic Types of Fats o Unsaturated Fats: Plant sources: Liquid at room temperature Polyunsaturated fats: corn, safflower and sunflower oils Monosaturated fats: olive, peanut, and canola oils Omega 3 fatty acids: found in certain kinds of cold water fish Saturated fats: animal sources; solid at room temperature Trans fat: partially hydrogenated oils o Derived fat: vegetarians don’t eat animal products and therefore don’t intake cholesterol but still have blood cholesterol levels because cholesterol is a derived fat Trans fat were first put into food to make them last longer- preservatives- increased shelf life- but also made it very unhealthy for us Fat intake: 20-35% of total caloric intake: majority of intake should be in the form of monosaturated and polyunsaturated fats Carbohydrates- need for energy but not the simple sugars o Good for providing long term energy sources o Help regulate fat and protein metabolism o Provide 4 calories of energy per gram o Simple carbohydrates Digest really quickly Contain refined sugars Few essential vitamins and minerals Complex carbohydrates- get a lot more essential vitamins and minerals Phytochemicals Carbohydrates: 45-65% of total caloric intake, with the majority coming from complex carbohydrates Muscle glycogen build up- will build up lactic acid Fiber we don’t digestion but aids in digestion o May lower blood cholesterol o Help control blood sugar o Decrease risk of certain diseases (colon cancer, type II diabetes, and heart disease) o Recommended 25 grams for females; 35 grams for males 09/16/2016 GOOD EXAM QUESTION: Asked about restaurants: the fast food nutritional information will be more accurate than sit down restaurants Supplements People use supplements for Ergogenic aid o Ergogenic: producing work (work-producing) People take herbal supplements- for health benefits o Form you take it in are important Pill form or the dried root The form that you are testing is very important- actions of a pill could be different than the action of the plant source Cloudy around the herbal People take supplements for muscle building People take supplements for weight loss (actresses, models) o Magazines and advertising can have different effects- can cause eating disorder Dietary Supplements o Product designed to supplement the diet Vitamins Minerals Herbs Amino Acids Enzymes Concentrate, Metabolite, or Extract o Billion dollar industry- exploded in the past 20 years o Can take in my mouth or any type form Dietary Supplement Health Education Act 1994 Supplements could be tainted- by having different chemicals that could be bad for you Have to make sure that the supplements is made from a reputable manufacturer 1994 Act o Deregulated supplements o FDA approval was not required o Nobody oversees that o Some recent guidelines have made it more strict But still based by the manufacturer o FDA only gets involved when: Reports of adverse effects to the supplement Misleading advertisements o All after the people have bought it Supplements must have: o The title of identity o The quality of content o Basic function claim o Direction on how to take it o Basic ingredients Supplements are not tested o Can have missing ingredients o Can have tainted supplements with added items FDA probably doesn’t want to oversee supplements because it’s a huge industry and doesn’t have the budget or time to oversee it Other stipulations: o Some supplements’ active ingredients were out of date or damaged o Need to get qualifying supervisors o Plant quality control operations o Stored under the proper temp: to ensure the quality of the supplement Still doesn’t state what is actually in the supplement Written record of complaint: will keep the records for a time : manufacturer is responsible for everything Committee formed to create Dietary Supplement and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act: o To real manufacturers in o Amends the federal food drug and cosmetic act to require a manufacturer of distributor of nonprescription drug or dietary supplement marketed in the US Have to submit related medical information Maintain their records for six years Report any adverse reactions You have no way of knowing if the supplements will work The work can be very misleading Ask trustable nutritionists Advertising Claims: o Zero calories: o Real Science, Real Results- what does that even mean Muscle Milk doesn’t even have any milk in the produce: name can be misleading Go to websites to see banned substances for sports or professional athletes Caffeine: ergogenic aid: high levels of caffeine could be banned for athletes Ergogenic Aids/ Energy Products o Water and Sports drinks o Carbohydrate is considered supplements o Creatine: affects water content of the muscle o Sodium carbonate: salts Creatine: to improve power o Pros: has been shown to increases energy in short duration, repetitive exercises o Cons: no benefit in aerobic ability or endurance Part of weight gained is water weight and not muscle Negative side effects are a possibility o Short term energy system If its in the united States: then it does not have the growth hormone in it Shouldn’t be taking anti-aging hormones Chromium is a weight loss, muscle building, or stabilizing blood glucose supplement o No research to show that there is a benefit Not going to hurt you for taking it But no research actually showing that it helps Human growth hormone: if you’re getting stuff from other countries- could be an illegal substance here Supplement Concerns: o Allergies o Severe adverse reactions o Herb-drug interactions o “stacking” of multiple supplement o Contamination/Tainted Supplements Can’t have prescription meds in supplements Amino Acids Supplements: o Idea that is pre-digestive protein and it would absorb better; actually quite the opposite Herbal Supplements Ephedra: big one o Stimulant that already increases core temperature Died of heat stroke Basic supplements; o What is the form, does it seem to work, is there a red flag? Cinnamon Echinacea Hoodia Kava St. John’s Wort TEST QUESTION Need supplements when you have a low calorie diet or an all plant diet or pregnant or nursing or recovering from surgery or if you’re taking medicines that interfere with absorption Immunity and Infection Immunity o The body’s ability to fight off harmful micro-organisms- Pathogens- that invade it o Recognition of self v. non-self o You don’t want this to occur during transplants: body is trying to get rid of foreign substance o The Chain of infection Mode of transmission: in reference to contact Can be direct or indirect Can be sexual contact Indirect: handling blood: have to be careful in hospitals Generally air borne diseases, some food diseases: not really water borne The Body’s defense systems: st o 1 lnde: external barriers o 2 line: innate immune response o 3 line: adaptive immune response Inflammatory Response: trying to block histamine Seasonal Allergies Memory: our body remembers pathogens that already infected our body Network of tissues that help rid the body of infections: Lymphatic system: network of tissues and organs that help rid the body of toxins, waste and other unwanted materials Immunizations: stimulates the body to produce antibodies PASSIVE IMMUNITY: generally the injection of vaccines Agents of infection: viruses (considered non-living), and bacteria o Antibiotics resistance issues are treated on animals 5
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