CMCN 100 - 001 EXAM 2
CMCN 100 - 001 EXAM 2 CMCN 100
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrew Guidroz IV on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CMCN 100 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by William A. Says in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Human Communication - 001 in Human Communication Studies at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
CMCN 100 – 001 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Essential Exam Info: 1) Know the four types of small groups a) Task-oriented b) Relationship-oriented c) Assigned d) Emergent 2) Know the two types of leaders: a) Designated b) Emergent 3) Know the four main types of power: a) Reward b) Coercive c) Referent d) Expert 4) Know the three primary styles of leadership: a) Democratic. b) Autocratic c) Laissez-faire 5) Know these terms: a) Norm. b) Role c) Group Climate d) Trust e) Supportiveness f) Cohesiveness. g) Groupthink 6) Know the difference in a Captive or Voluntary Audience 7) Know the three Methods of Audience Analysis a) Observation b) Inference c) Questionnaires 8) Know that in Audience Adaptation we do so by: a) Adapting Ourselves b) Adapting Verbal & Non-Verbal Codes c) Adapting Your Topic d) Adapting Your Purpose e) Adapting your Supporting Materials 9) Know the four components of an outline a) Introduction b) The Body c) Conclusion d) Transitions 10) Know the four modes of delivery: a) Impromptu b) Manuscript: c) Memorized d) Extemporaneous 11) Know the acceptable and unacceptable visual aids Acceptable: a) Posters b) Overhead Projectors c) Photographs d) Drawings e) Models & Physical Objects f) Yourself g) Electronic Presentation Unacceptable: a) Handouts b) Film & Slides c) Videotape d) Chalk & Whiteboards 12) Sources of Information: a) Personal Experience. b) Written & Visual Resources c) The Internet d) People Sources 13) Types of Supporting Materials: a) Examples b) Surveys c) Testimony d) Numbers & Statistics e) Analogies f) Explanations g) Definitions 14) Know about levels of Evidence & Proof 15) Know that you should consider how important a topic is to you personally, your involvement with the topic. 16) Know that the time limit is important in how much information you can present. 17) Be able to define demographics. 18) Be able to explain attitudes, beliefs and values 19) Be able to explain what information hunger is. 20) Be able to explain what extrinsic motivation is. 21) Know what information overload is. Lecture 3: Topic Selection & Audience Analysis, Organization, Delivery and Visual Resources 1) INVOLVEMENT Once you have a topic in mind that might interest your audience, you want to consider how important that topic is to you personally and what your involvement is. 2) KNOWLEDGE Also consider your knowledge of the topic. Do you know enough from your personal knowledge to give the speech or do you need to supplement this with knowledge from other sources, including acquaintances, books/magazines, as well as other media including periodicals and the internet. 3) TIME LIMIT Once you select a topic keep in mind that you have a time limit to present your information or persuade your audience. You must, therefore, narrow the focus of your topic. You can use the same concepts of taking the abstract and making it more detailed and concrete that you use in selecting the verbal codes you use to encode your message. For example you might want to give a speech about New York City. The topic would be far too broad for 3-5 minutes. You might wish to narrow the speech to the island of Manhattan. You might further narrow his topic to famous buildings in Manhattan, or a speech on Central Park. 4) AUDIENCE ANALYSIS This is the collection and interpretation of data on the demographics, attitudes, values and beliefs of the audience obtained by observation, inferences, questionnaires, or interviews. We can divide this audience analysis into four levels: a) Type of Audience: Captive or Voluntary The level of willingness to be there affects how we may obtain the information about our audience. With a captive audience, one that is not choosing to attend to a communication event, we cannot draw any conclusions about the makeup of the audience based upon the topic. Since the members of this audience are likely different in their attitudes, beliefs and values as well as their interests, we say that they are heterogeneous. If, on the other hand the audience chooses to attend to this particular communication event, we say that the audience is voluntary and as such is more homogeneous, since the members are likely to be more like each other, having common attitudes, beliefs, values and interests. b) Demographic Analysis We also use statistics about an audience to make inferences and assumptions about their interests, attitudes, beliefs and values. We call this demographic analysis. Demographics are the collection of numbers and facts about who we are, our age, sex, hometown, race, religion, political and/or organizational affiliations. There are far more categories of demographics than these. c) Audience Interest/Knowledge of the Subject We may find it helpful in determining what information to present or how to present it if we can determine the level of interest in a particular topic and the audience's knowledge about the topic in advance of your speech. It can be difficult to discern these factors if the audience is a captive audience, since it is difficult to make inferences about the audience as a whole. If, on the other hand, the audience is voluntary, making inferences may be easier and more accurate. In some cases, where people register in advance to hear a speech or presentation, as in for example one of the seminars you hear about in infomercials, you will be asked to provide various pieces of information about you (demographics) why you want to hear the presentation (interest) and what you may already know about the topic (knowledge). You may also ask questions as you progress through your speech, using the information you get as feedback that lets you tailor on the fly the speech to your specific audience at this specific time. d) Attitudes, Beliefs & Values No matter what type of audience, no matter what the demographic breakdown, no matter just how much your audience knows or how interested they are in your topic, understand just how they may feel about the topic and what it may represent to them is important. We do this by considering the attitudes, beliefs and values of the members of our audience. An attitude is our predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably to a person, object, idea or event. For example: you may have the attitude that attending college is important and worth your time. You feel this way because you hold a specific conviction, or belief. In this case that belief is that education is important. We develop beliefs as we move through life. They are based upon firmly rooted foundations that we receive from teachers, parents, our religious or spiritual upbringing, what we call our values. 5) METHODS OF Audience Analysis Just how do we analyze our audience. Here are three methods: a) Observation We must use our senses, seeing andsensing the behavior and characteristic of the audience. b) Inference We also draw tentative conclusions based on some evidence. The danger of using inference is that, unless we can reliably validate the evidence, we may make a false or faulty assumption. c) Questionnaires The most accurate method is often the most difficult and time consuming, the questionnaire. There must be the opportunity to gather this information in advance of the speech and time must be available to analyze and quantify the data. Later in the semester you will be completing some of these. 6) Audience Adaptation Once we have a sense of who our audience is we need to adapt our presentation to them. We do so by: a) Adapting Ourselves We adapt our dress, manner, language, to the audience we address. The example I gave you of how Congressman Charlie Boustany might dress differently if he were speaking to a group of crawfish farmers or a group of agri-businessmen is an example of how we might adapt ourselves. b) Adapting Verbal & Non-Verbal Codes Our adaptation goes further to include not only our dress & demeanor but our choice of language, both verbal and non-verbal. As we have already seen, there are many possible differences in the language used by audiences, including street talk, regionalisms and jargon. These must be taken into account. c) Adapting Your Topic At times you may have to adapt the information you present, both specificand in general to your audience. d) Adapting Your Purpose As you may have to adapt your topic, you may also have to change just what you want your audience to take away from your speech, your purpose. e) Adapting your Supporting Materials Keep in mind the audience's attitudes, beliefs and values when choosing the types of supporting materials you use, including the sources of statistics or testimony you present 7) OUTLINE In order to prepare a good speech it needs to be organized. In any outline we have four main components: a) Introduction The introduction of your speech should be crafted with great care as it sets the tone for your presentation. First it gains the attention of your audience. It also arouses interest in your presentation. Without having the attention or interest of your audience you have no speech. The introduction also allows you to state your purpose, indicating what how your audience will profit from listening to your presentation and establish your qualification, why your audience should give credence to your words and message. Finally, and possibly most important, your introduction should forecast the development and organization of your speech. b) The Body Your presentation. Here you present the ideas, the evidence, and the arguments. The body is divided into a series of main points and subdivided into more detailed sub-points. c) Conclusion Every presentation, be it a paper or a film, has a conclusion and so does a speech. It brings together everything that precedes it and leaves the audience with a reason to remember what has been presented or, as in the case of a persuasive speech, to take some action. The conclusion has four primary functions. First, it must forewarn the audience that your presentation is coming to an end. This is referred to as the brake light function. The second function, and like the foreshadowing in the introduction one of the critical aspects of your speech, is to summarize the main points of your speech and remind your audience of your central idea. It should also remind the audience of what your purpose is and how your audience should respond. Finally, your conclusion should make your speech memorable. In a persuasive speech you should give your audience a call to take any action that you might request. d) Transitions The final component of an outline are the transitions. They provide the important link between sections of your speech and in the body between the main points/ideas. 8) REPETITION & RETENTION In the introduction and conclusion we remind our audience of our main points and of course we detail those in the body. The importance of doing this is reflected in the phrase, "Repetition equals retention." The more a concept is presented, there greater the chance that the central ideas will be remembered and their importance clearly understood. 9) DELIVERY There are four modes of delivery: a) Impromptu Delivery without prior preparation or organization. For example, if you were asked on the spot to inform a groups about the history of an organization you belong to, this would be an impromptu speech. b) Manuscript Delivery is presented word for word from a scripted speech. The downside of manuscript speaking is that you lose eye contact with your audience. The only exceptions are cases where some sort of teleprompter device is used. News anchors use a teleprompter, a device that uses a mirror to reflect text scrolling on a computer monitor. In this case the mirror is in front of the camera lens. The lens sees through the mirror, but the anchor sees the news script. In presidential addresses, the President uses a teleprompter. The glass panels on stands to each side of the President's lectern act as mirrors, reflecting the reverse scrolling message on computer monitors hidden in the boxes below them. Manuscripts should never be considered reason not to prepare and rehearse. In his first State of The Union speech, Bill Clinton had projected on the teleprompter the wrong speech. He began from memory and continued for several minutes before the correct speech was loaded. No on knew of this till years later. c) Memorized In this mode of delivery, the entire speech is committed to memory. The downside of a speech like this is if any portion of the speech is forgotten there is a significant chance that the speaker will not be able to go on, since, as with actors, we tend to memorize speeches by using segments of the speech to cue memory of subsequent sections. d) Extemporaneous This is the type of speech you will be giving in this class. It is a speech which is carefully crafted and organized but is presented in a conversational way with a minimum of notes. 13) VISUAL AIDS Sometimes when we present a speech we need some assistance in presenting the material beyond or words and non-verbals. This is where visual aids come in. Visual Aids can be a big help when a message needs additional visual reinforcement. It however can detract from a good speech when it is unnecessary and only used for the sake of using it. Here are some visual aids that can be very effective and some I do not feel should be used: a) Posters You can use poster board to present text or graphics. The important key is to make sure the text or graphics are large enough to be seen clearly by members of the audience all distances. b) Overhead Projectors These are very good because a variety of text and graphics can be displayedwithout turning off overhead lights and they can be magnified to allow even those furthest away to see clearly. c) Photographs Photographs can be very effective visual aids as long as they are large enough to be seen by those furthest away. Photos should never be passed around the room during a speech. d) Drawings These follow the same guidelines as posters and photos. e) Models & Physical Objects These can be illustrative, as long as they are of sufficient size to be seen and are not so complex as to detract from the verbal message. f) Yourself You, or someone assisting you, can add great emphasis or illustration to a speech. This can be by dress, or demonstration of a talent or skill. g) Electronic Presentation A very professional visual aid presentation can be created using computersand presentation software like Microsoft PowerPoint. If you are using this as a visual aid for a speech and not a self- contained presentation, there must be a capability to output the video to an overhead or television projector. Even a 27 inch monitor may be too small for text to be seen. Additional unapproved visual aids a) Handouts: These are great if they are given to an audience after a speech concludes as reinforcement for your message, but should never be given out during a speech, as they deter attention from your speech and destroy any eye contact you have built. b) Film & Slides: These deter attention and because they normally require the lights to be turned off, act as a source of noise to the message. c) Videotape: Unless only a :30-45 clip is used this deters attention and unless a television projector is used, it is difficult to assure that detail can be seen by the entire audience. d) Chalk & Whiteboards: While it is by necessity the core of academic lectures, it is not acceptable as a visual aid, especially in a classroom situation. In a classroom situation, a persons visual aids shouldnever be displayed until they are used and should be removed from view once used. There is no way to do this with a chalkboard. As to writing on the board as you go, like I do in class, this deters eye contact. I don't like it when I have to do it, but it is necessary for this type of lecture. Lecture 4: Finding Information, the Informative Presentation and The Dynamics of Small Group Communication 1) Sources of Information: a) Personal Experience: Your own life experiences can be useful in delivering a speech, especially an informative speech, since it often comes from your personal knowledge and experiences. Personal experience should be supplemented, especially in persuasive speeches, with other information sources. b) Written & Visual Resources: These can range from books to magazines & newspapers (periodicals) totelevision and radio broadcasts. Periodicals are perhaps the best written resources, since they are the most up to date. c) The Internet: This is a great source of information, however, it can also be a source of inaccurate information, since just about anyone can put something on the web. d) People Sources: Interviews with people are great sources of information. Just as with the Internet, you must be certain of the credibility of the person you speak with. 2) Citing Your Sources: In a paper you would cite the source of a quote, statistic, etc. by placing afootnote number next to it and giving information on the source on a footnote page. You can't do that in a speech, however, so you should cite your source verbally at the time you give a quote or use statistics or other material you gained from another source. For example, "According to Dr. Bob Smith from an article in the December 5th edition of Time Magazine..." is the way to cite material. 3) Source Variety is important. If all of your information comes from one source there may be a perception that the information you present is biased to one point of view. This can be especially harmful in a persuasive speech. Source variety also shows your interest in not only adequately researching the topic but yourconcern for giving your audience the most accurate information possible. 4) You should always evaluate your source to determine if the information is credible and accurate. Some evaluation criteria include: a) Is the supporting material clear and does it use language that will explain and illustrate your topic? b) Is the supporting material verifiable? In other words, can you verify the truth and accuracy of the information via other sources? c) Is the source of information competent? In other words, if you are interviewing a doctor about how neurosurgery is accomplished, is the doctor competent to comment, i.e. is he trained in the specialty? d) Is the source objective? In other words, does the source have a bias to a particular point of view, i.e. an anti-gun control quote from a representative of the NRA. e) Is the supporting material relevant? In other words, is the information presented related to the topic? 5) Types of Supporting Materials: a) Examples: Specific instances used to illustrate your point. b) Surveys: Studies in which a group of people representing a segment of the population are asked questions to determine the opinion of a population or a statistical picture of a group. c) Testimony: Also known as quotations, the written or oral statement of others. d) Numbers & Statistics: Supports by quantifying a point. e) Analogies: A comparison of seemingly dissimilar things or ideas to show some common idea or theme. f) Explanations: A clarification of the definition or function of an idea or concept. g) Definitions: Making concrete ideas or concepts by use of example, explanation, illustration,comparison, etc. 6) Evidence & Proof: Evidence is information that we draw conclusions from as to the truth or falsityor the value or lack of value in an idea or concept. When there is sufficient evidence to convince an audience of the truth or value of an idea, you have shown proof. This amount of evidence is call a preponderance of evidence and is the benchmark used in civil court cases. In criminal cases the amount of evidence required is greater and is referred to as being beyond a shadow of doubt, a test that indicated that the evidence is overwhelming. Quite often, however, criminal juries still decide cases on what is actually a preponderance of evidence. 7) The goal of an informative speech or presentation is to increase the knowledge of an audience or increase their understanding of a topic. 8) In order to instill a need or desire for your information you should create what is called Information Hunger. A carefully crafted introduction is a good way to begin this process and is also a great way to draw the audience's attention. 8) As we have learned, we must analyze our audience for a variety of reasons, one of which todetermine the interest of the audience. We should be sure that our topic has information relevance to the audience. 9) If we can provide reasons for listening to the speech outside of simply understanding the content, we are adding extrinsic motivation. For example, it might be enough to understand the different tax forms used at tax time. But to tell your audience that an understanding of this information could mean help you in preparing your own taxes instead of paying someone else to do it is an example of extrinsic motivation. 10) Keep in mind what informative content will best suit your topic and audience. Some things to consider: a) Audiences tend to remember and comprehend generalizations and main ideas better than details and specific facts. In other words, like the old saying goes, “Keep it simple stupid” b) Relatively simple words and concrete ideas are easier to retain than complex materials. Another old saying coined in the '60s about television audiences applies here: "The Masses are Asses." c) While humor can add interest to a speech it does not increase information retention. d) Early expression of how the speech will meet audience needs will likely create anticipation that provides motivation for listening. e) Asking for overt audience response and behaviors may increase retention. Contrary to some experts and authors, I find it does not do this any more effectively than repetition. 11) Information Overload: As was mentioned previously, it is possible to provide more information than and audience either can or is prepared to accept and absorb in a given time frame. This can include both the amount of information and or its complexity. These multi chapter lectures are an example of potential information overload, though there is no alternative in this case. 12) Small group communication is the transaction of a small group of people to achieve aninterdependent goal. 13) We can categorize small groups in four types: a) Task-oriented: Problem solving groups are task oriented. So are study groups. b) Relationship-oriented: Groups that exist to meet needs and expectations for inclusion or affection. A family might be an example. c) Assigned: A committee where persons are assigned via some hierarchy. d) Emergent: A group who comes together out of some environmental condition and is not specifically assigned by either membership or purpose. 14) Leadership: A process of using communication to influence the behaviors and attitudes of others to meet group goals. 15) Two types of leaders: a) Designated: A formally appointed or elected leader b) Emergent: Someone who becomes leader in an informal manner based upon ability to focus the group on achieving its goals. 16) Leaders gain their ability to influence a group through the use of power. There are four main types of power: a) Reward: The promise of a positive return for involvement. b) Coercive: The promise of a negative return for lack of involvement or not following the leaders wishes. c) Referent: Based upon the respect and admiration of the group. d) Expert: Based upon the accepted knowledge and experience of the leader. 17) There are three primary styles of leadership: a) Democratic: Encourages members to participate in group decisions. b) Autocratic: Maintains strict control over the group. c) Laissez-faire: A non-leader. Defers to the wishes of the group. 18) Some terms you will need to know: a) Norms: Informal rules for interaction. b) Role: A position in a group that acts as an integrated part with other roles. c) Group Climate: The emotional tone or atmosphere created by members of the group. d) Trust: A factor in creating group climate where the members believe they can rely on each other. e) Supportiveness: A factor in creating group climate where members care about each other. f) Cohesiveness: A factor in creating group climate where members feel an attachment to each other and the group. g) Groupthink: When the desire for cohesion and agreement takes precedence over critical analysis and discussion.
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