History of Rock Test 1 Study Guide
History of Rock Test 1 Study Guide MUCO 120
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Adrienne Nave on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUCO 120 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Sean K McCollough in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 408 views. For similar materials see History of Rock in Art at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
History of Rock Test 1 study guide Basic music terminology - Pitch: how high or low a sound is o Higher sounds are faster vibrations, lower sounds are slower vibrations - Note: the representation of a pitch on a sheet of music o Notes include A, A sharp/B flat, B, B sharp/C, C sharp/D flat, D, D sharp/E flat, E, E sharp/F, F sharp/G flat, G, G sharp/ A flat o The reason why there are so many keys on a piano is that these notes repeat each other in higher and lower places on the piano, and are always in the same order - Meter: a recurring pattern of stresses or accents that provide the pulse or beat on music, symbolized by the time signature - Chord: a group of 3 or more notes played simultaneously - Chorus: a section in a song that repeats the same music and lyrics intact in each presentation - Bridge: a contrasting section that prepares for the return of the original material section Common Rock Song Form - Simple Verse Form: o Songs which feature only a repeated verse o Essentially verse chorus form without the chorus o Ex. “Evil Ways” by Santana - Simple Verse/Chorus Form: o When a single musical pattern is used as the basis for both verses and choruses in a song o Ex. “Umbrella” by Rihanna ft. Jz - Contrasting verse Chorus: o Unlike a simple verse-chorus, in which the verse and chorus section share the same musical material, contrasting verse chorus has the verses and choruses of a song employ different music o Ex. “All You Need is Love” by The Beatles - AABA Form: o This type of song has an opening (A) section, a bridge (B) before transitioning to the final (A) section o Ex. “Somewhere over the Rainbow” by Judy Garland Labeling music/Contemporary Music - This is very hard to do because no song fits perfectly into a category - Lucinda Williams- o some consider her country, but it depends on her songs because many of them have been placed in different genres - Groups or artists do better when they are in a distinct label, their music will sell better if people can determine the genre - John Mayer o Softer singer-songwriter side o Contradictory views and statements about women o Is a very good Blues guitar player - Stevie Ray Vaughn o blues-rock artist - Wilco o Started with roots rock sound, but now have more of an indie rock sound o Grew out of the band Uncle Tupelo which had a country rock sound o Yankee Hotel Foxtrot Album: used many electronic and different sounds that were very out of the ordinary and experimental for this band, this album went away from their roots rock feel o Very much influenced by The Beatles in the Yankee Hotel Foxtrot Album - OutKast o Hip-hop is rock related genre, and is one of the only American musical genres to not come out of the South o Influenced by George Clinton and Prince o Hip Hop has a tradition of sampling, which is taking a beat or section of another song o “Mrs. Jackson” Roots of Rock Music - The World Before Rock’n Roll o Banjo- origins from west Africa African American instrument before it was used by white musicians - Pop, R&B, Country o All interwoven influences of rock o The Ballad Tradition A cappella Tells a story with a folk tune “Lord Daniel”: Murder ballad where the woman normally gets killed Roots of Rock Continued - The Fiddle Tradition- the fiddle was the kind of original instrument in American Music o African American Slaves were taught to play the fiddle for the plantation owner along with the banjo which was already an African American instrument o Blackface Minstrel Shows- white musicians, mainly from the north, painted faces black, and acted the stereotypes of African American slaves and cultures. Possible white musicians admiring African American cultures but not likely “De Boatman’s Dance” Minstrel Character “Jim Crow” o Stephen Foster Considered first great American pop writer Wrote some minstrel songs but also pop music o String Bands Humor developed Early country music Developed from Minstrel shows, but still incorporated Minstrel Songs Fiddle Based Music o The “Big Bang” of Country Music Record companies would send out representatives to search out country bands. Ralph Piers went to Bristol, TN and put an add in a furniture shop for recording sessions to find new talent. The Bristol Sessions The Carter Family and Jimmy Rogers were discovered o Jimmy Rogers “The Father of Country Music” White Man from Mississippi singing the blues “Waiting for a Train” o Hank Williams First Country Music Star “Move it on Over” *Birth of Rock in Roll between 1949-1954 o The Sheet Music Industry Sentimental Ballads “After the ball” Sold Mainly to Middle to Upper Class Women learning to play the piano o Tin Pan Alley Pop Publishers of Tin Pan Island controlled what pop music was Sold to Broadway and Early Music “Over the Rainbow” - Professional Songwriters and the Birth of the “Crooner” o Irving Berlin o Bing Crosby “All American music is African-American Music.” –Steve Young - Blues elements have been extremely influential in American Music - African-American Musical Elements o Polyrhythmic influence from Africa Congo Square, New Orleans Slaves were aloud to come together and play drums and sing their songs on Sunday One of the reasons New Orleans became such an important city as far as American Music goes because it was the only place where African Music could be played o Aspects of African-American Music Rattle and Buzz Improvisation*** Call and Response Polyrhythms Rhythmic Syncopation: when the off beat is emphasized Swing Feel Blue Notes Blues Scales: has elements of the major scale but has modified note progression o European chord progressions began to mix with African-American music o Work Songs Songs with inner meanings to communicate with other slaves o Spirituals “Sheep Sheep, Don’t you Know the Road” Songs developed in African-American churches The Blues - Country Blues o Played on acoustic instruments especially the guitar o Robert Johnson “The King of the Delta Blues” Never played on the radio “Crossroad Blues” Played 12-bar Blues o Black String Bands Early country mixed with jazz, blues and pop elements The Tennessee Chocolate Drops “State Street Rag” o Carl Martin Played the Mandolin “Grave Digger Blues” AAB format- popular format in blues music The Birth of Jazz - Strongly influenced by the blues - Louis Armstrong o Arguably First great jazz musician The Classic Blues - Bessie Smith- “The Empress of the Blues” from Chattanooga - WC Handy- “The Father of the Blues - “St. Louis Blues” The Electric Guitar - Early electric guitars were hollow and eventually were made from a whole body of wood - Rickenbacker and Gibson were the first big manufacturers The Electric Guitar - Addition of the Electric Guitar through the Blues o T-Bone Walker o “Call It Stormy Monday” - Electric Urban Blues o Muddy Waters, the King of Chicago Blues “Hoochie Coochie Man” Call and response song Early Rhythm and Blues - Blues mixed with swing and blues music o “My Gal’s A Jockey” –Big Joe Turner - Huge: White teenagers started listening to R&B which was scandalous at the time and upset many parents. Start of new pop culture. - Dance songs about sex *Only a handful of African-American Run radio stations who started to get a lot of interest from white teenagers - Jump Blues o “King of the Juke Box” –Louis Jordan o “Saturday Night Fish Fry” *young white teenagers have the money from work to buy the things that they want and they start buying R&B records The Birth of Rock’n Roll - Renegade Disc Jockeys: started exposing people to this music - Independent record labels: signed black artists and recorded early Rock’n roll, blues, and R&B o Most records were sold from these independent record companies - Doo Wop o The safer version of Black Music, not overly sexual o Smoother and pop oriented o Was originally acapella o The Orioles “you saw me crying in the chapel” - The Cover Phenomenon: white bands were covering black R&B songs o Record Companies realize that teenager liked R&B so their white artists were told to play these songs o Some of the white bands just liked R&B and wanted to perform the songs o Covers sold more copies because they were considered safer - Rock’n Roll Pioneers: Elvis, Little Richard - Alan Freed coined the term Rock’n Roll - Bill Haley and the Comets o Rock Around the Clock - Cosimo Matassa from J&M Studios in New Orleans o Probably the first recording studio for African-Americans - Fats Domino o Went missing during hurricane Katrina o Different feel to New Orleans music which affected Fats Domino’s Music o “Fat Man” o Slightly country feel to his music which evolved into pop o Safe musician to the white listener who was charming but not charismatic o Recorded at J&M studios in New Orleans - Little Richard o Also recorded at J&M studios in New Orleans o Grew up in Macon, Georgia and eventually moved to New Orleans o “Baby” o Performer of great charisma with not much charm o Possible gay or bisexual which comes out in his song “Tutti Frutti” - Elvis Presley- “The King of Rock’n Roll” o Talented and Charismatic o Got many of his attributes, such as voice and dance, from black artists o Would sing gospel music and be a white southern boy, but would also be riskier on stage more like black artists o From Mississippi o Lived in Memphis as a teenager o Sun record company: the independent record company in Memphis that would record African-American artists. Run by Sam Phillips. Started as recording studio, but turned into a record label. o Some of Elvis’s music sounds country and some of it sounded like the blues o Elvis got a manager named Colonel Tom Parker o Elvis signs with RCA Records o First National Hit “Heart Breaker Hotel” Chet Atkins of guitar o RCA Records altered his sound to make it more sweet sounding o Joined the army in 1960, and when he returned to music he was never quite the artists he was before o He began to use drugs and began to not care about his appearance and audience anymore - Chuck Berry o Wrote his own songs o Played his own guitar and was one of the best o Very influenced by country music o “Maybelene” - Sun Records “Million Dollar Quartet”- Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash and Elvis Presley “Blue Suede Shoes” by Carl Perkins Jerry Lee Lewis- married 13-year-old cousin “Whole Lot of Shakin” o Johnny Cash Johnny married into what he called the “first family of country music.” “Folsom Prison Blues” Was more of a country artist rather than rock o Eddie Cockran “Summertime Blues” Died in an accident at the end of the 1950s - Janis Martin o RCA Records o Very talented o “The Female Elvis” o “Drugstore Rock’n Roll” - Buddy Holly and the Crickets o “That’ll be the Day” o Sound that draws on Country routes, but also draws to a Rock’n Roll sound o Died in a plane crash at the end of the 1950s along with other up in coming artists The Payola Scandal - Payola: pay for play system that has existed since the beginning of radio; Paying somebody off to get certain music played on the radio. - Add spot: paying for a 4-minute slot to play a certain song - Late 50s: people who hated rock started to investigate payola for rock’n roll artists to try and get rock’n and roll off the radio The 1960s: Pop music tries to drown out Rock - Teen Idols o Frankie Avalon and Fabian Pop versions of teenage music the pop industry used to market to teenagers who liked to listen to rock’n roll - Leiber and Stoler- started to mix pop music with African American music and Broadway music o Playlets: a mix of African-American music with theatre The Coasters “Down in Mexico” The Drifters “On Broadway” - The Brill Building Pop o The new tin pan alley o Carol King and Jerry Goffin Wrote 20 top 10 hits The Shirelles o “Will you still love me tomorrow?” - Phil Spector and the “Wall of Sound” o The role record producer o An indistinguishable sound of many instruments known as the “Wall of Sound” o Darlene Love Phil Spector was a big fan of her and never gave her a true shot as stardom, but put her on different recordings without credit “Today I met the boy I was going to marry” o The Ronnettes “Be my Baby” Phil Spector married lead singer but marriage didn’t last long - Roy Orbison o Pop Rockabilly “Only the Lonely” Drum rhythm - Everly Brothers o “Bye Bye Love” o Went to West High School in Knoxville - The Kingston Trio- Pop Folk o “Tom Dooley” - Surf Music o The Beach Boys “Surfin’ USA” Major influences on the Beach Boys Phil Spector and Chuck Berry Did not truly represent the surfer scene o Dick Dale and the Del-tones “The King of the Surf Guitar” “Misirlou” 1964 - The rebirth of Rock - The year the Beatles came to America - The year the Rolling Stones came to America - Girl groups were still popular - Soul Music “I feel good” The British Invasion - The Beatles- February 1964 arrived at JFK Airport o Began as the Quarrymen at the Casbah Coffee Club Only John Lennon, Paul McCarty, and George Harrison The Early Beatles at the Cavern Club Mainly played covers of American songs o “Roll over Beethoven” o Brought on a manager named Brian Epstein Secured them a record company with BMI Producer George Martin Did not want to use George Best as drummer so Ringo Star was brought in o The Beatles on the Ed Sullivan Show, Feb. 9 1964 “I Want to Hold Your Hand” o The Beatles were huge before they ever came to the US, so by the time they came to the US they had a massive following o They were heavily influenced by American Rock’n Roll and Folk Music o Released second album by the end of 1964 “A Hard Day’s Night” o Paul McCartney wrote the song “Yesterday” o Rubber Soul was released in 1965: this is considered their coming of age album “In my life” Piano solo by George Martin, their producer Solo sounds very classical Began to experiment in the studio George Harrison starts to get Indian influence with instruments such as the sitar played by Ravi Shankar “Norwegian Wood” John Lennon tune o Beatles release album Revolver (not really classified as Rock) “Eleanore Rigby” *Music before the Beatles is considered Rock’n Roll, Music after the Beatles is considered Rock - The Mercy Beat- Liverpool o Gerry and The Pace Makers “How do you do it” o Herman’s Hermits from Manchester “I’m into Something Good” Cover of a song that was a hit by the Cookies From 1965-1966: they sold more albums than the Beatles o British bands began to replace American singers on the charts especially African American performers - Spencer Davis Group o “Gimme Some Lovin” o Gospel sound - The British Blues Revival o Alexis Korner’s Blues Incorporated with a Mic Jagger, Jack Bruce and Charlie Watts Alexis Korner “I Got My Brand on You” - The Rolling Stones o Mic Jagger, Keith Richard o Began as a blues band, but then realized that that was not very marketable so incorporated more Rock sound o “Not Fade away” Cover originally sang by Buddy Holly o Had a No. 1 Hit by 1965- “Satisfaction” o Manager Andrew Loog Oldham kind of made them the antithesis to the Beatles o They began to move in a new direction as far as experimentation Aftermath “Paint it Black” - Eric Clapton o Blues Based guitar player “Boom Boom” -Yardbirds Started just as a guitar player in bands but eventually moved to singing his own music “For Your Love”- by the Yardbirds without Eric Clapton Eric Clapton- - Was a guitar player for various bands before creating his own band named Cream. - His new band did not get along very well o “Crossroads” - Was a huge Robert Johnson fan - British bands started turning up guitar amplifiers to full volume were expected to have loud guitar parts - “White Room” switches meter several times Late 60s - Blind Faith o “Can’t Find My Way Home” o Controversial album cover that was not released in the US and was replaces by a picture of the band but was released in the UK - Eric Clapton and Robert Johnson o “Malted Milk Blues” o MTV unplugged- pairing or grouping of performers just to make different different music - The Who o British Band o Known for a short period as the High Numbers “I’m the Face” o A Part of the British Blues Revival but did not stick to those roots and then turned into almost a pre punk band. They then become an experimental band in the 1970s. o Pre punk music “My Generation” Became an anthem for the US counter culture o Tended to get into fights on stage o Pete Townsend was one of the first people to slam their guitars on stage - The Kinks o Pre punk music o “You Really Got Me” Is considered by some to be the first punk song o Forged forward with experimentation Folk Music and the Folk Revival - Folk Music was a huge influence on the Beatles’ music and the British Revival - Folk Music was music that existed before music was commercialized - Includes music that has elements of the folk music before it was commercialized - Used many acoustic instruments - Woody Guthrie o Called The Dust Bowl Poet and The Poet of the People o “This Land is Your Land” - Folk music is music that ties us all together - The Weavers o Ronnie Gilbert, Lee Hays, Fred Hellerman, Pete Seeger o “Wimoweh” - Pete Seeger o Was investigated for being a Communist during the Red Scare but was not put in jail. He claimed that he had the right to sing whatever song he wanted which he did and is how he got out of trouble. o “We Shall Overcome” Highlander Fold School in Mont Eagle Was shut down because the government claimed that it was illegal to hold integrated meetings Then moved to a house in Knoxville and then moved to a house in New Market o Guy Carawan Was very influential in the spread of civil rights song such as “We Shall Overcome” “Ain’t You Got a Right” - Lead Belly (Huddie Ledbetter) o Not particularly political in his music o “Goodnight Irene” - Folklorists John and son Alan Lomax made field recordings of music that the commercial music industry wasn’t interested in. - Bob Dylan o Loved the music of Woody Gutherie o Findt album was not much of a success o 2 album, The Freewheelin’, was more of a success o Starts as a Folk singer/Protest singer but is later a rock singer o Dylan the Protest Singer “Masters of War” o Dylan the Ballad Singer “Lord Randal” o Dylan the Poet o Dylan the Singer Songwriter “Don’t Think Twice” Back to the 60s - Decade with a lot going on politically and socially - Civil Rights Movement started in the 1950s and blossomed during the 1960s - 1963 John F. Kennedy was assassinated - 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis - 1969 Vietnam War that was largely unsupported by the country - Greenwich Village- Folk venue o Considered one of the top 3 venues for music
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