PUR 3000 Exam 1 Study guide
PUR 3000 Exam 1 Study guide PUR3000
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PUR3000 at University of Florida taught by Kong in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Principles of Public Relations in Public Relations at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Exam 1 Review Friday, September 16, 2016 7:51 PM Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4 & 12 Chapter 1 What is public relations? • Managing communication between an organization and its publics How can PR contribute to an organization's bottom line? • Awareness, issues anticipation, crisis management, influence public policy Contribution to the bottom line • Awareness and info • Organizational motivation • Issues anticipation – if you can’t anticipate and solve the issue, the issue can turn into a crisis • Opportunity identification • Crisis management • Overcoming executive isolation • Social responsibility • Influencing public policy ○ Feb. 2003, anti-war protests RACE: Process of PR Research è Action Communication è Evaluation • R: Research: what is the problem or situation • A: Action: (program planning) - what is going to be done about it? goals and objects • C: Communication: (execution) how will the public be told ○ Take advantage of the media and edit ur message • E: Evaluation: was the audience reached and what was the effect objects • C: Communication: (execution) how will the public be told ○ Take advantage of the media and edit ur message • E: Evaluation: was the audience reached and what was the effect Differences among PR, Advertising and marketin g:ow Scope, Objectives, Audiences Advertising vs PR Advertising • Paid space/time • Guaranteed placement • Selling goods and services • External audiences • Mass media outlets • Specialized communications PR • Free placement • No guaranteed placement • Generate public understanding • Internal and external audiences • Wide range channel • Create favorable environment Marketing vs PR Marketing • Makes $$ for the organization • Builds markets for goods& services • Deals with primarily external audiences • Restricts PR to product publicity and promotion • Persuasive, customer based PR • Save $$ for the organization Builds relationships and good will • • Wide range of internal and external audiences • Includes many mgmt. and communication functions • Accommodative through dialogue, both customers and non Other terms for PR: • Wide range of internal and external audiences • Includes many mgmt. and communication functions • Accommodative through dialogue, both customers and non Other terms for PR: • Public affairs • Corporate relations Chapter 2: The Evolution of PR Four classic models of PR: 1. Press Agentry/Publicity 2. Public information 3. Two-way asymmetric 4. Two-way symmetric 1. Press Agentry/publicity (1840-1900) o Purpose – propaganda, publicity o One-way truth; truth not essential o Source---Receiver o Little research o P.T. Barnum o Practiced in sports, theatre, entertainment o 15% of organization use this today 2. Public info (1900-1920s) o Purpose – disseminate info o Nature of comm. – disseminate info o Source---Receiver o Little research, readability o Ivy League o Practiced – government nonprofits o 50% or orgs today 3. Two-Way Asymmetric (1920 -Present) o Purpose – scientific persuasion o Two-way imbalanced effects o Source çè Receiver o Formative research, evaluative of attitudes o Edward Bernays o Competitive Business, agencies o 20% of orgs today 4. Two-Way Symmetric (1960s -Present) *recommended this one • Purpose – mutual understanding o Formative research, evaluative of attitudes o Edward Bernays o Competitive Business, agencies o 20% of orgs today 4. Two-Way Symmetric (1960s -Present) *recommended this one • Purpose – mutual understanding • Two-way, balanced effects • Comm. Model = Group çè Group • Formative research, evaluative of understanding • Arthur W. Page, educators, professionals • Regulated business, agencies • 15% of orgs today Key Figures in PR • PT Barnum - pseudo events • Edward Bernays-Father of PR Creel Committee: WWI Classic PR campaigns • Torches of Liberty • Ivory Soap Public Relations in a Global context Today's Public Relations • Increasing importance of intercultural communication • The principles of PR in each country vary to some extent because of different cultural characteristics ○ Ex. Diff PR practice standards like "comparison with others is bad", "concealing myself is needed at any time", "a metaphor is better than a direct exhibition" have been applied in collectivism cultures such as Asia • In global markets like today, w/o understanding other cultures, PR cannot be successful • Remember PR is communication and relationship management function • Communication is a receiver phenomenon • w/o understanding who our audiences are, PR for and purpose will be failed Chapter 3: Ethics and Professionalism 3 Basic Value Orientations • Utilitarian: decisions are based on what would cause the least harm or most good, most happiness to the greatest number of people Chapter 3: Ethics and Professionalism 3 Basic Value Orientations • Utilitarian: decisions are based on what would cause the least harm or most good, most happiness to the greatest number of people ○ A shortcoming is that it does not consider the communication's intentions or moral obligations • Absolutist: every decision right or wrong regardless of the consequences • Externalists : which calls for a balance between two extremes ○ Decisions are based on immediate practical choice without described value systems PRSA Code of Ethics: • Advocacy ○ Responsible advocates for those we rep. • Honesty ○ Highest standards of accuracy and truth • Expertise ○ Use specialized knowledge and experience ○ Advance through continued prof. development, research, and edu. ○ We build mutual understanding, credibility and relationships • Independence ○ We provide objective counsel to those we rep. ○ Accountable for our actions • Loyalty ○ Faithful to those we rep. ○ Honor our obligation to serve the public interest • Fairness ○ We deal fairly with clients, employers, competitors, peers, vendors, the media, and the general public ○ We respect all opinions and support the right of free expression Code for specific situations: • Transparency • Truth • Accuracy Front Groups • Seek to influence the public policy by disguising or obscuring the true identity of their members or by implying representation of a much more broadly group than exists ○ Ex. The Global Climate Coalition (est. 1989), a front group for various oil, gas, automobile, and chemical companies in order to cast doubt on Front Groups • Seek to influence the public policy by disguising or obscuring the true identity of their members or by implying representation of a much more broadly group than exists ○ Ex. The Global Climate Coalition (est. 1989), a front group for various oil, gas, automobile, and chemical companies in order to cast doubt on legitimacy of environmental problems Licensing Argument For: • Passing of rigid examinations and test of personal integrity could call themselves PR counselors, otherwise would have to call themselves something else • Licensing would protect the public from incompetent opportunities who do not have the knowledge, talent or ethics required • Define the practice of PR • Est. educational requirement • Set uniform ethical codes • Protect consumers • Protect qualified PR practitioners from unfair workers • Raise credibility Argument Against: • Infringement on 1st Amendment • Difficult to define PR • Too much emphasis would be placed on education • Voluntary accreditation sufficient • Civil and criminal laws already exists to deal with mal practice no legislative interest since health and welfare of people are not at risk • Would only assure minimum competence • Credibility not always improved by licensing Accreditation: five years of professional experience and also pass the exams Accreditation • A voluntary certification program for PR professionals, administered by PRSA • Purpose is to unify and advance the field, improve practice, signifies a high level of experience and competence • More jobs are being posted as "ARP" only apple • Since 1965, but the Universal Accreditation program was formed in 1998 • 2003 program over hauled ○ Preview course ○ Complete readiness questionnaire • More jobs are being posted as "ARP" only apple • Since 1965, but the Universal Accreditation program was formed in 1998 • 2003 program over hauled ○ Preview course ○ Complete readiness questionnaire ○ Portfolio reviewed by panel of professional ○ Rigorous written and oral examination ○ Five years professional experience • Approximately one quarter of PRSA members are APR (5,000). Chapter 4: Public Relations Departments and Firms Functions of PR departments: • Reduce cost of litigation • Reduce lost revenue from bad relationships • Cultivate relationship with various publics Organizational structure shapes the PR role: • Large organizations are more likely than small firms to include PR in policy making process • Line and Staff functions ○ Line managerdelegates authority, sets goals, hires, and influences work of others ○ Staff positionshave no direct authority, but influence other's work • Advisory- ineffective ○ on the lower level, the staff function may be only advisory • Compulsory-advisory-most effective ○ Organization policy requires that line managers (top management) at least listen to the appropriate staff experts before deciding on a strategy • Concurring authority - approving all materials ○ places PR un the positions of reviewing and approving all materials with external audiences Sources of friction: • Legal ○ concerned about possible effect of any public statement on current or potential litigation • Human Resources ○ turf battle over employee communication • Advertising ○ compete for funds to communicate with external audiences • Marketing potential litigation • Human Resources ○ turf battle over employee communication • Advertising ○ compete for funds to communicate with external audiences • Marketing ○ key public defined much larger in PR beyond consumers and potential consumers Outsourcing-a growing trend • Major trend to outsource a range of services Why Outsourcing? • Not enough internal resources ○ Limited resources • Supplementing staff during peak times • Saves the organization money • Communication conglomerates The Big 3 • WPP • Publics Omnicom • Interpublic group Fees and Charges: • Hourly fee: basic hourly plus out of pocket expenses • Retainer fee: being "on call" for advice, basic monthly charge, set hours • Fixed project fee: least popular among PR firms and more popular among clients because you have a fixed cost Advantagesof hiring Firms/Agencies • Objectivity • Variety of skills and experience • Extensive resources • Offices throughout country/global • Special problem-solving skills • Credibility Disadvantages • Superficial grasp of client's unique problems • Lack of ful-time commitment • Need for prolonged briefing period, long learning curve • Resentment by internal staff • Need for strong direction by top management • Need for full disclosure and confidence • Expensive • Lack of ful-time commitment • Need for prolonged briefing period, long learning curve • Resentment by internal staff • Need for strong direction by top management • Need for full disclosure and confidence • Expensive Challenges faced by PR firms • Executives fail to define objectives • Clients fail to provide specifics • Clients are penny-wise • Guaranteed results • Quick change in perception or attitude • Make an organization what it is not Using Internal PR Dept: Advantages • Knowledge of the organization • Economical for the organization • Accessible/available to top management • Team membership Disadvantages • Develop "tunnel vision" • May become dominated • Limited knowledge and expertise Benefitsfor working for PR firms • Gain electric amount of experience quickly • Variety • Rapid advancement • Fast paced, more exciting • Networking opportunities • Learn a variety of skills, more PR resources available • High emphasis on practical skills to start Benefitsfor working for PR companies • Less daily pressure • Less turnover, more stability • Higher starting salary, may have better benefits, more opps for profit sharing stocks • Can have more emphasis on management • See bigger picture • finish • Higher starting salary, may have better benefits, more opps for profit sharing stocks • Can have more emphasis on management • See bigger picture • finish Chapter 12: Public Relations and the Laws Invasion of privacy • Places limits on what information can be collected about citizens and who has access to the information ○ Ex. Organization newsletters: • Keep the focus on org -related activities • Have employees submit "personal" in writing • Double check all info for accuracy • Check to see if there is someone else embarrassed • Do not relay on second hand information • Do not include racial, ethical, or age designations of employees Fair use vs. infringement: quantity matters • Trademarks cannot be used as nouns Fair Use vs Infringement • Fair use allows partial use of copyrighted material with source attribution • Permission is required if used in advertisements or promotional brochures • Fair use is allowed for criticism, comment, or research, particularly without multiple copies produces • Quantity - likely to infringe CR • Gov't docs cannot be copyrighted • Photography and artwork - retain ownership of work, sell use • Freelance writers -depends on negotiation and contractual agreement, but does have right to their own work • CR in Internet, similar to hard copies, difference with uploading material by third parties 1st Amendment and PR • Fighting words that provoke violence are not protected by 1st amendment • Court has ruled that it applied to most media, thus publishers and broadcasters have constitutionally protected right of expression just as do individuals Government Agency Regulations FederalTradeCommission(FTC): • protect consumersfrom deceptive or have constitutionally protected right of expression just as do individuals Government Agency Regulations FederalTradeCommission(FTC): • protect consumersfrom deceptive or misleading information(advertising, marketing orPR) SecuritiesandExchangeCommission(SEC): • public disclosure, insider-trading, misleading information Food andDrugAdministration(FDA): • oversees theadvertisingand promotionof drugsandmedicines FederalCommunicationsCommission(FCC): • media, telecommunications
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