PSY 100: exam 1 study guide
PSY 100: exam 1 study guide PSY 100
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lorren Roberts on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 100 at Central Michigan University taught by Mark A Deskovitz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Exam 1 review Test questions 7. A physician who developed the theory of psychoanalysis: C. Sigmund Freud 20. A research method involving compiling a great deal of information on an individual (or small group of individuals): B. Case studies 48. The form of ESP where the person has the ability to predict the future: C. Precognition Chapter 1 Important people and their ideas of psychology Wilhelm Wundt: credited as the founder of psychology, established the first psychology research lab Edward Titchener: student of Wilhelm Wundt, developed approach of structuralism o Structuralism: break down and study of conscious experiences basic and complex William James and students: first American psychology professor (Harvard), developed approach of functionalism o Functionalism: purpose or function of behavior and mental experiences o Students including G. Stanley Hall, Mary Whiton Calkins, Margaret Floy Washburn, and Francis C. Sumner became prominent American psychologists Sigmund Freud: unconscious psychoanalysis o Theory of personality based on the causes of unconscious behavior John Watson: developed approach of behaviorism scientific investigations focusing only on overt behavior o Overt behavior: behaviors that can be observed, measured, and verified o Behaviorism: study of overt behavior (pertaining to the process of learning) Carl Rogers: developed approach of humanistic psychology o Humanistic psychology bases off of the conscious experiences of clients o Emphasizes selfdetermination, free will, and choice of human behavior Major perspectives Biological: study of behavior based on physical aspects including the nervous system, endocrine system, immune system and genetics specifically neuroscience (nervous system and the brain) Psychodynamic: explaining the dynamics of behavior based on the importance of unconscious influences, early life experiences, and interpersonal relationships Behavioral: how observable behaviors can be modified by environmental causes Humanistic: based on a person’s selfconcept, choice, and selfdirection to grow psychologically Cognitive: how mental processes affect behavior including how we process and remember information, develop language, problem solve, and think CrossCultural: study of differences in cultures and how the influence of culture affects behavior Evolutionary: how the principles of evolution can explain psychological behaviors and processes referring to Charles Darwin and natural selection Research methods Naturalistic observations: the science of people watching o Observing and recording behaviors of people in their natural environments Example: a teacher watching a child with ADHD in the classroom and seeing how many times he/she gets distracted as compared to the other students o Allows for researchers to study behaviors that can’t be manipulated in an experiment Case studies: studies with large amounts of indepth research on rare, unusual, or extreme conditions of an individual, a family, or a social group o Valuable in clinical psychology when treating patients with specific psychological disorders Surveys: a questionnaire including personal questions about experiences, beliefs, behaviors, or attitudes o Usually used in conjunction with naturalistic observations and case studies but not always useful because people may not tell the truth o Random selection is used to pick participants for surveys Correlational studies: examines the relationship between two variables (how strongly they are related) o Correlation coefficient: indicator of strength ranging from 1.00 to +1.00 Example: an increase in study time could mean an increase in GPA (positive correlation +,+), but an increase in drinking could mean a decrease in GPA (negative correlation +,) o Correlation does not mean causation (could be related but not the direct cause) Chapter 2 The neuron Neuron main (specialized) cells in the brain used to transmit information through the nervous system o Sensory neurons communicate information from the environment to the nervous system o Motor neurons communicate information from the nervous system to the muscles o Interneurons communicate information from one neuron to another Characteristic of the neuron (3 basic components) 1. Cell body (soma) provides energy the neuron needs to function through structures that make proteins and process nutrients Contains the nucleus 2. Dendrites receive messages from other neurons through lots of short fibers that extend from the cell body 3. Axon a tube that connects and carries information from the cell body to other cells in the body (other neurons, glands, muscles) Myelin sheath insulates axon and increases communication speed Nodes of Ranvier gaps in the myelin sheath Communication within the neuron o Dendrites and cell body gather messages which are then transmitted through the axon in the form of a brief electrical impulse (action potential) Communication between neurons o Synapse point of communication between 2 neurons o Synaptic transmission one neuron releases neurotransmitters, they travel through the synaptic gap and transfer to adjoining neurons o Synaptic gap small fluid filled space between the presynaptic neuron and the postsynaptic neuron Presynaptic neuron message sending neuron Postsynaptic neuron message receiving neuron Neurotransmitters chemical messengers made by a neuron o Acetylcholine primary roles include learning, memory, and muscle contractions An associated disorder is Alzheimer’s disease o Dopamine primary roles include movement, thought process, and rewarding sensations Associated disorders include Parkinson’s disease, Schizophrenia, and drug addiction o Serotonin primary roles include emotional states, sleep, and sensory perception An associated disorder is depression o Norepinephrine primary roles include physical arousal, learning, memory, and regulation of sleep Associated disorders include depression and stress o GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) communicates an inhibitory message Associated with anxiety disorders Brain imaging techniques Position emission tomography (PET) scans provide color coded images of the brains activity based on the fact that increased activity in a one area of the brain is associated with increased blood flow and energy consumption o A person is injected with a radioactive substance and performs some mental tasks during the scan to track the activity Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans produce very detailed images of the brain from different angles o A person lays in a magnetic tube as powerful but harmless magnetic fields bombard the brain o Used often to produce detailed images of other body parts Functional MRI (fMRI) combines detailed images of the brain with moment by moment tracking of brain activity o Noninvasive procedure o Computer tracks changes in brain activity through electromagnetic signals The brain Brainstem the base of the brain that includes the structures of the hindbrain and midbrain (primitive brain structure impacts critical things) o Hindbrain connects the spinal cord with the rest of the brain Made up of 3 structures 1. Medulla controls vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and a number of reflexes 2. Pons contains centers that regulate breathing and transfers information from other regions of the brain to the cerebellum 3. Cerebellum controls functions of balance, muscle tone, coordinated muscle movements, and is involved with learning of movements and motor skills o Midbrain involved with the process of auditory and visual sensory information, and processing visual information Substantia nigra part of the midbrain involved in motor control and contains a large amount of dopamine producing neurons Chapter 3 Sensations and perceptions Sensory thresholds o 2 subdivisions of thresholds Absolute threshold smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half the time Difference threshold smallest possible difference of two stimuli that can be detected half the time This odd “detected half the time” that appears in the definitions is due to individual differences Weber’s law o Principle of sensation that says the size of the just noticeable difference will vary depending on the strength of the original stimulus o Psychological experience of sensation is relative Transduction the process by which a form of physical energy is converted into a coded neural signal that can be processed by the nervous system Extrasensory perception (ESP) the detection of information by some means other than through the normal processes of sensation o Telepathy direct communication between two individuals minds o Clairvoyance perception of a remote object or event o Psychokinesis ability to influence an object without touching it o Precognition ability to predict future events
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