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Genetics exam 1 study guide

by: Katlyn Gieseke

Genetics exam 1 study guide BIOL 211

Katlyn Gieseke
Minnesota State University, Mankato

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A list of questions created from the notes with explanations to some.
Dr. Daniel Toma
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katlyn Gieseke on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 211 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Dr. Daniel Toma in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see genetics in Biology at Minnesota State University - Mankato.

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Date Created: 09/16/16
Genetics 211: test #1 Life alters things and is its own source of change. True or False? What are the three types of transmission of information in genetics? a. Material, social, and biological b. Cellular, protein, and DNA c. Knowledge, DNA, and social d. Cultural, formal, and material Cultural transmission is the body form passed from parents to offspring. True or False? (Cultural transmission is the passing down of knowledge “monkey see, monkey do”) Material transmission is _______, while formal transmission is _______. a. Passing of DNA; passing of body form b. Passing of knowledge; passing of DNA c. Passing of eggs; passing of knowledge d. Passing of abilities; passing of DNA The law of independent assortment states that trait B in the mother is not affected by trait b in the father. True or False? (Mendel’s postulates only pertain to gamete creation in one person. There doesn’t have to be a father present for a mother to make an egg and vice versa. Reproduction is not needed for Mendel’s postulates to be true, it just proves them visually.) The law of independent assortment states that trait A from the father is not affected by trait b in the father. True or False? The law of segregation states that trait A from the father is not affected by trait b in the mother. True or False? (Mendel’s postulates state what happens in gamete formation, not what happens in reproduction.) A monohybrid cross is when ______. a. one trait is crossed/focused on b. two traits are crossed/focused on c. three traits are crossed/focused on d. one trait influences another trait Label the generations: Parental generation BB x bb F1 generation Bb x Bb F2 generation BB, Bb, Bb, bb Homozygotes have one dominant and one recessive allele. True or False? (homozygous genotypes either have two dominant alleles or two recessive alleles.) A heterozygote (genotype Bb) will show a recessive phenotype. True or False? (in a heterozygote, the dominant phenotype is shown, only in a homozygous recessive organism is the recessive phenotype shown.) Mendel has 4 postulates. True or False? (The postulates are: unit factors are in pairs, dominance/recessivness, segregation, and independent assortment.) Mendel studied 7 traits in peas:  seed shape  seed color  pod shape  pod color  flower color  flower position  stem length BB The thing circled is one allele. True or False? (the thing circled is a gene, one of the B’s is considered an allele) Fill in A A the punnet square A AA AA a Aa Aa In a test cross, the dominant phenotype is always crossed with the recessive phenotype. True or False? (test crosses are used to help determine the genotype of an organism. If all the offspring show dominant phenotype after the test cross, the parent was originally homozygous dominant, and if the offspring are 1:1, then the parent was originally heterozygous.) NOTE: the ratios from punnet squares come from the fact that eukaryotes have pairs of chromosomes that are randomly selected. To determine if two traits pass down unaffected by each other (on different chromosomes), one would use the product law. True or False? (one could also use a dihybrid cross, but the product law states: two independent events occur simultaneously, the combined probability of the two outcomes is equal to the multiplication of their ratios) If test cross shows 100% same phenotype, the parent in question was _________. a. Homozygous recessive b. Homozygous dominant c. Heterozygous d. Cannot be determined from the information given. If one is creating a dihybrid punnet square, they should a. Pair up all possibilities of gametes b. Only put one allele per column When performing a dihybrid test cross, it is only essential that one gene on the parent with the known genotype is homozygous recessive. True or False? (in a dihybrid test cross there is a dominant phenotype in both traits and so both genes need to be homozygous recessive ex. aabb instead of Aabb) Results of dihybrid test crosses: Genotype AABB AaBB AABb AaBb Ratio after 1 1:1 1:1 1:1:1:1 cross Explanation of All offspring Half of the All are ¼ have ratio are dominant offspring are dominant A dominant A in both recessive A phenotypes. and B phenotypes. phenotype and Half are phenotypes. ¼ half are recessive B have recessive dominant A phenotypes A and phenotype. All and half are dominant B are dominant dominant B phenotypes. ¼ B phenotype. phenotypes. have dominant A and recessive B phenotypes. ¼ have recessive A and B phenotypes. Trihybrid crosses suck, so use a Fort diagram This one can be used for finding phenotypic ratios: Find the ending ratios 3/ C/- 27/64 1/ B/- 3/ cc 9/64 4 3/ A/- 4 3/ C/- 9/64 4 bb 1/ 4 4 1/ cc 3/64 4 3/ C/- 9/64 4 1/ B/- 1/ 3/ cc A fort diagram for genotypic ratios would have boxes for AA, Aa, and aa with ratios of ¼, 2/4, and ¼ respectively. In pedigrees, if a trait/affected individual skips a generation, the trait is usually recessive. True or False? Genetic material is organized as traits which are transmitted as genes. True or False? (Genetic material is organized as GENES, traits are determined by genes, and genes are passed on by Chromosomes) Metocentric Sub-meticentric Acro-centric Telecentric Name the four types of Chromosomes shown above. Haploid cells have two chromosomes for each one, one from mom and one from dad. True or False? (Diploid cells have a chromosome from mom and a chromosome from dad, but haploid cells only have a chromosome from mom OR a chromosome from dad) Every Chromosome that isn’t a sex chromosome is an autosome. True or False? Humans are usually heterogametic. True or False? (heterogametic means mismatched sex chromosomes for the female. Birds are heterogametic, but humans are homogametic because they have two X’s in the female) Intraspacific means a mating of two different species. True or False? (intraspecific mating is within a species. If two different species mate their offspring is called a hybrid and the hybrid is usually sterile.) from: From: from: b1 b2 T Meiosis only gad1ens in germ-line tissues. True or False? d2 a2 a1 Females don’t go through meiosis II unless fertilized. True or False? Crossing over only happens in meiosis I. True or False? G The three significant results of meiosis are:  Meiosis generates haploid cells  Crossing over between maternal and paternal chromosomes during meiosis I produces unique chromosomes. c1 c2  Maternal and paternal chromosomes assort independently along metaphase plate during metaphase I. TEST QUESTION: A  Only A (a1 or a2) can cross over with B (b1 or b2)  Only C (c1 or c2) can cross over with D (d1 or d2)  a2 has to be G allele and b1 has to be g allele.  Think about what a combination of alleles could be in anaphase of mitosis (a1,b1,c1,d1 and a2,b2,c2,d2 ect…)  Combo of alleles for anaphase I of meiosis (a1,a2,d1,d2 and b1,b2,c1,c2 ect…)  Which are sisters and which are non-sisters  Think of what this would look like if it went through mitosis or meiosis A wild type (written with a +) allele is what is found in nature, if mutated in a lab the alleles can mutate into four different types:  Loss of function (complete or partial loss of function, isn’t always harmful, but is when this allele makes the wild type allele function worse)  Gain of function (isn’t always good, but has power over the wild type)  Equal (written as a superscript)  Silent (rare, just not expressed as often) Incomplete dominance is like mixing a can of paint, the heterozygote looks like a mix between dominant and recessive. True or False? Incomplete dominance is usually associated with loss of function. True or False? In co-dominance there is no dominant or recessive. True or False? (both alleles are expressed equally, but not mixed together, kind of like oil and water don’t mix, but you can put them in the same container.) Blood clumps together because _______. a. There is glutenation caused by bacteria b. There is glutenation caused by allergies c. There is glutenation caused by different antibodies d. The blood just clots Someone with Lethal genes can pass it on to their offspring. True or False? (If the lethal gene takes effect after reproduction age, the parent with the lethal genes will for sure give one copy to their children) Mouse coat color crosses AAxAA AAꙷx AAꙷ AAxAAꙷ AA AA, AAꙷ, AꙷA, AꙷAꙷ AA, AAꙷ All survive (agouti color) 2/3 yellow, 1/3 agouti (AꙷAꙷdie) ½ yellow, ½ agouti What pattern of lethal gene is this and why does it happen? This is a recessive lethal even though the organism dies only when the gain of function allele pairs up. This occurs because, in this case, the A allele can produce merc which is needed to survive, but the Aꙷ allele can’t produce merc. When the A and Aꙷ alleles are paired up, enough merc is produced, but when it is just Aꙷ there is not enough merc for the mouse to survive. Dominant lethal affects any person with homozygous dominant genotype. True or False? (Dominant lethal affects anyone with the dominant allele) Epistatic effects are more predictable than additive effects. True or False? (usually epistatic effects are hard to predict from a parents genotype like if flies would go hi or low in a maze after they bread the flies that went hi together and the flies that went low together.) Normal dihybrid Recessive epistasis Dominant epistasis Complementation cross epistasis 9/16 9/16 12/16 9/16 3/16 3/16 7/16 3/16 4/16 3/16 1/16 1/16 Pleiotropy means a. There is more than 2n amount of chromosomes b. Multiple genes affect one trait c. The trait is determined by the sex chromosomes d. The gene has crossed over on chromosomes more than once Who discovered genes connected with sex chromosomes on flies? a. Semore Benzer b. Jerry Hirsch c. Thomas Hunt Morgan d. Francis Crick If females express an X linked trait, that means: a. Both X’s have that trait b. Only one X have that trait c. They also possess a Y chromosome d. None of the above A change of internals in a person as they age is considered a change in environment. True or False? What are examples of environmental effects? a. Temperature b. Age of onset c. Change in enzyme production d. All of the above From: Three pieces for genetic background  Genes operate in a sea of interacting genes/gene products (more than one gene acts on one phenotype)  Genetic suppression (certain mutants can counteract other mutants)  Position effect (if one region of chromosome is moved to another part, the expression is affected) Sex limited means the same thing as sex influenced. True or False? (Sex limited is when the trait is only expressed in one sex while sex influenced is based on hormone balance and neither of these are sex linked (which means on sex chromosome)) What is a trait genetically passed on through humans? a. Height b. Intelligence c. Left and right handedness d. all of the above e. a and b Hymenoptera genetics (honey bees) Life of a honey bee: from: Worker=female, is sterile Drone=male (haploid) dies after fertilizes the queen Queen=female only gets fertilized once in her life by about 10-15 drones and is the queen because was fed the most when she was an egg.


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