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PSY 100: exam 1 study guide

by: Lorren Roberts

PSY 100: exam 1 study guide PSY 100

Lorren Roberts

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Chapters 1, 2 and 3
Introduction to Psychology
Mark A Deskovitz
Study Guide
Intro to Psychology, Psychology
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lorren Roberts on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 100 at Central Michigan University taught by Mark A Deskovitz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Exam 1 review Test questions 7. A physician who developed the theory of psychoanalysis: C. Sigmund Freud  20. A research method involving compiling a great deal of information on an individual (or  small group of individuals): B. Case studies 48. The form of ESP where the person has the ability to predict the future: C. Precognition Chapter 1 Important people and their ideas of psychology  Wilhelm Wundt: credited as the founder of psychology, established the first psychology  research lab  Edward Titchener: student of Wilhelm Wundt, developed approach of structuralism o Structuralism: break down and study of conscious experiences­ basic and complex  William James and students: first American psychology professor (Harvard), developed  approach of functionalism o Functionalism: purpose or function of behavior and mental experiences o Students including G. Stanley Hall, Mary Whiton Calkins, Margaret Floy  Washburn, and Francis C. Sumner became prominent American psychologists  Sigmund Freud: unconscious psychoanalysis o Theory of personality based on the causes of unconscious behavior  John Watson: developed approach of behaviorism­ scientific investigations focusing only on overt behavior o Overt behavior: behaviors that can be observed, measured, and verified o Behaviorism: study of overt behavior (pertaining to the process of learning)  Carl Rogers: developed approach of humanistic psychology o Humanistic psychology bases off of the conscious experiences of clients o Emphasizes self­determination, free will, and choice of human behavior Major perspectives  Biological: study of behavior based on physical aspects including the nervous system,  endocrine system, immune system and genetics­ specifically neuroscience (nervous  system and the brain)  Psychodynamic: explaining the dynamics of behavior based on the importance of  unconscious influences, early life experiences, and interpersonal relationships  Behavioral: how observable behaviors can be modified by environmental causes  Humanistic: based on a person’s self­concept, choice, and self­direction to grow  psychologically  Cognitive: how mental processes affect behavior including how we process and  remember information, develop language, problem solve, and think  Cross­Cultural: study of differences in cultures and how the influence of culture affects  behavior  Evolutionary: how the principles of evolution can explain psychological behaviors and  processes­ referring to Charles Darwin and natural selection Research methods  Naturalistic observations: the science of people watching o Observing and recording behaviors of people in their natural environments  Example: a teacher watching a child with ADHD in the classroom and  seeing how many times he/she gets distracted as compared to the other  students   o Allows for researchers to study behaviors that can’t be manipulated in an  experiment  Case studies: studies with large amounts of in­depth research on rare, unusual, or extreme conditions of an individual, a family, or a social group o Valuable in clinical psychology when treating patients with specific psychological disorders  Surveys: a questionnaire including personal questions about experiences, beliefs,  behaviors, or attitudes o Usually used in conjunction with naturalistic observations and case studies but not always useful because people may not tell the truth o Random selection is used to pick participants for surveys  Correlational studies: examines the relationship between two variables (how strongly  they are related) o Correlation coefficient: indicator of strength ranging from ­1.00 to +1.00  Example: an increase in study time could mean an increase in GPA  (positive correlation +,+), but an increase in drinking could mean a  decrease in GPA (negative correlation +,­) o Correlation does not mean causation (could be related but not the direct cause) Chapter 2 The neuron  Neuron­ main (specialized) cells in the brain used to transmit information through the  nervous system o Sensory neurons­ communicate information from the environment to the nervous  system o Motor neurons­ communicate information from the nervous system to the muscles o Interneurons­ communicate information from one neuron to another  Characteristic of the neuron (3 basic components) 1. Cell body (soma)­ provides energy the neuron needs to function through  structures that make proteins and process nutrients  Contains the nucleus 2. Dendrites­ receive messages from other neurons through lots of short fibers that  extend from the cell body 3. Axon­ a tube that connects and carries information from the cell body to other  cells in the body (other neurons, glands, muscles)  Myelin sheath­ insulates axon and increases communication speed  Nodes of Ranvier­ gaps in the myelin sheath  Communication within the neuron o Dendrites and cell body gather messages which are then transmitted through the  axon in the form of a brief electrical impulse (action potential)  Communication between neurons o Synapse­ point of communication between 2 neurons o Synaptic transmission­ one neuron releases neurotransmitters, they travel through  the synaptic gap and transfer to adjoining neurons o Synaptic gap­ small fluid filled space between the presynaptic neuron and the  postsynaptic neuron  Presynaptic neuron­ message sending neuron  Postsynaptic neuron­ message receiving neuron  Neurotransmitters­ chemical messengers made by a neuron o Acetylcholine­ primary roles include learning, memory, and muscle contractions  An associated disorder is Alzheimer’s disease o Dopamine­ primary roles include movement, thought process, and rewarding  sensations  Associated disorders include Parkinson’s disease, Schizophrenia, and drug addiction o Serotonin­ primary roles include emotional states, sleep, and sensory perception  An associated disorder is depression o Norepinephrine­ primary roles include physical arousal, learning, memory, and  regulation of sleep  Associated disorders include depression and stress o GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid)­ communicates an inhibitory message  Associated with anxiety disorders Brain imaging techniques  Position emission tomography (PET)­ scans provide color coded images of the brains  activity based on the fact that increased activity in a one area of the brain is associated  with increased blood flow and energy consumption o A person is injected with a radioactive substance and performs some mental tasks  during the scan to track the activity  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)­ scans produce very detailed images of the brain  from different angles o A person lays in a magnetic tube as powerful but harmless magnetic fields  bombard the brain o Used often to produce detailed images of other body parts  Functional MRI (fMRI)­ combines detailed images of the brain with moment by moment  tracking of brain activity o Noninvasive procedure o Computer tracks changes in brain activity through electromagnetic signals The brain  Brainstem­ the base of the brain that includes the structures of the hindbrain and midbrain (primitive brain structure­ impacts critical things) o Hindbrain­ connects the spinal cord with the rest of the brain  Made up of 3 structures 1. Medulla­ controls vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, blood  pressure, and a number of reflexes 2. Pons­ contains centers that regulate breathing and transfers  information from other regions of the brain to the cerebellum 3. Cerebellum­ controls functions of balance, muscle tone, coordinated  muscle movements, and is involved with learning of movements and  motor skills o Midbrain­ involved with the process of auditory and visual sensory information,  and processing visual information  Substantia nigra­ part of the midbrain involved in motor control and  contains a large amount of dopamine producing neurons Chapter 3 Sensations and perceptions  Sensory thresholds o 2 subdivisions of thresholds  Absolute threshold­ smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be  detected half the time  Difference threshold­ smallest possible difference of two stimuli that can  be detected half the time  This odd “detected half the time” that appears in the definitions is due to  individual differences  Weber’s law o Principle of sensation that says the size of the just noticeable difference will vary  depending on the strength of the original stimulus o Psychological experience of sensation is relative  Transduction­ the process by which a form of physical energy is converted into a coded  neural signal that can be processed by the nervous system  Extrasensory perception (ESP)­ the detection of information by some means other than  through the normal processes of sensation o Telepathy­ direct communication between two individuals minds o Clairvoyance­ perception of a remote object or event o Psychokinesis­ ability to influence an object without touching it o Precognition­ ability to predict future events


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