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Study Guide 9/20

by: Natalie Berry

Study Guide 9/20 BIO 101

Natalie Berry

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About this Document

This study guide covers chapters 1-6
Biology in Your World
Kyoungtae Kim
Study Guide
Bio, bio101
50 ?




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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalie Berry on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 101 at Missouri State University taught by Kyoungtae Kim in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 222 views. For similar materials see Biology in Your World in Science at Missouri State University.


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Date Created: 09/16/16
Chapter 1  Define the following:  Science:   Theory:  Scientific Method:  Biology:  Life (list some defining characteristics):  Evolution:  What is science?  What is an important theory in biology?  Why are theories more valued over scientific fact?  List the steps of scientific method:      The nature of biology and special qualities  Give an example of an exception to life’s characteristics  What are life sciences? Give an example.  Why is evolution so important to biology? Chapter 2  Define the following:  Matter:  Mass:  Element:  Atomic Number:  Isotopes:  Chemical bonding:  Covalent bonds:  Ionic bonds:  Outer shells:  The law of conservation of mass:  Molecule:  Electronegativity:  Polarity:  Polar covalent bond:  Non­polar covalent bonds:  Ion:  Ionic bonding:  Ionic compound:  Hydrogen bond:  Solution:  Solute:  Solvent:  Specific heat:  Cohesion:  Acid:  Base:  pH scale:  Chemistry’s Building Block: The atom   What are the two categories everything in existence fall into?  What are two things that define mass?  What primary substances is all matter made up of?  What is matter composed of?  What are the 3 components that make up an atom?  What accounts for most of an atom’s mass?  What’s the charge of an atom?  What’s an example of an element?  What state does energy prefer? High or low?  How many electrons are required to fill the first shell of an atom? How many are required for the others?  What is the spectrum of stability for chemical elements? What is this based on?  Why does molecular shape matter?  How did organism make the transition to land if they cannot function with water?  Why do life’s chemical take place better in water?  What is a basic solution referred to as?  Why does pH matter?  What is the human limit on the pH scale?  What is an example of different body parts having different ph limits?  What’s an example of ph affecting entire communities? Chapter 4  Define the following   Prokaryotic cell:  Eukaryotic cell:  Organelles:  Cytosol:  Cytoskeleton:  Cytoplasm:  Nuclear envelope:  Ribosome:  Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum:  Secretory Protein:  Nucleolus:  Transport Vesicles:  Endomembrane Vesicle:  Golgi Complex:  Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum:  Lysosome:  Mitochondria:  Microfilaments:  Microtubules:  Cilia:  Flagella:  Central Vacuole:   Chloroplasts:  Gap Junctions:  Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells  What organisms are made of prokaryotic cells?  List differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells  What is the one variety of cellular organelle that prokaryotic cells have?  What are the five parts of eukaryotic cells?  What is the difference between cytoplasm and cytosol?  Animal Cell’s Protein Protection  Where does DNA exist and where is it put together for doubling?  How does mRNA get from the mRNA to the cytoplasm?  What is the mRNA’s destination? How does it get there?  Why is the rough ER rough?  What is the difference between free ribosomes and rough ER ribosomes?  What are ribosomes mostly made of?  Explain the development or “creation” of a ribosome  How are proteins transported?  What happens once proteins arrive at the Golgi Complex?  Cell structure outside the protein production path  What happens to materials a lysosome cannot break down?  Where is most of the heat in our bodies generated?  What are the three parts of a cytoskeleton?  What role do these 3 parts play?  The plant cell  What are some things a plant cell has that an animal cell does not?  What takes up 90% of a plant cell’s volume?  Why don’t animal cells have cell walls?  What are cell walls formed from?  What organisms have chloroplasts?  Cell to cell Communication  How do plant cells communicate?  How do animal cells communicate?  What is the difference in plant and animal cell communication? Chapter 5  Define the following:  Phospholipid:  Phospholipid Bilayer:  Integral Proteins:  Peripheral Proteins:  Receptor Proteins:  Glycocalyx:  Plasma membrane:  Hydrophobic:  Hydrophilic:  Diffusion:  Concentration gradient:  Osmosis:  Hypertonic:  Isotonic:  Hypotonic:  Active transportation:  Passive Transportation:  Simple diffusion:  Facilitated diffusion:  Exocytosis:  Endocytosis:  Pinocytosis:  Phagocytosis:  The nature of the plasma membrane  How are plasma membranes different than other membranes?  What makes the plasma membrane flexible?  What are the four components of the plasma membrane?  Between phosphates and lipids, which is hydrophobic and which is hydrophilic?  Explain the rule like dissolves like and how it applies to the phospholipid bilayer  What would happen to the cell if it didn’t have cholesterol?  Where are peripheral proteins often found?  Diffusion, Gradients, and Osmosis   What is a common tendency for any solute?  What is the result of a hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic fluids in relation to a cell?  What are the two types of transport?  What is the energy for these transports?  Moving Larger Substances  What are the two methods for moving large substance in and out of the cell?  Explain the process CME does  Explain how unicellular beings take in food with Phagocytosis Chapter 6  Define the following:  Energy:  Potential energy:  Kinetic Energy:  Thermodynamics:  The First Law of Thermodynamics:  The Second Law of Thermodynamics:  Entropy:  Exergonic Reactions:  Endergonic Reactions:  Coupled Reactions:  ATP:  Enzyme:  Substrate:  Metabolic Pathway:  Metabolism:  Activation Energy:  Catalysts:  Active Site:  Coenzymes:  An Intro to Energy  List four types of energy   What is a consequence of Thermodynamics?  Give an example of how living things contribute to the universe’s entropy?  What role does ATP play?  What protein facilitates almost every chemical process in living things?  How do enzymes lower activation energy?


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