Psychology Study Guide
Psychology Study Guide PSYC 1101
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Patterson on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Sorensen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views.
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Date Created: 09/16/16
Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 Study Guide for Exam #1: Prologue, Ch. 1, App. A, Ch. 2, & Ch. 12 Explanation: The lists below contain an outline of the main topics that we covered for each chapter. The majority of the exam questions will come from these areas. If a word is bolded, it is a vocabulary term that you should be able to define and apply to examples. Chapter 1: Thinking Critically / Appendix A 1. The birth of psychology a. Philosophy/biology i. PhilosophyPsych ii. Biology ology b. Wilhelm Wundt i. Opened the Institute for Experimental Psychology at the University of Leipzig in Germanyin1879 ii. He was originally trained as a medical doctor iii. He separated psychology from philosophy by analyzing the workings of the mind in a more structured way 2. Schools of psychology a. Structuralism (Titchener) i. Aimed to look at the structure of the mind ii. Introspection: the examination or observation of one's own mental and emotional processes iii. This process failed because a person’s emotions change everyday b. Functionalism (James) i. Influence of Darwin’s evolution by natural selection ii. James studied down-to-earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits, and moment-to-moment streams of consciousness. c. Behaviorism (Watson, Skinner) – 1930-1960 i. “Observable behavior only” ii. No reference to meal processes iii. Can observe and record people’s behavior as they are conditioned iv. Little Albert: conditioning a phobia in an emotionally stable child. 1. Little albert was trained to be scared every time he saw a white rat d. Psychoanalysis (Freud) i. Emphasized the ways our unconscious thought processes and emotional responses to childhood experiences affect our behavior. ii. Childhood is different than adulthood e. Humanistic psychology i. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 ii. Focused on how current environmental influences can nature or limit growth potential and to the importance of having our needs for love and acceptance satisfied. f. Cognitive psychology i. How we perceive, process, and remember information 3. Modern definition of psychology i. Modern: Science of behavior and mental processes ii. Wundt/Titchener: “The science of mental life” iii. Behaviorists: “Scientific study of observable behavior” iv. Cognitive/neuroscience: “Bring back metal processes” 4. Basic research vs. applied research a. Basic Research: Trying to understand something out of pure curiosity b. Applied Research: Studies that are trying to solve a particular question 5. Nature-nurture question a. Nature: is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors. b. Nurture: is the influence of external factors after conception (he product of exposure, experience and learning on an individual) 6. Psychology’s three main levels of analysis (Biopsychosocial approach) a. Biological influences (Genetics) i. Natural selection of adaptive traits passes through generations ii. Genetically influenced traits b. Psychological influences i. Emotional responses ii. Learned fear and other expectations c. Social-cultural influences i. Cultural, social, and family expectations ii. Peer influences 7. Problems with intuition and common sense a. Hindsight bias: the inclination, after an event has occurred, to see the event as having been predictable, despite their having been little or no objective basis for predicting it. b. Overconfidence: a person's subjective confidence in his or her judgments is reliably greater than the objective accuracy of those judgments, especially when confidence is relatively high. c. Tendency to perceive patterns in random events 8. The scientific attitude a. Curiosity b. Skepticism, c. Critical thinking Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 d. Humility 9. The scientific method: a. Theory: system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained. b. Hypothesis: suggested explanation for an observable phenomenon c. operational definition: Ways in which a researcher is going to measure behaviors or qualities (variables) d. replication: Repetition of research study a. Characteristics of a “good” theory i. Organized, leads to good predictions, stimulates research, and can be replicated 10. Types of studies a. Descriptive methods Case studies 1. Examines one individual in depth 2. Can’t be used to generalize a study Naturalistic observations 1. Records behavior in a natural environment 2. Describes but doesn’t explain behavior Surveys/interviews 1. Examines many cases in less depth 2. Wording effective Random sampling: each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected to represent the whole. b. Correlations Positive vs. negative correlation 1. Positive: (0 and +1.00) a. If you increase the temperature, you will sweat more 2. Negative: (0 and -1.00) a. If you increase sweating, your confidences go down Correlation coefficient (indicates both strength and direction of relationships) “Correlation does not mean causation” (and why) Illusory correlation: relating two variables even when they are not related. Regression toward the mean: If a variable is extreme on its first measurement, it will tend to be closer to the average on its second measurement—and if it is extreme on its second measurement, it will tend to have been closer to the average on its first. Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 c. Experiments Independent: Manipulated or changed Dependent: Variable that is measured Confounding variables: Variables that affect the other variables Experimental and control groups Why experiments can show causation (and other types of studies cannot) Double-blind procedure: study is one in which neither the participants nor the experimenters know who is receiving a particular treatment. 1. Prevents a bias Placebo effect: A fake treatment d. Weaknesses of each type of study (on chart) 11. Ethics in conducting research a. Research with animals b. Research with humans informed consent confidentiality debriefing 12. Statistics a. Measures of central tendency: mean, median, mode b. Measures of variation: range, standard deviation c. Normal curve d. Statistical significance 13. Getting better grades a. Active processing b. Testing effect c. Spaced rehearsal vs. massed rehearsal d. Overlearning e. SQ3R study method (know five steps: survey/question/read/retrieve/review) Chapter 2 The Biology of Mind 1. Phrenology (its problem) and the modern version 2. Neurons - parts and function of: a. Dendrites: Receives messages from other cells b. Cell body: The cells’ life support center c. Axon: Passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands. d. Sensory neurons: nerve that transmit sensory information (sight, sound, feeling, etc.). Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 e. motor neurons: A neuron that conveys impulses from the central nervous system to a muscle, gland, or other effector tissue. f. Interneurons: a neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex 3. Glial cells (myelin): Helps the neuron cells 4. Action potential (communication within a neuron - electrical) a. Basic process (neuron has a neg. charge on inside, pos. charge on outside, AP travels down axon, etc.) b. Threshold c. All-or-none response d. Refractory period 5. Synapse (communication between neurons - chemical) a. Neurotransmitters (basic functions and diseases) Acetylcholine: Enables muscle action, learning and memory Dopamine: Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion Norepinephrine: Helps control alertness and arousal Serotonin: Affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal Glutamate: Helps with memory GABA: Inhibitory neurotransmitter b. Reuptake: making neurotransmitters go away and take it back into the neuron that released it c. Agonists: Increases a neurotransmitters action d. Antagonists: Inhibits or blocks a neurotransmitters action 6. Simple reflex diagram 7. Nervous system (know name, approximate location, and function) a. Central nervous system (CNS) Spinal cord (reflex diagram) Brain structures: medulla, pons, cerebellum, reticular formation, thalamus, limbic system, hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, amygdala, cerebral cortex (frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes), corpus callosum Organization of motor and somatosensory cortex Association cortex (Phineas Gage) b. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Autonomic nervous system (functions of both subdivisions and types of body structures that are affected) a) Sympathetic nervous system: Helps with arousal Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 b) Parasympathetic nervous system: Helps with calming down Somatic nervous system (sensory and motor) c. Body’s cross-wiring 8. Endocrine system a. Hormones, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, glands (testes, ovaries, adrenal gland, pancreas) b. Feedback system 9. Ways to study the brain: EEG, MRI, PET, fMRI 10. General differences between left and right hemisphere functions Chapter 12: Social Psychology 1. Social thinking a. Attribution theory (situational vs dispositional) (observer, actor) Fundamental attribute error a. Attitudes Reciprocal relationship between attitudes and actions Cognitive dissonance theory: Discomfort caused by inconsistent thoughts that do not fit with actions 2. Altruism: Unselfish interest in helping others a. Bystander effect: Tendency for observes of emergency to help less when others are present Diffusion of responsibility Empathy 3. Social influence a. Conformity: Person attempt to behave so as to coincide more closely to group (changing to fit in) Asch’s experiments Conditions that strengthen conformity b. Obedience: Behavior that complies with explicit demands made by the individual in authority Milgram’s study: Shock tests Stanford prison experiment c. Group influence Deindividuation: Being part of a group reduces ones personal identity and erodes ones sense of personal responsibility Social loafing: Tendency to exert less effort in a group due to less accountability for individual effort 1. Causes a. Felling less accountable b. Feeling individual contribution doesn’t matter c. Lack of identification Dr. Sorenson PSYC 1101 Groupthink: Groups impaired decision making and avoidance of realistic appeal in order to maintain group harmony d. Prejudice: Negative attitude toward some group and its members e. Discrimination: behavior or actions, usually negative, towards an individual or group of people, especially on the basis of sex/race/social class, etc. Explicit racism: intentional racisms implicit racism: individual's utilization of unconscious biases when making judgments about people from different racial and ethnic groups Causes: a) Competition and limited resources b) In-group, outgroup, in-group bias c) Stereotypes a. Heuristics f. Improving intergroup relations – task-oriented cooperation Sheriff’s Robbers Cave study
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