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History 1302 - Exam #1 Study Guide

by: Alexandra Furman

History 1302 - Exam #1 Study Guide 1302

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This is the completed version of the study guide that Professor Ramirez posted on blackboard. All of the terms have been thoroughly expanded on, and there is more than enough material there for the...
History of U.S. Since 1865
Manuel B Ramirez
Study Guide
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Furman on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1302 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Manuel B Ramirez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see History of U.S. Since 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
History 1302 – Exam #1 Study Guide AA = African American (abbreviated) Multiple Choice (Be able to answer who, what, when, where, and why in regards to the terms) Southern Industries – Textiles: Attractive to the south due to low taxes, incentives; People who worked in these were families who had losttheir farms (owners tried to control the lives of these people to prevent unionization) Tobacco processing: Demand for cigarettes took of due to the invention of the cigarette rolling machine and increased advertising Iron and steel Railroads:Following reconstruction, railroadtrackage significantly increased W.E.B. DuBois – Black Reconstruction (1935), Reconstruction was an effort to create a democratic and interracial south (Marxist interpretation); Argued that the south createdmany services that had not existed previously (public education); Accused historians of being racistfor neglecting the roles that African Americans played during reconstruction; Encouraged African Americans to obtain an academic education, not a vocational; Strongly encouraged African Americans to fight for their civil rights; Accused Washington of capitulating to racism; The Souls of Black Folk, 1903 Congressional Elections of 1866 – In the 1866 congressional elections, power shifted to the radical republicans witha 3 to 1 majority. Radicals in the senate followed Charles Sumner, while radicalsin the house followed Thaddeus Stevens. Samuel Gompers – Co-founder and president, Longtime leader of the AFL; Born in England, but once he moved to the US became a labor activist; Cigar makers’ Union; Servedin this union up until his death in 1924 Redeemers – White southern democrats; Social conservatism; Industrialization; Promoting railroads and the textile industry; Reduced taxes and gov’t spending; Little to no money spent on hospitals, orphanages, asylums, and aidto the poor; “honest” gov’t; No biracialpolitics Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – Gave constitutional support to the segregation of races 7-1; established the basis of “separate but equal”; LA had passeda law segregating seats on the railroads;Homer Adolph Plessy had AA ancestors, so considered “black”, bought a ticket and sat in the white section; John Marshall Harlan was the only dissenting judge, noting that the constitution was color blind and therefore all colors wereequal under the law Dawes Act of 1887 – Heads of household were given 160 acres of land for farming or 320 acres for grazing; Could not sell for 25 years; Landowners became US citizens; After the allotted land was given to the native Americans, the government marked the rest of the land as surplus land and was sold to white settlers (intheory, the gov’t would have to have permission to sell the land from the Indians and the proceeds would then go to the Indians); Last arrow pageants – ceremonies that symbolized their conversionto US citizens, given a bow and arrow, shot the arrow, entered the teepee and change clothes, emerge from teepee in American clothing and would sign a pledge of loyalty; The dawes act would not be reversed until the 1930s during the depression Lynching – (another way southerners exuded control of AA); John Hartfield accused of rape and fled; He was shot and captured and turned over to a lynch mob after his wounds were deemed survivable long enough to lynch him as a punishment; A southern phenomenon; Largely occurring in the south with an overwhelming majority of the victims had been AA (80%); AA boys taught from a very young age to avoid interactions withwhites at all costs to avoid lynching; States rarelypunished any of those who participatedin lynching; 1880- 1930 over 3,200 had been AA lynched; Different than antebellum state of the south because slave deaths were handled by the state sothat owners could be compensated, most lynches during this time werewhite; MS, GA, TX the top three states, in order,who hung the most AA; Hung from a tree, then shot; Extra-judicial executions Josefa Segovia – first woman hung in the west, lynching occurred inCalifornia; stories say she killed a miner who was intruding on her land; they tried her in a kangaroo court and was hung despite being pregnant at the time (kangaroo court – court where the defendant doesn’t stand a chance) Ida B. Wells – A journalist who criticized the lynching process; urged the government to consider punishing those involved in the lynching Social Darwinism – A sociological theory; Applying Darwin’s theory of natural selectionto be appliedto society; As a result, many Americans believedthat the federal government shouldn’t intervene in southern affairs; emerged to protect the new industrial order; The belief that individuals should be allowedto succeed or fail; Appliedhis theory of natural selectionto society; Based on Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection; Social Darwinism appealed to industrialist; No interference of the federal gov’t (so that no max working hours would be established); Successful inthe richbecause they canjustify using and abusing their employees and workers because they were inferior to them inevery way; Did not want the rise of unions which could leadto strikes; They wanted competition among people inferior to them but not among themselves Black Codes – Numerous laws to control African Americans; Limited their rights to fish, hunt, graze, own weapons or dogs, and if they had animals, they had to fence them in (this was an attempt to withhold all possibleresources); In Mississippi and Alabama, African Americans werefined/imprisoned if they left labor contracts early; these states also allowedplantation owners to utilize the free labor of orphaned children Gospel of Wealth – The idea that industrialists should use their wealthto help improve society; The opposite of socialDarwinism; Justified the Wealth of industrialist; Andrew Carnegie’s Gospel of Wealth; Practiced what he preached by giving awaymillions of dollars Booker T. Washington – A former slave who became successful, urged other AA to follow his example, creator of the Tuskegee Institute; Encouraged AA to acquire an education, specificallya vocational education; Atlanta compromise, 1895; During this event he elaboratedhis viewson race; Encouraged AA to improve themselves economically and to postpone the civil rights movement KKK Acts – Passed by congress to address the KKK terrorismin1870-1871; Revolutionary Acts; Allowed federal government to prosecute crimes under federal law; Fairlyeffective legislation; By 1872, KKK acts declinedsignificantly ***“Revolutionary” because radicalrepublicans wereso reluctant to use the federal government*** The KKK acts were the last major effort made by the federal government to protect the rights of African Americans Dunning School – Traditional interpretation of reconstruction, makes the argument that it was the darkest period in American history (this interpretation held true until the 1960s); William Dunning: Reconstruction, Political,and Economic (1907); Birth of a Nation (1915) and Gone with the Wind (1939); Films representing the Dunning interpretation; The KKK emerges as a “savior” to the south in Gone withthe Wind; Romanticized version, An idyllic society that conveyed inaccurate portrayals of reconstruction; portrays the south as the victim of the north; African Americans were either depicted in horrible ways or as very content Williams v. Mississippi(1898) – In 1890, a constitutional convention in Mississippiadopted an “understanding clause” which required potential voters to interpret parts of the state constitution; in this case, the court allowedpoll taxes and literacytests to stand, this ledto nearly every southern state adopting such measures by the year 1908 Compromise of 1877 – (Compromise rooted in the electionof 1876); Only 3 reconstruction governments in south; FL, SC, and LA; Governments kept inpower by federal troops; Election of 1876; Republican Rutherford Hayes; Democrat Samuel Tilden; Ballots disputed in SC, LA, OR, FL; Following the dispute, federal troops removed from those three states, the government collapsed, and this marked the end of reconstruction Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan – 1863; even before the civilwar was over; It was a lenient plan; primary concern was reunification…not necessarilyAfrican American rights; *Congress didn’t agree withthe plan because of its leniency*; Southern states set up own government once 10%of whites accepted loyalty; Extended amnesty except to high ranking ex confederates; Extend voting to African Americans Haymarket Square Riot – Haymarket bombing (1886), A labor protest, individuals were protesting, a bomb went off, and law enforcement began firing on the protestors; 8 anarchists were found guilty of murder and criminal conspiracy, 4/8executed by hanging, one committed suicide, and the others served long sentences Sharecropping – System of labor that replacedplantation slavery Henry Ford – By the early 1900s the invention of the car had taken over the US; The Car was facilitated by the invention of the internal combustion engine Southern Republican Coalition – Scalawags: White southerners (business people/industrials who wanted to modernize the south); Also included Yeomen farmers which were Self-sufficient farmers; Carpetbaggers which were Northerners who moved to the south (Doctors, lawyers, teachers), They moved for personal gain, interested inmodernizing the south; The south despised these people; African Americans were the Largest group to make up this coalition, Had politicians and city officials Foreigner Miners’ Tax – Foreign miner’s tax passed by CA legislature and only appliedto the Chinese and Mexicans Homestead Act – Provided settlers with 160 acres of land at low prices;Some conditions: had to live on land for 5 years and also had to improve the land; Problems: 160 acres was not enough to engage in either farming or ranching soas a result many settlers eventually abandoned the land due to the lack of an ability to make a living Geronimo – Led the apaches during the 1870s; 1886, Native Americans inthis group had been defeated “Self-Made man” – Industrialization opened opportunities; Creating not limiting opportunities; From “Rags to Riches”; It’s up the individual personon whether or not they succeeded or failed; True? There is some truth to these claims; John Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie (But most came from privileged backgrounds) Pueblo Indians – Lived in towns and had createdfairly sophisticated societies; grew a variety of crops – primarily corn; also practiced trade 1849 Gold Rush – “Old West”; 1865-1890; More land settled than inthe first 250 years of American history; Three Empires in the west; Mining – primarily for gold, silver,and copper; Ranching; Farming; Crop-lien system – Storekeepers and plantation owners giving sharecroppers supplies and provisions and use part of their crop harvest as collateral (this allowedthem to effectively assume ownership of croppers’shares and left them only what remained after debts had been paid) Erie Railroad Wars – An example of Robber Barons business practices; Daniel Drew – involved in running the eerie railroadcompany; He was a financier, he initiallymade his money in the livestock business by selling cattle; Used a tactic called“Stock watering” In order to get more money, fed salt to cattle who would then drink large amounts of water; Watered stock; Worthless stock; Jay Gould – involved in running the eerierailroadcompany; A railroad financier, one of the wealthiest men in the US; when he diedhe was worth $77 million; He was cold, unscrupulous, and untrustworthy; he diedfriendless; Poster child of robber barons; Jim Fisk – involved in the eerie railroadcompany; Life of self-indulgence and luxury; He was killed over a business dispute; Cornelius Vanderbilt Began investing in the railroadsin 1857 and managed to make millions of dollars;Shrewd businessperson; Wanted to eliminate competition, sohe began buying stock inthe eerierailroadcompany; Bought worthless stock that had beenproduced by Drew,Gould, and Fisk Disfranchisement – The MississippiWay; Literacy Test (1890); AA had to be literate in order to be able to register to vote; One of the ways (aside from poll taxes, etc.) that gave white men the ability to deny voting rights to AA; Williams v. Mississippi(1898) Stripped away the right to vote for Mexicans, Texas had poll taxes inplace up until 1866 and had the white man’s primary which dictated that to run in the primary, you had to be a white man Southern Violence – Pervasive;Kingsport (TN) and the sparks circus; 5,000 attended Elephant named “Mary” was the main attraction, two days priorto the circus an elephant handler was hired and he struck her, Mary reacted violently, people inthe crowdbroke out inviolence and triedto kill her with no avail, she didn’t die by gun or other means so they used a crane to hang her; William Faulkner’s The Hamlet; Mink Snopes – a feature character who decides to kill his neighbor over a cow Violence – lynching; Josefa Segovia – first woman hung in the west, lynching occurred in California; stories say she killeda miner who was intruding on her land; they tried her in a kangaroo court and was hung despite being pregnant at the time (kangaroo court – court where the defendant doesn’t stand a chance) Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) – Gov’t reacts to public pressure and passes this act; Prohibited Chinese immigration to the United States; Impact of exclusion: 1880: 105,465 Chinese in the US and in 1920: 61,639 Chinese in the US; These numbers were primarilyChinese men that were born in china; Boycotts: against Chinese business and businesses that employed Chinese immigrants IWW – Industrial Workers of the World; supported the Marxist classstruggle; they believedthat by resisting in the workplace and by launching a general strike, workers could overthrow capitalism; peaked in 1916 withabout 100,000 members. Knights of Labor – Created by 9 tailors in Pennsylvania; Most important union of the gilded age; Initially secret organization because employers often fired and blacklistedunion activists; Religion important (Christian religion); One of the most egalitarian organizations; Uriah Stephens – one of the creators of the Knights of Labor; Believedthat the working conditions experienced were against god’s plan; Wanted to create a labor union regardless of occupation, nationality and race; Became an open organization in1877; It would be the only way that the group could challenge national organizations; Experienced a change of leadershipin 1879 Change of leadership:Terence v. Powderly(1879) and Irish catholic; Led the organization for the next 15 years; Beliefs: Temperance, education, land reform, and the abolition of the wage system; Believedthe wage system was just a new form of slavery companies were using Knights: Women; In the beginning, women wereexcluded from the organization; Fought their way into the union; Supported equal rights for women, equal pay, and women’s suffrage; By the mid-1880s, women made up 1 out of every10 laborersin this group; Immigrants; Chinese were excluded from the group, boycotted Chinese goods, didn’t want them to be allowed into the US and they were blamed for the economic depression; Blacks; Incredible hostile toward African Americans; Organizing coal miners in Alabama, west Virginia, and Tennessee; Dock workers inNew Orleans The rise of the knights; 1880s experienced unprecedented growth; Reasons: Wage cuts, Economic depression, Successful strikes conducted by workers; Railroadworkers conducted successful strikes in1884 and 1885; 1886: 700,000 to 1million members The fall of the Knights; Experienced a decline almost immediately in the late 1880s; Employers fought back; Railroadworkers strike in1886 against the Southwestern Railroad and failed, it was not successful; Struck Gould’s southwestern railroad(1886); Failure; Haymarket bombing (1886); A labor protest, individuals were protesting, a bomb went off, and law enforcement began firing on the protestors; Never recovered AFL – Created in 1886; Association of Craft Unions; Mainly organized skill workers (carpenters, machinists, etc.); Unskilled workers (women, immigrants, minorities) were not organized under this group; Accepted Capitalism; An economic system where the means of production and distribution are privatelyowned and utilized for profit; Wanted material rewards through strikes and collective bargaining; Higher wages; Fewer hours; Not interested in reforming society Labor Weaknesses; Organized a small percentage of the industrial workforce; AFL was largely organizing skilled workers and ignored unskilled workers (women, immigrants, and minorities); Ethnic and racial differences; Excluded AA from membership; Divisions between native born Americans and immigrants; Belief in socialmobility; Workers could improve their economic condition (by moving from unskilled to skilled);Unsettled workers; Moving from place to place,and jobto job; Made it difficult to organize; Power of corporations; Employers were able to count on the support of the national and state governments when laborerswent on strike 14 Amendment – Proposed by congress when people thought they were getting too involved; It was the first constitutional definition of American citizenship: Born in the U.S. or naturalized in the U.S.; Due process clause; Equal protection clause; Denied congressional representation to people who had violated universal male suffrage th 15 Amendment – Prohibited state/federal government from denying voters basedon their race; Excluded women, Chinese Americans, and evenin some cases African Americans due to literacy tests and poll taxes Pullman Strike – Strike against the Pullman railroadthat ended with bloodyclashes between angry crowds and the US army. Reservations – largely benefited white society because the Indians would be given land of lesserquality; Reservations were approved due to the fact that Indians would be contained on their own land region and would reduce conflict; Francis Walker Believedinsocial engineering; Reservations were preferable instead of constant conflict between Indians and whites, protects them and us; While Indians residedon these reservations, they would be domesticated and be taught how to farm, etc.; Means of uplifting the Indians by teaching them the ways of society; Created to resolve conflict via segregation between the US and native Americans, also would help them assimilation, alsobecause it gave them less favorable land while the government took their homeland, fed gov’t would have ultimate control over Indian affairs Yellow-dogcontracts – An employment agreement where a worker promises not to joina labor union or promises to resign from a union if he or she is alreadya member Freedmen’s Bureau – Established in 1865; Attempted to aid former slaves;Provided food, medical care, supplies; Established schools; Attempted to settle African Americans intheir ownplot of land; Successful? Overall, no because there was too much need among African Americans and not enough effort was put into achieve the set goals Freedmen’s Bureau (Extended power);Allowedagents to lookinto southern abuses; Allowed agents to punish state officials who denied African Americans equal rights under the law;Vetoed by the president (he believedit would cause people to become too dependent on the government), but congress overrode the veto Tenure of Office Act of 1867 – Prohibited the President from removing civilofficials, including cabinet officers, without approval of congress; done to protect EdwinStanton (a liberalworking withradical republicans); Johnson deliberatelyviolated this and was impeached but not removed from office (miss the required vote by 1) Plains Indians – Most Numerous; Diverse Group; Some had created permanent settlements while others were nomadic hunters; Labor dividedaccording to gender; Men were hunters, spiritual leaders, and warriors;Women had domestic duties, however they alsofarmed and gathered food; Slaughter of Buffalos; Many subsisted by hunting buffalo on horseback; Provided food, blankets, hides, supplies to make teepees/shelter; Warrior societies;An estimated 15 million buffalo livedin the plains, within 10 years that number was obliterated (killed due to railroadexpansion, hides, food, etc.); Weaknesses: With the killing of the buffalo, Indians lost a major way to resistencroaching white society, ledto dependence on the American government; Unable to resistencroachment of white society Weaknesses of Organized Labor – Organized a small percentage of the industrial workforce; AFL was largely organizing skilled workers and ignored unskilled workers (women, immigrants, and minorities); Ethnic and racialdifferences; Excluded AA from membership; Divisions between native born Americans and immigrants; Belief insocial mobility; Workers could improve their economic condition (by moving from unskilled to skilled);Unsettled workers; Moving from place to place, and job to job; Made it difficult to organize; Power of corporations; Employers wereable to count on the support of the national and state governments when laborerswent on strike Wade-Davis – 1864; drawnup by congress because they didn’t agree with Lincoln’s leniency *This plan was vetoed by Lincoln, but he was willingto compromise (he was killedprior to making any revisions)* The majority of white voters were requiredto pledge loyalty; Authorized the president to appoint provisional governors in southern states; States required to abolish slavery; Disenfranchised ex confederate leaders;Repudiate war debts Nez Perce – A tragic example, native Americans that residedinOR; forced to move and during the move they killed several whites while trying to allude the army; they were captured prior to reaching the Canadian border; Many of these Indians died from diseaseand starvation; Chief joseph was Captured and displayedas a war trophy Reconstruction Acts 1867 – Tennessee was allowed to reenter the union (because it passedthe 13th amendment); States admitted under Johnson/Lincoln’s plans were rejected; South dividedinto 5 military districts which were allowedto register voters…even African Americans; 14th Amendment had to be ratified for a state to reenter; Congress passedthe 15th amendment White Caps (Gorras Blancas) – Emerged in northern New México during the late 1800s; protesting the loss of land by conducting raids like burning railroadbridges, destroying tracks, and cutting fences “Great American Desert” – Very few Americans settled in the westernunited states prior to the civil war because they believed that much of the westwas considered to be the great American desert; Stephen Long; In 1819, he conducted an expedition to explore the great plains and he issued a warning that this area was the great American desert (believedthat the land could not sustain farmers) Contract-Labor System – Used in Hawaii,labor agents wouldrecruit workers and gain free passage to HI to work in the US for 5 years, in return for their workthey would receivewages, housing Ku Klux Klan – Nathan Bedford Forrest created the KKK in 1866 inTennessee (itwas the original KKK…there were others in the 1910s and during the civil rights movement); Used terror to get their way (terroristwing of the Democratic Party) Taylorism – Developed by FrederickTaylor; Sub-divided tasks; encouraged employers to sub-divide tasks in factory settings; Benefits: faster, specializationin certainareas,don’t necessarily need to rely on skilled employees, decreasedoverallcosts “Myth of the Garden” – Charles Dana Wilber; A booster who wanted individuals to move to the westernUS; Concluded that the west was a garden; In the 1870s and 1880s there was a high amount of rainfall that contributed to this claim; his lasted a short time and then the plains returned to a desert like state Weaknesses of Indians – With the killing of the buffalo, Indians lost a major wayto resist encroaching white society, led to dependence on the American government; Unable to resist encroachment of white society; susceptibility to diseases Herbert spencer – Developed the phrase “survival of the fittest”; Believedinapplying the laws of nature to society; Humans should never interfere with the laws of nature which allowsonly the fittest to survive; His publications soldnearly 400 million copies William Graham Sumner – Darwin’s counterpart; Believedthat competition was marvelous; the progress of civilization depended on competition Lester Frank War – Darwinist (but not a social Darwinist); Rejected social Darwinism; Believedthat competition actually prevented others from thriving; Government regulation of businesses Transcontinental Railroad – A system of railroadtrackage that connected the east coast of the US to the westcoast of the US Essay Questions 1. What were the major achievements and disappointments of radicalReconstruction for African Americans? Reconstruction Acts of 1867 - Tennessee was allowedto reenter the union (because it passed the 13th amendment) - States admitted under Johnson/Lincoln’s plans were rejected - South dividedinto 5 military districts which were allowedto register voters…even African Americans - 14th Amendment had to be ratified for a state to reenter - Congress passedthe 15th amendment The 15th Amendment - Prohibited state/federal government from denying voters based on their race - Excluded women, Chinese Americans, and even insome cases African Americans due to literacytests and poll taxes Education: - Established systems of public education for both African Americans and southern whites - By ~1876, 40% of African American children attended school (still segregated however) Equal Access to Transportation - Laws passed to grant equal access - These were state to state, so terms could vary Abolished black codes Humanized penal codes Also abolished corporal punishment and decreasedthe number of capital offenses Industrialization - Railroads and textile industries Increased State Services - Offered hospitals, mental health institutions, and aid to the poor Land Reform o Sharecropping o Ku Klux Klan emerged  Nathan Bedford Forrest created the KKK in 1866 inTennessee (itwas the original KKK…there were others inthe 1910s and during the civil rights movement)  Used terror to get their way(terroristwing of the democratic party) Did not resolverace problem o Because many Americans wereconvinced that the fed government didn’t have the right to infringe on the rights of individuals and states to protect AA Some improvement for southern blacks o Education, economically, some measure of equality 14 and 15 amendments o Of little use during reconstruction, but of great importance during the black civil rights movement 2. Compare and contrast the experiences of Mexicans and the Chinese in the westernUnited States? Mexicans Chinese The overwhelming amount of Initially welcomed Mexicans in the united states would  There was a labor shortage lose their land however it quickly turned into  Dispossession hostility  Loss of land (Couldn’t Hostility prove that they owned the  Chinese initially worked in land) mining jobs in the Sierra  Much of the lands became Nevada gold mines national forests  Foreign miner’s tax passedby  Violence – lynching CA legislature and only Josefa Segovia – first woman hung in appliedto the Chinese and the west, lynching occurred in Mexicans California; stories sayshe killed a  After mining, Chinese miner who was intruding on her land; immigrants found jobs in they tried her in a kangaroo court and farming, fishing, railroads was hung despite being pregnant at  After releasedfrom mining the time (kangaroo court – court jobs,Chinese migrated to where the defendant doesn’t stand a urban areas and established chance) china towns in san Francisco Segregation and Los Angeles Mexican Continued  Chinese Continued Disfranchisement  stripped away the right to  Forced into self-employment vote for Mexicans, Texas due to discriminations (opened had poll taxes in place up shops, restaurants, and laundry until 1866 and had the facility because it was cheaper white man’s primary and didnot require a high which dictated that to run amount of use of the English in the primary, you had to language) be a white man  Labor Prostitution Mexican labor  Female Chinese that  Mexicans that lost their immigrated to the US worked lands became wage in prostitution and young laborers women were soldinto  Mining prostitution at veryyoung ages  AZ and NM, mining silver,  They risked being beaten and copper, and coal killed by customers and  A very dangerous owners, became opiate addicts, occupation, suffered from committed suicide,or accidents, deaths, exposed contracted diseases to extreme temperatures  1870, 61% of women worked and dangerous gases as Chinese prostitutes 1870s-1880s  1880, 24% of women worked  Segmented labor system as Chinese prostitutes Mexican Resistance in the SW united states Borders of Exclusion  El Paso saltwar (1877)  California – movement began  Mexicans would travel to here the salt flats and use the  San Francisco passed salt for personal reasons or ordinances directedtowards for trading, it was laundry facilities to try to get communal, but a group of them shut down white men…  1873 Chinese were blamed for  Gorras blancas (White this depression caps) Emerged in northern  1877 Passeda monthly tax on new México during the late all Chinese immigrants 1800s  Chinese exclusion act of 1882  Protesting the loss of land  Gov’t reacts to public pressure by conducting raids like and passes this act burning railroadbridges, destroying tracks, and  Prohibited Chinese cutting fences immigration to the United  States Mexican Continued  Impact of exclusion o  Plan de San Diego (1915- Chinese Continued 1917)  Revolt staged by Mexicans o 1880: 105,465 Chinese in southern Texas due to in the US the oppressionthat o 1920: 61,639 Chinese Mexican Americans were in the US facing o These numbers were  They wanted to create an primarilyChinese men independent state for that were bornin china Mexicans o Boycotts: against Chinese business and  1000 to 3000 individuals businesses that participatedin this revolt, turned into a bloodbath for employed Chinese the Mexican Americans immigrants (army and Texas rangers were brought in to combat the revolt)  ~5000 Mexican Americans died during the revolt 3. Discuss the experiences of industrial workers during the second half of the nineteenth century and early 1900s? Your response will alsoaddress women, children, and African Americans. o Rural workers  Individuals who moved from the countryside to urban areas in order to improve their economic conditions o Immigrants  Between 1865-1915, 25 millionimmigrants entered the US (overwhelmingly coming from Europe)  “Push-pull” factors  Pushed out of their native countries  Poverty, oppressiondrove them out of their home countries  Pulled into the US  Jobs, new opportunities drew them to the US o New immigrants  Britain, Ireland, and northern Europe  Southern and Eastern Europe (Italians, Greeks, Russians) o Ethnic tensions  Many native born Americans resented their arrival  Believedthat their arrivalloweredoverall wages and increasedjob competition Labor conditions o Low Wages  Industrial workers receivedverylow wages  Annual income for a family of four in 1890 was just $380  Industrialist justified these wages because higher wages would hurt profits o Hurt profits  Needed the profits inorder to establishnew buildings and create more jobs o Moral reasons  Spent money for themselves on prostitution, alcohol, etc. o Many paid in script  Given a form of money that would only be good for a certain store…worthless if used elsewhere o Bad housing o No job security o Seasonal work o Use of immigrants to displace American workers (lowerwages) o Machines also displacedAmerican workers o Difficulty adjusting  Couldn’t adjust to a set schedule, with long hours, boring work  10 hours a day, 6 days a week o Injuries on the job Women Workers o Employment resulted because of need for unskilled labor o Women were hired in factories o Employers preferred hiring women because they could paythem less than men o Young and white  Either immigrants or the children of immigrants o Reasons for working  Single women to support themselves and family members  Also included married women (despite heavy oppositionfrom society), worked out of necessity o Worked where machine labor prevailed o Largely performing unskilled work o Main industry to employ women = textile industry o Wages  Paid about half the wages that men received Children workers o Factories also utilized child labor in addition to women’s labor o Child labor laws  Some states didmanage to pass lawsagainst child labor  Established that minimum age was 12 years old  12 hour maximum for the workday  Many of these laws were ignored though o Working conditions  Low wages just like with women  Accidents and deaths due to working withmachines  Worked in textiles, as newspaper boys, inmines, seafood industry (canning), fieldworkers o Immigrants and child labor  Needed the additional income that child labor supplied their families  Often children of immigrants would not be allowedto work o Many textile industries in the south would employ the entire family as a whole African Americans Textiles  Attractive to the south due to low taxes, incentives,  People who worked inthese were families who had lost their farms (owners tried to control the livesof these people to prevent unionization) Tobacco processing  Demand for cigarettes took of due to the invention of the cigarette rolling machine and increasedadvertising Iron and steel Railroads  Following reconstruction, railroadtrackage significantly increase 4. At the turn of the century, the United States emerged as the world’sleading industrial nation. What were the main factors that ledto this remarkable productivity? Sources of Industrial development  Electricity  Introduced during the 1870s as animportant source for power and light  Thomas edition  A leading figure in this development  Built power plants and made improvements to the light bulb  Electricitysupplied power to offices, homes, factories and street cars Innovations in communications  Transcontinental telegraph  A telegraph that linked the US to Europe  Telephones  Late 1800s,telephones had become increasingly common Steel  Conversion from ironto steel  Significant because steel was much more durable than iron  Steel used to make railroadtracks, locomotives, and skyscrapers New Industries  Steel  Steel production was largelyconcentrated in Pittsburg PN  Also existed in the west and the south (Birmingham, AL)  Oil  Initially the oil industry emerged in order to fulfill the needs of the steel industry  Used as a lubricant  Early 1900s, it had alsobecome a source of fuel  Initially, discoveriesof oil took place inthe easternUS (Pennsylvania); but as these sources driedup other oil sources were found in OK, TX, and CA…many werefound in Indian territories  Car  By the early1900s the invention of the car had taken over the US  The Car was facilitated by the invention of the Internal combustion engine  Henry ford New means of production  “Taylorism”  Developed by FrederickTaylor  Sub-divided tasks o Encouraged employers to sub-divide tasks infactory settings o Benefits: faster, specializationin certainareas,don’t necessarilyneed to relyon skilledemployees, decreased overall costs  Moving Assembly line  Introduced by Henry ford  Allowedcars to be produced quicker, more to be produced, hours and wages decreasedfor workers Railroad expansion  Primary mode of transportation  Factories needed railroadsto move raw goods into the factory, and then once produced, needed to move goods to the markets  Corporate management systems which were then copiedby other industries  Largest industry – leading industry  Stimulated other industries  Encouraged the steel industry 5. Identify and explain the major characteristics of the “New South”. o White southerners only group of Americans defeated and occupied by enemy  Left southerners with dividedregional and national loyalties (are they southerners first and then Americans or vice versa) o Majority of blacks until 1950 o Solid south o No monopoly on violence,racism, or one party politics o Blacks and the new south  Middle class  Some AA become professionals (doctors, lawyers,ministers, teachers) despite the obstacles in doing so  Educational institutions  Black colleges and universities were established  Booker T. Washington  A former slave who became successful, urged other AA to follow his example, creator of the Tuskegee Institute  Encouraged AA to acquire an education, specificallya vocational education  Atlanta compromise, 1895 o During this event he elaboratedhis views on race o Encouraged AA to improve themselves economically and to postpone the civil rights movement  W.E.B. Du Bois  Encouraged AA to obtain an academic education, not a vocational  Strongly encouraged AA to fight for their civil rights  Accused Washington of capitulating to racism  The Souls of Black Folk, 1903


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