BIOS 1710: Biological Sciences II, Exam 1 Study Guide
BIOS 1710: Biological Sciences II, Exam 1 Study Guide BIOS1710
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Jones on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOS1710 at Ohio University taught by Scott Moody in Fall 2017. Since its upload, it has received 574 views. For similar materials see Biological Sciences II: Ecology, Evolution, Animal Body Systems in Biology at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
https://quizlet.com/s_jones1997/folders/bio-1710 Week 4 September 12-16 th Ch 39 Gas Exchange - Animals take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide - This is for cellular reparation that makes ATP - Oxygen and other nutrients are transported by circulation Diffusion *gas exchange over short distances under 100um Flatworms are a great example Fick’s Law of Diffusion: ???????????????? ???????? ???????????????????????????????????? − ????×????× (▯▯▯▯▯) ▯ Greatest reate of diffusion if: • Has a large surface area (A) • Surface is thin (D) • Partial pressure gradient is large Partial Pressure- the pressure of a particular gas in a mixture of gasses Bulk Flow *The physical movement of fluid and gasses over a distance; uses pumps (heart) Uses 2 steps: 1. Ventilation- movement of the animal’s respiratory medium (water or air) 2. Circulation- movement of the specialized body fluid that caries oxygen and carbon dioxide; hemolymph (invertebrates) and blood (vertebrates) VENTELATION ▯ GAS EXCHANGE ▯ CIRULATION ▯ CELLULAR REPARATION Organs for Gas Exchange Gills *outgrowths on the body surface or throat Two types: • External o Easily damaged • Internal o Made of gill arches formed by gill filaments composed of gill lamellae covered by operculum o Water must be driven over them o Ventilation by opening closing the mouth o Movement is unidirectional o Use a countercurrent exchange system Why do fish have it tough? - Oxygen is not very soluble in water - Oxygen diffuses 8000x faster in air Insect Tracheal System Tracheae- extensive system of tubes located within the insect body Spiracles- tracheae use these to connect to the exterior; can be closed to minimize water loss - Transports air close enough for diffusion so they do not require circulation Terrestrial Vertebrates - use of lungs Tidal Ventilation- when diaphragm and rib cage contract expanding the volume of the chest cavity creating a vacuum pulling air in Intercostal Muscles- assist the diaphragm by elevating the ribs on inhalation creating a larger change in volume, during exercising Tidal Volume- amount we inhale and exhale every cycle; .5 liters Lungs - Large surface area and a short diffusion distance Anatomy primary mouth larynx bronchioles alveoli bronchi Larynx- where the vocal cords are Trachea- the central airway leading to the lungs Primary Bronchi- trachea divides into two and makes one for each lung Bronchioles- can have a diameter of less than 1mm Alveoli- thin walled sacs where gas exchange by diffusion takes place Pulmonary Capillaries- small blood vessels that supple the alveolar wall Surfactant- reduces the surface tension of the fluid film made by mucus Birds - Use unidirectional airflow - Consists of two sets of air sacs - When posterior air sacs expand air from the mouth is drawn into the sacs and then pumped though the lungs - Use crosscurrent - Have a continuous supply of fresh air in the lungs during both inhalation and exhalation Carotid Body- sense oxygen concentration in the blood going to the brain Aortic Body monitor oxygen in the blood moving to the body * the brain stem monitors carbon dioxide in the blood and will stimulate motor neurons to active respiration if it is too high Oxygen Transport by Hemoglobin - Oxygen is transported by blood; hemolymph fro invertebrates - Oxygen is 30x less soluble than carbon dioxide Hemoglobin- specialized iron-containing (hem) molecule for transport - Carbon dioxide is converted to carbonic acid - Exists in large concentrations within red blood cells Hemoglobin and Myoglobin - Hemoglobin consist of four polypeptide chains; binds with heme Heme- contains iron that binds to oxygen; each hemoglobin can bind to 4 oxygen molecules - 98.5% of oxygen is bound to hemoglobin Myoglobin- found in muscle cells; binds and stores 1 oxygen - a partial-pressure difference drives oxygen from hemoglibin to tissues Oxygen Dissociation Curve- graph that plots the % saturation hemoglobin in red blood cells versus Po2 in blood with n tissues Cooperative Binding the binding of oxygen to on e subunit induces a conformation change making others do the same Bohr Shift - decreases in pH and tem helps oxygen bind - This happens usually during exercising The Circulatory System - Carries blood/hemolymph into close contact with every cell for diffusion - Made of a pump (heart), and vessels Open Circulatory System - Found in insects - Have multiple hearts How it works: 1. Hearts contract 2. Goes through the arteries 3. Dumped into the body cavity 4. Heart relaxes and creates a vacuum - Hemolyph comes in direct contact with every cell Closed Circulatory System - Continues flow through vessels - Moves by pressure created by the heart Why is this a good system: - Has a high flow rate - Can be directed to specific areas of the body - Small vessels (capillaries) creates slow flow rate to allow time for diffusion
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