Exam 1 Study Guide (Cog. Psych)
Exam 1 Study Guide (Cog. Psych) PSY 3361
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ramah Jaradat on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 3361 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Gagandeep Wig in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTERS 1-4 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1 1. Cognitive Psychology is concerned with how people remember, pay attention and think Most of what we do and think is guided by what we already know 2. Cogntivie Revolution- 1950’s and 1960’s New style initially intended for studying problems we’ve already met, like memory loss William Wundt and Edward Bradford Psych needed to be studied by conscious mental events like feelings, thoughts, perceptions (notion died down because people realized a lot of thoughts are unconscious) 3. Introspection: The study of conscious experiences, “looking within” Problem with Introspection: 1. Tells us nothing about our unconscious experiences 2. Unable to be tested, it is not objective st th Behaviorism: Observable and objective data (1 half of 20 century) 1. Stimuli are measurable, recordable, physical events, also objective 2. Patterns can be recorded of behavior changes through passage of time and accumulation of experience Problem with Behaviorism: Our beliefs, wishes, goals and expectations can’t be directly observed or recorded because our thinking and behaviors are shaped by our perception or understanding of events Cognitive Psychology: Focuses on observable events, but asks what invisible events made the visible ones. Studying mental processes indirectly Immanuel Kant- proposed the Transcendental Method- Beginning with observable facts, then working backwards and seeing what caused them Transcendental Method is the heart of modern science 4. Working Memory- memory you use for information that you are actively working on - Holds info at an easily accessible form, so that the information is at your fingertips - Instant Availability is promoted by working memory’s size (Working Memory has a small capacity -> measured by Span Test; average span is 7 or 8 - Working Memory is limited in size, also shows us how memory influences observable performances - Theory: Working Memory is not a simple entity: Central Executive- Analyzes and interprets information Assistants- provides storage. Does not analyze and interpret information. Stores information that will soon be needed, but isn’t needed at the moment. ARTICULATORY REHEARSAL LOOP- One of the most important assistants. Stores information by covert speech/silent speech (sub vocalization- quietly saying the numbers to yourself) Executive initiates the silent speech, then turns to other matters like reading while the articulatory rehearsal loop does the work Loop requires sub-vocal speech and phonological buffer (inner ear, briefly stores sounds) Sound-alike errors happen when using the Loop Concurrent Articulation Task: When loop not available for use Doing the span test while simultaneously saying “Tah Tah Tah” Cuts memory span to 3-5 items Blocks sound-alike errors because these sound-alike errors are formed by the loop, and the loop is not used with concurrent articulation Choosing not easily named shapes has no effect on concurrent articulation since they cant be rehearsed via inner voice and inner ear Concurrent Articulation blocks use of loop but has no effect on someone’s ability to read brief sentences, do simple logic problems. Only effects storage! Blocking Loop does have effect when reading more complex sentences (requires analysis and storage= executive and assistant) Cognitive Neuroscience: The study of biological basis for cognitive functioning (biological mechanisms that make performance possible) Anarthria: Inability to produce overt speech These patients still show sound-alike errors, which proves that actual muscle movements are not needed for subvocalization “Inner Speech” relies on brain areas responsible for planning and controlling the muscle movements of speech and not on the actual movements themselves Neuropsychology: How various forms of brain dysfunction influences observed performances Deaf people rely on “inner hand” rather than “inner voice” Working Memory System plays important role in learning new vocabulary or new language CHAPTER 2 Capgras Syndrome: Results from brain damage (Temporal Lobe, Frontal Lobe, Amygdala) Able to recognize loved ones, but believing that they are not who they appear to be Facial recognition involves two mechanisms: Factual knowledge and emotional. In capgras patients, emotional mechanism is damaged Damage to temporal lobe disrupts circuits in Amygdala (evaluates emotions and positive stimuli and threats) Frontal Lobe (specifically Prefrontal Cortex)- Active when person engaged in tasks of planning and careful analysis The Brain: Glial Cells, outnumber nerve cells 0 to 1 Brain divided into 3 main parts: - Hindbrain- sits directly over spinal cord, controls heart beat and breathing, maintains body posture and balance, life functions a. Cerebellum: Largest area of hindbrain. Coordination of body movements and balance. Damage: Problems in spatial reasoning, discriminating sounds - Midbrain- Coordinates movements, regulates pain experience, relays info from ears to interpret - Forebrain- Largest region. a. Cortex- outer surface of forebrain b. Thin covering on outer surface c. 3 mm thick d. if stretched out flat, it would be 2 feet e. Cortex is crumpled to fit in head, which causes the convolutions of the brain LONGITUDINAL FISSURE: deepest groove that runs from front of brain to back, separates left cerebral hemisphere from the right Fissures divide cortex in each hemisphere into 4 lobes. Named after bones of skull that cover them: (OF FOREBRAIN) 1. FRONTAL LOBES: front part of brain. Central fissure divides frontal lobes from parietal lobes. Lateral Fissure divides bottom of frontal lobe from temporal lobe. 2. PARIETAL LOBES: Brain’s Top 3. TEMPORAL LOBES: Below Lateral fissure 4. OCCIPITAL LOBES: Very back of brain. Connected to Parietal and Temporal Lobes. SUBCORTICAL PARTS OF FOREBRAIN: (WHAT IS UNDERNEATH THE DIVIDED PARTS OF THE CORTEX) - Under cortex - 1. Thalamus: relay station for sensory info - 2. Hypothalamus: Directly under thalamus, controls motivated behaviors like eating, drinking, sexual acts - 3. Limbic System: surrounds thalamus and hypothalamus. Amygdala (emotional processing, emotional events) and Hippocampus are here (under cortex in temporal lobe) Everything in brain comes in pairs: left and right hippocampus, left and right amygdala, temporal cortex in left and right BOTH HALVES OF THE BRAIN WORK TOGETHER: 1. Made possible by commissures- think bundles of fibers that carry information back and forth between hemispheres. 2. Corpus Callosum- Largest commissure - Separation of corpus callosum for epilepsy procedures, stops epilepsy but limits communication between right and left halves - Left hemisphere sees right visual field and produces language - Right hemisphere sees left visual field and controls left hand - (Spoon on left field, Fork on right): When a split brain patient is asked what he sees, the left hemisphere sees the fork and vocalizes that Right hemisphere sees the spoon but can’t vocalize that. However, if asked to pick up the object he vocalizes, he will pick the spoon. OUR HEMISPHERES WORK TOGETHER BRAIN EVIDENCE: 1. studying individuals with brain damage (Neuropsychology) 2. Clinical Neuropsychology: studies functioning of undamaged brains by looking at cases of brain damage LESIONS: A specific area of damage to the brain Lesion in Hippocampus: Memory problems Lesion in occipital cortex: problems in vision, not in other senses, just vision Consequences of lesions depend on which hemisphere is damaged: Damage to left frontal lobe- language disruption Damage to right: not the same effect as left Neurons: 1. Communicate through neurotransmitters 2. Neuron activated 3. Released NT 4. NT activates or deactivates adjacent neurons 5. Adjacent neuron receives signal and passes it on 2 Types of Neuron Communication: 1. “Between Neurons” (what is described above) 2. “Within Neurons”- Neurons have input and output ends, input: most sensitive to NT, where signal from other NT is received, output: releases NT 3. NT flows from input to output through electrical impulses by flow of ions Localization of Function: A research effort that’s main goal is determining what happens where in the brain Cerebral Cortex: Largest portion of human brain, thin layer of tissue covering cerebrum, this is where information processing occurs - Motor Areas: Organizing and controlling body movements - Sensory Areas: Analyzing info collected from senses - Association Areas: Thinking, other essential human activity Motor Areas: 1. Departure Points: signals leaving cortex 2. Arrival Points: information coming from senses 3. Both these areas are called Primary Projection Areas: 4. Primary Motor Projection Areas: Departure Points (Evidence comes from contralateral control) 5. Primary Sensory Projection Areas: Arrival Points Sensory Areas: 1. Parietal Lobe Touching and skin sensing 2. Temporal Lobe auditory hearing area 3. Occipital Lobes vision area Assignment of how much cortical space each sense receives is chosen by function, not sizeable proportions (more sensitive body areas like fingers or lips get more cortical space) In occipital lobes, the fovea has the highest cortical space (fovea: most sensitive to detail) Contralateral Connections: Visual areas in right hemisphere: receive info from both left and right eye, but info it receives corresponds to left visual space NEURONS AND GLIA: Glia: development of nervous system in infants, repairs if nervous system is damaged, controls nutrient flow to neurons Neurons: 1. Cell Body: contains neurons nucleus 2. Dendrites: input side of neuron, receives signals 3. Axon: output side of neuron, sends signals 4. Synapse: chemical signal makes neuron communication possible 5. Neurons don’t directly touch each other 6. Synaptic Gap: space between neurons 7. Presynaptic Membrane: part of neuron that releases the NT into synaptic gap 8. Postsynaptic Membrane: part of neuron on other side of gap, affected by NT 9. Incoming signal from presyn. Gap reaches postsyn. Gap threshold cell fires and produces action potential (signal moves down axon) releases NT at next synapse 10. Incoming signal can cause a small ionic flow or a big one, but when a neuron fires a signal down the axon, it is always the same magnitude (ALL OR NOTHING LAW- STRONGER STIMULUS WILL NOT PRODUCE A STRONGER ACTION POTENTIAL) VISION: 1. Light hits front surface of eyeball 2. Passees through cornea and lens 3. Hits retina Retina: 2 types of photoreceptors: 1. Rods- sensitive to low levels of light, uses in semidarkness or dim areas, colorblind (no hue difference), used in peripheral vision 2. Cones- less sensitive than rods, needs more light, sensitive to color differences, allows us to see fine details, Higher Acuity Fovea: center of retina. Cones > Rods. Greatest acuity Further away from fovea: more rods, less cones Lateral Inhibition: Rods and cones don’t report to cortex directly Stimulated cells inhibit activity of neighbor cells Lateral inhibition leads to stronger cell response from edge of surface than from cells detecting from middle of surface Edge Enhancement: Helps visual system see shapes coming in Occurs at very early stage of visual processing Info sent to brain not a mere copy of the signal, but an analysis Cell’s Receptive Field: size and shape of the area in visual world to which a cell responds Edge Detectors: Fire @ max only when stimulus containing edge of perfect orientation appears in receptive fields Parallel Processing- many different steps happen simultaneously; this is how the brain functions. Advantage: Speed and mutual influence “What System”- occipital lobe, identification of visual objects “Where System”- occipital lobe, guides our actions based on where objects are located Binding Problem: Task of reuniting various elements of a scene, elements that are initially dealt with in separate parts of the brain - Spatial position (which forms are where, which colors are where, this is how we get the right colors for objects), neural synchrony (if neurons detecting a vertical line fires in sync with neurons registering for movement, then it must belong to same object), special rhythm to identify which sensory elements belong to which - Conjunction errors caused by lack of attention - Attention is important for binding problem and is linked to neural syncing CHAPTER 3 Form Perception: process thru which you manage to see the basic shape and size of an object Object Recognition: process in which you identify what the object is Figure/Ground Perception: determine what is the object and what is the background (reversible cube example) Your perception goes beyond the information that is given Perceptions are guided by 1. Proximity (elements close to each other) 2. Similarity (elements look like each other) Everyone’s perceptions are guided by same principles, but we impose our own interpretation on perception INTERPRETING: 1. Seems to happen before we catalogue the objects basic features, not after (like previously believed) 2. In reality, neither process goes first 3. Areas of brain all work together simultaneously 4. Areas of brain that sees basic object features work together at same time as brain areas analyzing object Recognition of objects is influenced by context in which objects are encountered 2 Influences: 1. Bottom-Up Influences: coming from stimulus, features themselves 2. Top-Down Influences: comes from your knowledge and expectations Fast when finding simple features, slower when asked to find combo of features Integrative Agnosia: able to simply detect features in display, unable to judge how these features are combined to form objects Factors influencing recognition: 1. Familiarity and frequency 2. Recency of view Words themselves are easier to view than isolated letters- Word- Superiority Effect The more English-like the string of words, the increased context benefit (how the letter sequence conforms to actual English spelling) easier to recognize Context promotes better letter recognition if context follows normal spelling Abnormal spelling: no letter recognition Our recognition is guided by knowledge of spelling patterns Feature nets: bottom layer, flow of info would be lower levels upper levels Each detector has an activation level When detector gets input, activation level goes up Act. Level eventually reaches detector’s Response Threshold This causes detectors to fire (send signal to other detectors) Similar to neurons! Some detectors easier to activate than others 1. If detectors is moderately activates @ start only little input needed to raise threshold, easier to fire 2. If detector not activated strong input needed, more difficult to fire What determines starting level? 1. Detectors that have fired recently High Activation Level 2. Detectors that have fired frequently in the past High Activation Level Activation level depends on recency and frequency which = PRIMIING Crucial to priming: knowledge derived from wide range of life experiences - Network relies on knowledge when interpreting ambiguous messages - The knowledge isn’t stored anywhere, it is simply more primed The better primed the detector, the more it will likely respond Detectors can also inhibit each other Higher level detectors can influence lower level detectors, and detectors at any level can influence other detectors at same level Visual processing and detector priming is not a one-way process Recognition of components: Theory 1: RECOGNITION IS VIEWPOINT INDEPENDENT (RBC APPROACH) - Includes detectors that are sensitive to geons (geometric icons), which serve as basic building blocks of all objects we recognize - Uses a hierarchy of detectors- 1. Feature detectors (lowest level) responds to edges, curves 2. Activates geon detectors 3. Activates geon assembly 4. Activates object model (completed object) Recognition based on geons is viewpoint-independent (doesn’t matter which way you look at the object), objects can be recognized from just a few geons Geons help in recognition Theory 2: RECOGNITION IS VIEWPOINT-DEPENDENT (MULTIPLE-VIEWS APPROACH) 1. We have stored memory of a number of different views of each object 2. Number of views stored is limited 3. Must rotate current view to match stored views from memory 4. This claims that speed of recognition is viewpoint-dependent (recognition is faster from some angles more than others) 5. Hierarchy of detectors 6. Each higher layer gathers more complex aspects of the whole BOTH THEORIES INVOLVE HEIRARCHIAL NETWORK OF DETECTORS Face Recognition is different: Agnosia: inability to recognize certain stimuli Prosopagnosia: lose ability to recognize faces, even though other visual abilities are intact - Proves that special neural structure is involved almost exclusiviely for facial rec. FACE RECOGNITION IS VIEWPOINT DEPENDENT AND ORIENTATION DEPENDENT!!! Neural tissue specialized for faces isn’t used only for faces, can operate when a task involves recognizing specific individuals in a category (like birds or cars) Category must be an extremely familiar one Face Rec. does not depend on recognizing parts, then assembling into a whole. It depends on Holistic Perception of face -> complex relationships created by face’s overall configuration (Relationships of features guide recognition, not individual features) CHAPTER 4 1. Dichotic Listening: when participants wear headphones and hear 1 thing in left ear and 1 thing in right and choose to pay attention to one input (main channel) and ignore unattended channel 2. People did not know what was said in unattended channel, unless words of some personal importance are mentioned- Cocktail Party Effect Bottle-Neck Theory- we erect a filter that shields you from potential distractors, desired info is not filtered out You block processing of distractors and promote processing of desired stimuli Inattentional Blindness 1. Failure to see whats right in front of you bc you are not expecting stimulus to appear and were not prepared for stimulus Our normal ability to see whats around us is dramatically decreased with lack of attention There is no conscious perception without attention, you may unconsciously detect and be influenced by patterns in the world, even with absence of attention Change Blindness- inability to detect changes in scenes they are looking at directly 1. Early Selection Hypothesis- The attended input is identified from the start so unattended input receives less analysis - Distractor stimuli receives little analysis, and falls out of processing stream 2. Late Selection Hypothesis: All inputs receive complete analysis and selection is done right before stimuli reaches consciousness -People are unaware of unattended stimuli, but are still influenced by them Each hypothesis has some truth to it Evidence comes from recording electrical brain activity after stimulus arrives Early Selection: complex inputs processing demands increases effort and decreases resources little effort left over for other stimuli Late Selection: attended input processing demands decreases resources more effort for unattended Why people experience inattentional blindness: People don’t expect stimulus to appear, no reason to prepare for stimulus, stimulus falls on unprepared detectors, detectors don’t respond Cocktail effect: detectors for your name are primed because of how much you’ve encountered it, which means high activation level already for the detectors, so little input is needed to fire them 2 types of priming: 1. Experiences- takes no effort, requires no resources, allows you to hear your name in unattended channel 2. Deliberately Primed Detectors: under your control, dependent on expectations, only done for inputs you have an interest in Priming wrong detectors takes nothing away from other detectors, each detectors works independently of the others 1. Stimulus-Based prime: produced merely by presentation of the priming stimulus, with no role for expectations- priming wrong detectors does not affect others 2. Expectation-Based: created only when participant believes the prime allows a prediction of whats to come- here, priming wrong detectors takes away from other detectors EXPECTATION-BASED PRIMING IS LIMITED CAPACITY SYSTEM Bc perceiving involves work and work requires limited mental resources Spatial attention is limited capacity and influenced by expectations Spatial Attention: the ability to focus on a particular position in space and be better prepared for any stimulus that appears in that position BENEFITS OF ATTENTION OCCUR PRIOR TO ANY EYE MOVEMENT AND IS FASTER THAN EYE MOVEMENTS Unilateral Neglect Syndrome: Spatial Neglect: - These patients ignore all input coming from 1 side of the body - Caused by brain damage to parietal cortex - Results from damage to right parietal lobe, and neglect is on left side of space - Supports a space based account of attention, not object boundaries Symptoms of neglect syndrome reveal that 1. Patients neglect ½ of space (spatially defined bias) 2. However, once attention is directed towards a target, the target itself defines the focus of attention (object-based) People with intact brains show a mix of space-based and object- based attention Set Size: When searching for a target defined by a single feature, set size has little effect When looking for something with a combo of features (the red horizontal line in a huge set of green and red vertical and horizontal lines)= set size has large effect EXPECTATION-BASED PRIMING IS SELECTIVE, WHICH HELPS SOLVE THE BINDING PROBLEM Divided Attention “Multi-Tasking” 1. Tasks require resources 2. Resources are limited 3. Reading and listening to a lecture require the same tasks (language resources) so multi-tasking these makes resources compete 4. Knitting and listening to lecture require different kinds of resources, so multi-tasking works 5. Multitasking is easier if simultaneous tasks are different 6. General Resources- drawn on by almost every task (why driving and talking on the phone is conflicting), which includes an energy supply, a response selector (plays a key role in coordinating the timing of our various activities), and executive control (needed when you want to change your habits) 7. Exact resource demand depends on nature of the task, novelty of the task, and amount of flexibility the task requires 8. Attention is an achievements, not a skill or mechanism 9. Tasks will interfere with each other if demand for resources > supply 1. Practice decreases Resource Demand 2. Practice makes multi-tasking easier 3. Practice allows us to focus on each element of a single task, to master it element by element 4. Practice can also make a task difficult to control since it becomes automated 5. When you develop routines and habits, decreases need for executive control, which decreases the amount of moment-by- moment control you have Tasks that are heavily practiced can reach a state of automaticity Advantage of automaticity: Frees up resources for other chores, improves performance Downsides: Not governed by control mechanisms, so they can act as mental reflexes
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