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HIST_102_Study_Guide_Exam_1.pdf History 102

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These notes cover what's going to be on our first exam.
World Civilizations II
Mr. Richard E. Frankel
Study Guide
history, enlightenment, french revolution, socialism, Liberalism
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicolette Notetaker on Friday September 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 102 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Mr. Richard E. Frankel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations II in History at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 09/16/16
Highlight – Key Term, Highlight- Other Important Figures, Highlight- Key Concept, Highlight – Keyword HIST 102- World Civilizations II The Enlightenment: Week 1  The Enlightenment Period Terms: Issac Newton, Sapere Aude Brief Background:  The Enlightenment Period- signaled the start of “modern” era (when new innovations were found; before tths perioth Europeans did not find much variation until the 18 and 19 century - also when things such as “natural phenomenon” began to occur - the scientific revolution (the predictions, analysis, and experimentation, which lead to theories) & the Enlightement pd. correlated with one another (when breakthroughs were discovered by man)  Notable Figure of the Scientific Revolution  Issac Newton (an innovator who discovered physics and mthhethtics; his era of prominence was around the late 17 -18 century - he established things like the “laws of motion” and had major influence in the Scientific Revolution (where the world began to adapt to new changes be brought about) - before this time, most people thought the universe functioned due to the existence of God  and now, the existence of God became much more passive around this time a. religion had much smaller impact during this period, “secular” b. individuals began to practice “Deism” (in this case, religion was not completely overlooked, but focused more on the institution of the church and supernatural effects c. Thomas Jefferson- modified parts of the Bible which he believed were not superstitious enough or situations that could not be explained by science  (this was known as an “Enlightened rational approach”) What was the Enlightenment and some of its challenges? o Enlightenment- known as an “intellectual period”, which occurred during the 18 century, and its intent was to “ apply reason” to the society we inhabit o This was also a period where humans can adapt to certain conditions of what rules or principles should govern our world; a sign of improvement. -Example: History  significant progress for Enlightenment scholars - led to a number of general norms to explain rational thinking, (specifically pertaining to things like equality with phrase “All people are created equal”  individuals are capable of thinking rationally - In the process of this era, many people were believed to be unable to think logically  now, the main task was to remove those limits in order for more people to think in a rationalized manner  (similar to task of “freeing” others) o Key Figure of the Enlightenment period – Immanuel Kant, an East German who wrote the essay, “What is Enlightenment?” (about the liberation of an individual from their “self-imposed” tutelage [being informed about yourself from someone else, accepting what’s being expressed] o Suggested motto  Sapere Aude  means “dare to know”; beginning to question things and when you should question the world around you - (Ex: slavery realize its awareness, and you either question and evaluate it) - This movement began as a small movement which eventually increased, and many of its members developed their status in society; at the time, most peasants could not join and it was mainly composed of merchants (who were middle-class) - Newspapers carefully were “narrowly focused” on and read by the majority of merchants; was composed not only of everyday info but also concepts, proposals, and some forms of literature - The coffee house  an area people could meet to discuss ideas with others; coffee was a fairly new product to Europeans and it gave you an ample amount of energy - Homes of well-known individuals  known as “salons”  area in home and some were known as “hot spots”; most of these people usually lived in cities (which made traveling and commuting much easier) a. began to see mostly woman who participated in hosting the salons b. Ex. Henriette Herz – a Jewish woman who managed a prominent Berlin salon c. More women began to have a number of roles similar to a man in this type of establishment. Enlightenment, Religion and Emancipation I. Europe as ‘Christendom’ II. The Jews as ‘other’ III. The Enlightenment and the Promise of Change Terms: blood libel & patent of toleration I. Europe as “Christendom”  at the time was tremendously Christian; even though there were a form of reformation, Christianity still remained ‘dominant’. -Average people  believed Christanity was the way in which they saw the world around them and their status in society, which was essential to them - the position of the church and the clergy was notable in most societies like France, where various branches/setups contained various rules for each division) -was also essential in the way politics was structured  the concept of “divine, right monarchy” (when the queen/king reigned because they believed God granted them the authority to do so; the Church also “affirmed” this structure) -For instance, the overall ruler of the monarchy was head of the Catholic Church in places like Spain, Russia, France, and England. II. Jews as ‘Other’ (Experience of the Jews up until the Enlightenment) 1. There was a constant struggle among the Jews and Christians  initially it was believed that Jesus lived and died as a Jew (others also believed this) a. then, a group of Jews branched off and formed their own religion, Christianity (this group believed that Jesus was the ‘Messiah’, while other Jews didn’t believe this notion) - For example, The Gospels was a document written by individuals with different viewpoints regarding the events after the Crucifixion  focused on the split between the Jews and the Christians. This document became a form of hostility because the Christians believed the Jews were at fault for the Crucifixion and would be cursed for years to come because of this situation. b. In the 4 century, the Roman Empire adopted Christianity, which caused some disagreements among Christian individuals. - a religious ruler, St. Augustine, said Jews should be obliterated, but should instead be degraded/disgraced in some form since they were responsible for the death of Jesus (this was their form of punishment) - 1 instance – Jews forming their own establishments, separate from the rest of society c. Suddenly, urban life began to decline, the economy started st recover, as well as religious revival. - 1 instance – during the Crusades (1096)  the series of attacks on the Jews, who were given the option of converting to Christianity or dying; as a rndult, thousands of Jews died st - 2 instance- economic development of the 1 millennium  there was the demand for money, more opportunities for Christians to prosper  this drove Jews to the reduced area of economy, such as money-lending; Jews became linked to things like money and greed; this was a result of an increasing Christian population d. Jews were portrayed in false accusations, such as pictures; was untrue. 1. first accusation  where it was believed Jews would abduct Christian children, crucify them, and drain them of their blood -known as “blood libel” 2. second accusation torturing/brutalization of the host  believed Jews would take them and then stab them with a dager  Where transubstantiation emerged  how to maintain order and faith within the Christian Church? = Alleviating your projection of doubts and blaming it on others 1. when accusations take place, it will always resort to violence and have serious implications 2. Jews weren’t granted control of where they lived without first getting consent from a legal ruler through document; this also meant they coulthbe th removed from the places they lived (12 -13 century) 3. In some German and Italian parts, Jews lived in crowded,“ concentrated” areas, which became ‘centralized’ and blocked by walls  this became known as a ghetto -other Jews chose to settle in Poland further east of Europe; they lived a better life and had control over their own affairs, then eventually Russia where majority ended up (when Russia overtook Poland) III. Enlightenment and the Promise of Change (in terms of the Enlightenment, Should they integrate into our society? o Significance of the Enlightenment (von Dohm) o Early signs of change st 1. Von Dohm’s perspective from 1 reading- His diagnosis: Enlightenment view (late Enlightenment period)  methods used in which ‘fundamental situations’ were put forth for debate in the depiction of Jews  which was negative  He agreed with the Jews’ position in society; (placed into this type of environment (which leads to phrase where this group became “a product of their environment’)  in the end, we (non-Jews) have no one but ourselves to blame for overall situation  Main point of argument  deals with “environment”  if you eliminate those conditions, and alter the environment, eventually everything will normalize and function just like other people (concerning Jews) -some Jews opposed this view, others affirmed this view since it allowed them to adapt to society -the reason why others failed to see it this way because part of adapting would also mean forming into everything that was based on Christian belief (Exactly how far would you have to adjust in order to adapt to society?)  Ultimately main question during the Enlightenment period, How much should an individual adapt? At what point does giving up certain practices mean you’re no longer considered Jewish?) 1. Early signs of change began with Joseph II, an Enlightened ruler who formed the “Patent of Toleration”, which afforded some rights to non-Christian individuals in society, but not to a place where the rights were considered totally equal to others; formed in Austria - didn’t last because he died and his successor decided to revoke these rights; it wouldn’t be “emancipated” until the 2 nd half of the Emancipation The French Revolution I. Long-Term Trends II. On the Eve of Revolution III. Revolutionary Acts IV. The Revolution Takes Shape V. Death of the Monarchy VI. Terror is the Order of Day VII. Napoleon & the French Revolution’s Global Reach Terms: Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen, March of Women, Maxilmilien Robespierre, Levee en masse, Napolean Bonaparte International Trends 1. Military costs rising 2. Strained finances 3. Discontent, questioning of legitimacy 4. Taxes squeezing lower orders -involved finance issues  due to military and its advancements in technology and innovative defensive systems -war instruments/tools were becoming more costly - the further your army expands when taking over new territory  striking costs of the war  (resulted in more monetary funds) -Ex. Known as the 7 Years War (in Europe) and the French-Indian war (in America), was a pricey war in both places a. since the British spent vast amounts of money, and they had to find other sources of revenue (squeeze resources) by  taxing the import and export items of the North American colonies; this contradicted phrase “no taxation without representation” (because of this other individuals didn’t have the opportunity to voice their opinions about this matter In France 1. considered an absolute monarchy 2. society of legal privilege 3. changing political culture (part of globalized environment, big changes) -France’s political structure consisted of an absolute monarchy  system where the king ultimately had more authority to rule an area and where the king also tried to increase his power at the expense of taxing  also based mainly on heredity -Ex. Louis XIV (14 )  most prominent French king because of his ability -society in France was based on a hierarchical system (1 -king, 2 nd– clergy, 3 -everyone else; in all, it didn’t matter how much wealth you obtained, this system was based on birth and nobility 1. each state had its own guidelines  “fundamentally unequal” -During the Enlightenment period  was idea of “divine right” (why was government formed? Should individuals have different positions in society?)  As a result, this weakened the social structure and political structure’s foundation II. On the Eve of the Revolution o The monarch o Growing debt o Aristocratic resistance King at the time was Louis XVI (16 )  took the throne at 21 y.o., and was just 35 y.o at the time of the Revolution; known as a good-natured, religious fellow who took his position as leader of the Catholic Church very seriously; he was not concerned with government 1. was leader during time of extreme financial crisis; this extensive debt was much harder to pay off 2. others began to propose finding other sources of income, such as the noblemen and clergyman who normally didn’t pay taxes 3. conflict ensued when Louis XVI created a reform plan in 1788 to be approved by Parlement (a court staff of ‘nobles” who granted stamps of noble decree)  they rejected the king’s reform plan because they did not feel it was necessary to pay taxes with individuals who did 4. Parlement agreed to let estate’s general to deliberate this (the estate’s general was somewhat a type of representation who dealt with financials issues similar to this 5. Both Parlement and the general decided to meet in the spring of 1789  this led to the French Revolution (made it meeting possible, but would lead to unintended outcomes III. Revolutionary Acts o Calling the estates general o The Third Estate Acts o Storming of Bastille (07/14/1789) - in calling upon the estates general, issues had to be addressed and Parlement wanted consider and discuss matters as they did in 1614 (in this matter, each estate had one vote (1 estate- king/queen, 2 ndestate- clergymen, 3 estate- everyone else) - some issues: led to looking over/ignoring the third estate (general population of everyone else who had to pay taxes); most people were apart of the third estate (98%); unfair and unequal representation in voting - possible solutions: “doubling the estate”- where the 3 estate would receive twice as many votes, and each person would have an opportunity to vote Abbé Sieyes –composed,“What is the Third Estate?” (2 ndreading -very important regarding the concerns in the French Revolution and what’s going on at the time - discussed issues of equality, eliminate divisions -also noted that the third estate is very important how it’s a nation of people -includes examples of Enlightenment, which was extremely popular at the time -in piece says that elections are held after and the king allows the estate to “double the third” At the Meeting Place 1. the three estates meet in Versailles, France 2. unfortunately, the other estates decided to vote by each estate 3. the third estate decided not to participate; this quarrel between estates was str six ndeks 4. after the 1 and 2 estates are declared to only be apart of the national assembly Start of the Revolution th 1. occurred on July 14 , 1789 and the implication of these steps made a far greater revolutionary change 2. on July 17 - the third estate declared themselves a national assembly th 3. on July 20 - they found themselves locked out of meeting place; they decided to move meeting to the tennis court; from that point on, these members all made an oath to remain unified until they compose the written constitution for France  this was known as the “Tennis Court Oath” 4. The Tennis Court Oath (June 29, 1789) modifications where the king had limited power and the power would ultimately be determined by the people (people were source for legitimacy of the government and this legitimacy had to be approved  known as the concept of “popular monarchy” (a political system will be modified in some way) Around this time on July 1 , the king sent 16,000 troops to monitor Paris in order to still main control. Revolutionary Acts, cont. o Now, people began to believe the rumors that occurred from the oath and what was occurring during the revolution; the majority of people didn’t know what would result from the new changes taking place. o Storming of Bastille  Middle-class citizens of Paris formed a group where they obtained weapons, and formed a militia (in order to defend the National Assembly)  Looting began: July 14 , 1789, and some members of this armed group made their way to the Bastille in Paris, France  a fortress  Only a minor confrontation ensued when they arrived there (inmates were released, some shots were fired)  Some citizens of Versaille were concerned that this event may resort to violence.  The National Assembly took matters into their own hands and decided this group was brave enough to take matters into their own hands to bring change and maintain control. The National Assembly favored the group’s decision and choices. IV. The Revolution Takes Shape 1. The Great Fear and the Night of August 4 th  The King (Louis XVI) arranged himself with the people, in a way to remain just as equal with others.  He also assigned aristocrat and noble, Lafayette, as head of the Third Estate’s National Assembly. (this was unusual since he was considered a noble, but he supported the Third Estate and was for the people)  Another aristocrat who took an unusual stance to support the Third Estate but was from the first estate was a man named, Abbé Sieyes. -he published “What is the Third Estate?”  As word spread about the Storming of the Bastille, the Revolution began to take form. - a series of events in which peasants in the countryside began to rebel and committed violent acts like attacking chateaus, which were owned by nobles, and burned remaining records - When this information spread to others, this triggered an event known as the “Great Fear”. - On August 4 th– a large number of elites from the 2 nd estate gave up most of the privileges they were afforded, and by nightfall most of the feudal privileges had been relinquished 2. The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen  By August 26 , the National Assembly accomplished their first step for the Constitution (the preface).  This was known as “The Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen.” a. its ideals  human rights (rather new idea) -form of equality -idea of popular sovereignty -decision-making is made amongst the people, not from nobles -preservation of rights afforded to humans in a political society which contain the qualities of liberty, property, protection, and resistance to oppression b. in the ends, the rights belonged to every individual despite their status or upbringing  brought on the sense of “universalism”. (*women were still not apart of this constitution but were considered) 3. The March of Women o there was a major food shortage, chaos in the countryside because of this, black markets were created  there were some women in Paris who wanted to discuss these issues at City to see if there was some sort of solution o Solution  marched to Versailles to go see the king to see how this problem could be resolved - march occurred in October 1789 - king actually listened to the women and moved by their stories; decided to release grains - Then the king, his family, and the National Assembly moved from the palace of Versailles to Paris (Paris- where midst of political issues occurred, more direct impact; Versailles – like a buffer to Paris, where you were able to accomplish more tasks) o The womens’ efforts made a huge impact on politics. The king and the National assembly wanted to pay off their debts by new enforcement of members of the clergy (this included taking their property, ultimately becoming the government employees  swearing an oath of allegiance to the state) - not favored among peasants who were very conservative & religious - if members of the clergy refused to take an oath, then a clergy member would be replaced with someone else - these new efforts caused a tremendous amount of frustrations - as a result, other people began fleeing to neighboring countries, thinking of new methods to aid the king and end the revolution 4. The Flight to Varennes  The Flight of Varennes  the king agreed to flee north in June 1791 with his family in disguise to meet with others who supported his effort and get out of Paris; unfortunately, this trip wasn’t successful because he was turned around in Varennes and directed to report to back to Paris  Others heard of what occurred; King Louis XVI was put back on the thrown and was not allowed to resign (at that point, his image was somewhat tarnished) -June 1791  Constitution is finished -September 1791  the Constitution was ratified and voted into effect (after 2 years of calling the estates’ general)  The revolution was far from finished. V. Death of a Monarchy 1. the War with Europe  The National Assembly was changed to a new legislative assembly, Parliament. This new legislative group was formed in September 1791.  (Parliament’s tasks)  how to handle the international situation of nobles who fled the country and other tensions that arose in France  April 1792  France announced they were going to war with Austria; A group of ‘revolutionaries’ known as the Girondins  expressed the most concern about their support for the war (the idea of rising up and claiming your rights)  Then, Russia joined France and soon after their were major problems during the war. Success didn’t look too good for France (this was because a numerous amount of the ‘officer corp. fled’ (nobles)  led to the radicalizing the Revolution and separating dividing lines between enemies and allies; caused a possible enemies within the group  also led to the concern over foes and suspicion over aristocrats and the noble family 2. the arrest of the king and the calling of the Convention  King Louis XVI’s wife, Marie Antoinette, was Austrian. Their marriage was arranged in order to unite both France and Austria, but currently they were at war and her nationality didn’t sit too well with the people of France.  On August 10 th, their was a revolt at the royal place, and this led to the arrests of the king and his family.  In result, a new constitution was proposed and written for France.  Elections took place and the Constitutional Convention met in September 1792  meeting place was in one of the royal palace rooms in France, the Tuilleries. - Constitutional Convention’s 1 resolution  dispose of the monarchy nd - Constitutional Convention’s 2 resolution  how were they going to handle the king? 3. Trial and execution of Louis XVI  The Constitutional Convention’s final decision in regards to the king  he was charged with conspiracy and convicted; (The King was not allowed to receive much defense)  January 1793  The convention chose to execute him ( and the deed was carried out 4 days later)  Form of punishment/execution  “The Guillotine” an Enlightened method of ‘capital punishment’ formed in order make execution methods less barbaric. VI. TERROR IS THE ORDER OF DAY  Spring 1793: Situation Dire - the convention sought to deal with the current situation of France; this group decided to form a Public Safety Committee (usually composed of 12 members)  another committee was created, the Committee of General Security (similar to secret police, and was created in order for its members to monitor how the population could be observed) - anyone who went against any one of these committees would be brought forth and sentenced to death from the tribunal  Robespierre joins the Committee - Maximilen Robespierre was assigned to the Public Safety Committee in 1793; others viewed him as a dictator but this committee was actually took his duties as a Public Committee Member very seriously  was formally a lawyer, but now known as a ‘new modern professional revolutionary’ - Also one of the lead members of “The Mountain” (Jacobins), this group implemented ideas of the revolutionary, a democracy, and the Enlightenment period  The Convention votes for Terror - Spring 1793  the Girondians were removed from the Convention; this event hindered the process of the revolution - Then, the Convention votes for the Terror to be the new order of the day  in times of chaos, this new group chose to take strict, decisive measures. - During the decision to vote for the Terror, the constitution was completed (very democratic ideals); in result, Robespierre decided to put hold on the constitution and agreed to focus on how to stop their enemies. - The terror formed new laws on price control  “Law of Maximum”  designed to set price ceilings - 2 ndlaw under the Terror  anyone who didn’t obey the new price regulation would be put to death for “prdce gauging” - 3 law under the Terror  “mobilize nature into its entirety” by the Levee En Masse  approach of recruitment, such as a military draft for men eighteen years and older a. paid professional soldiers to fight b. men were chosen at random to fight for France  proved to actually be a successful method (France won the war) c. cons- some groups were planning to rebel against the government - June & July 1794 —1300 people were killed by the Guillotine  Robespierre’s fall and end of the Terror  This led to uncertainly for followers and members associated with Robespierre; no one knew who would be executed next from his line of associates.  July 1794- Jacobins and the Girondins formed an alliance; next, Robespierre and his colleagues would be arrested and sentenced to death within the day.  This event led to the end of the Terror movement. VII: NAPOLEAN AND THE FRENCH REVOLUTION’S GLOBAL IMPACT  The ride of Napoleon Bonaparte Napolean  known as ‘product’ of the French Revolution; he came from a lower-level aristocratic family in Corsica; also in charge of the Office Corp, a notable military leader  How he became a General  appointed by governor’s Terror during Robespierre’s governing  Characteristics of Napoleon  good self-promoter, up-and- coming military leader (began with victory battle in Italy and won most of the battles he was involved in); politically interested in France  Imperial expansion  First, he set out to Egypt with troops to battle in the late 1700s-early 1800s; he then found a way to “smuggle” himself out of Egypt in order to succeed in overthrowing the government (Overthrow of Consuls)  Able to remain as consul/diplomat for life; in 1804, he crowned himself as Emperor of France.  Napoleon began to: institutionalize his own views regarding the revolution; he codified/arranged laws.  Impact known to others as the first modern military leader minimized most aspects concerning freedom of the press even though he did some things other citizens of France didn’t necessarily agree with, he was prominent in society because he helped structure France Napoleonic Europe -involved the spreading of France’s borders into other areas -spread expanded German territories, Italian territories, and the area what is now known as Poland  Napoleon had authority over the majority of Europe.  1807  made an agreement with Russia, and finalized the embargo against the British; unfortunately, the Russians pulled out some time after.  1812  Napoleon formed a huge army to invade Russia; this led to his downfall (*lost many troops, and he made it back to Leibzig, since he was defeated by other countries)  Then, he was exiled to two other countries. He returned to France in 1815 when the Waterloo defeat occurred; then he was sent off to an island in the South Atlantic.  Left tremendous legacy  this set the image of military dictatorship, militarianism (which helped expand the ideas of the Revolution and helped to ‘stimulate’ it. Industrialization and the ‘Social Question’ I. Industrialization II. The Social Consequences of Industrialization III. Liberalism & Industrialization IV. Rise of Socialist Thought V. Emergence of Marxist Thought Terms: Enclosure, laissez faire, Karl Marx, Freidrich Engels I. INDUSTRIALIZATION– first occurred in England in the 1760s, somewhat similar to the Enlightenment Period, and both were transformative 1. An Industrial Revolution?  this period occurred gradually spread (although nd th unevenly) in the 2 half of the 18 century  this was an occurrence where: man was able to produce more efficiently and at an faster rate than ever before due to; basically “dramatic advancements” that happened because of increasing production  because of the Industrial Revolution changes in the way people interacted in society, the transformation of rural areas to big cities (urbanization), and life in general led society to advance 2. Why Bsttain?  1 reason England was chosen: Natural resources - coal was very abundant there  which was an essential resources for transportation and fuel  2 nd reason England was chosen: Agriculture -before the Industrial Revolution, agriculture was pretty prominent on this island because of its own “agricultural revolution” in which groundbreaking farming techniques and tools made farm work easier -agriculture was more successful (in economic terms) because of scientific development - since agriculture become more lucrative, this encouraged farm owners to produce more  one solution: wanting to add more land to the estate they already owned by making it “available public land” a. as a result of this, nobles wanted to add more land to their own estates and decided to enclose it  known as the “Enclosure” movement ; ultimately, the nobles wanted to expand their own estates, which allowed them to earn more $$$ -this action was obtained legally through Acts of Parliament, out of (pure self-interest) since most of the Parliament committee was mainly composed of nobles -the estates were largely comprised of “earned profit” (made investment possible); also enabled new products, as well as new establishments, etc. - Land of Elite  legal system formed by nobles in order for them to still obtain wages; government allowed them to form their own accord  this is an example of the “laissez faire approach” (let it be)  where they decided not to interfere with the economy in regards to the elites, the pursuit of wealth and allowed individuals to keep all the benefits for themselves  The social structure before the French Revolution: in (hierarchical system, and it was very difficult to move up in society)  Compared to England – (divisions more “permeable” in their hierarchical system); made it more probable to move up in society (and under a range of actions such as a business arrangement or a method of Keeping Up With the Joneses in this case the nobles) and also it was possible fall into the lower orders II. THE SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES OF INDUSTRIALIZATION 1. The Factory  Mainly composed of textile factories; an extensive, huge industry with a vast number of people who work there  Cons of the factory  no form of safety regulations, kids were allowed to work at factories (no-age working requirement), inhaled “toxic fumes”  these conditions were all due to the “laissez-faire” approach” Factory owners were only concerned about saving money and wanted their employees working very long hours there. Pros of the factory  Much more was able to be produce, rather than just quality (“mass- production”), took place all throughout the year, more flexible, the creation of the bell whistle – altered view on time 2. The Railroad  Allowed transportation to be easier and faster, allowed easier forms of trade between other countries  Further demand for resources like coal and iron needed in the coal-mining and engine industry.  (heat was used to make the train function  In result, the railroad also generated a large number of professions within the locomotive industry (workers needed to form and obtain the structure of the railroad tracks, workers needed for railroad stations)  amounted to significant structures that placed importance on trains in creating other forms revenue there  Helped to develop the countryside and urban areas.  The railroad also aided in the creation of “universal standardized times”  led to the formation of time zones to be used worldwide III. LIBERALISM AND INDUSTRIALIZATION 1. Liberalism’s debt to Enlightenment - Reason  Liberalists  had similar viewpoints with Enlightened thinkers, viewed themselves as “heirs to the Enlightenment”, (their viewpoints were formed in order to uncover discoveries in human society)  Liberalists (regarding the idea “as an individual”)  rights were afforded to humans through elements like equality and popular sovereignty - Progress  Politically speaking liberalists were not democratic  they disputed over who had the opportunity to vote and what limitations should be place on who could exercise this right  only considered those who were able to think rationally as being part of the representative government who could vote 2. Liberal economic principles -importance of the individual -laissez faire (competition in free markets = progress)  Economically speaking, also related to rational members of society.  said these individuals will always attempt to “maximize their wealth” to become prosperous (refers to “individual pursuit of wealth”  in result, this “drives the economy”  converts to “free market” (if you succeed, you are allowed to move up in society and earn money, but if you fail, you cannot move up in society) 3.Liberalism in the French Revolution  the idea of a limited constitutional monarchy  main concept : equality  believing that people had the option of overthrowing the government if they see fit to  a form of legislature that represented the people  getting rid of nobility and the feudal system IV. THE RISE OF SOCIALIST THOUGHT 1. Debt to Enlightenment -Science -Progress  ideas of socialism were similar to the ideas of liberalism  both Enlightened thinkers and Socialist thinkers perceive themselves as “heirs to Enlightenment thought”  had strong views in progress  this led to the belief of man’s capability (because things like wealth and technology made it possible now)  they were also surprised of mass-production and realized the potential was there now to advance in society 2. Problems with Capitalism -Concentration of wealth -unfettered competition  the majority of individuals didn’t understand the benefits that went along with this technology, since most of the benefits were distributed among a very small group of people - this led to the “extreme” distribution of wealth at the top (only a few were able to attain this)  because of unfettered competition - unfettered competition also led to price drops, business declines, many people were released from their jobs, and sometimes resulted in a recession) st  then, a varied group of individuals in the 1 half of the 19 century believed this system could be broken by reform and revolt  Marxism nd Would become very prominent in the 2 half of the 19 th century, but had to work their way up in the 1 st half of the 19th century (they started out very small), so Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels began to form methods to end the conflict with capitalism through their own ideas and solutions  Karl Marx (1818-1883) - from West Germany (which was occupied by French forces during the Revolution)  emancipation of Jews, some Jews began to convert to other religions, while other Jews were allowed to participate in more things than ever before) - came from a middle-class Jewish family (his father converted to Lutheranism, and had Karl baptized) - studied at the University of Berlin where he studied philosophy, but turned to journalism after graduating (working for a radical newspaper that advocated early reforms of Socialist Thought - from 1815-1848  during this period, it was not a really an accessible environment but a very repressive environment; major form of censorship regarding political ideas - because of this, he left West Germany and moved to Paris, “the home of the revolutionary” and continued to express his socialist/journalist ideas and while there he met Friedrich Engels  Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) -also from West Germany -but different family background from Marx  came from upper-class family of successful industrialists -Engels offered to serve as a reserve officer in Berlin, and he also attended classes at the University of Berlin (took many philosophy classes, often wore uniform to class because he was proud of his service/status, his viewpoint was also based on socialism -he also wrote under another alias, which talked about socialism, and he submitted them to Karl Marx (radical newspaper company); Marx did not initially know it was him -1843-1844  father sent him to learn about the factory business (because this industry was meant to be passed along in the family) -it was there that he observed the dangerous and poor conditions regarding the factory workers, as well as the conditions they lived in -he went back to Paris and met up with Karl Marx, where there formed a partnership a. Engels returned to West Germany and wrote a book, which was very influential among the socialist circle b. in the book, critics of capitalism was also obtained by official documents of the government about the worker conditions in the factories (made the book very credible and believable) V. THE EMERGENCE OF MARXIST SOCIALISM 1. Communist Manifesto -Critique of Capitalism -explanation of history 2. History progresses through stages - economic relationships define each stage - Contradiction emerges -Contradiction resolved through violent upheavel -new historical stage emerges with new economic relationships -socialist stage brings ends of exploitation  in 1847, Marx and Engels’s group met with others to establish “The Communist League”  Both Marx and Engels were assigned to compose a statement of purpose -Marx published the “Communist Manifesto” in 1848  focused more on the early socialist ideology and the understanding of history itself in this piece, along with the statement of purpose; very extensive as it was originally thought to be a short statement - it did not have much impact until the revolution broke out in France History progresses through the stages:  Both Marx and Engels agreed  capitalism did not reveal the true value of workers’ labor  Owners only paid workers a percentage of what they were owed, but enough wages to keep them functioning vs. “true value” (which owners keep the rest of the money owed as profit)  because of their own self-interest  As you accumulate wealth become wealthier and wealthier  led to an increasingly smaller but increasing bourgeoisie  A group of people, known as proletarians, began to notice they were being exploited by owners, and recognized the unfair conditions brought upon them They began: -overthrow ownership of factories by violent uprising -then, take control over the factory and pay each other, distributing the wealth equally (resulting in an equalizing/balancing situation) - Karl Marx  “product of the Enlightenment” through his view of history and how its advanced through different stages of development (mainly created from economics) Through the first stage of slavery and the second stage feudalism  contradiction &conflict emerges -this issue gets resolved by violent upheaval  form of new economic stage of development Cycle begins again with new set of powerful leaders and individuals who are still at the bottom:  Cities resurface and comprised of urban dwellers, middle-class individuals like merchants  These groups were still not apart of the system (wanted to claim rightful status in revolution)  leads revolution in overthrowing lords, and now these new groups became the dominant force -new relationship existed between: the bourgeoisie (capitalists) and the worker  capitalist society Socialist stage brings end of exploitation:  Essentially, the same conditions still exist (rich get richer, poor get poorer)  The new group (poor individuals) rise up against the owners, overthrowing their ownership and land, and thus ending exploitation by distributing the wealth equally amongst each other (idea of Socialist change)  These ideologies provide answers to describe what takes place. - Liberalism  if you’re not doing well in society, then you have failed to overcome the marketplace (reflection of your ability) - socialism  because it’s not a totally free market, this gives an individual the opportunity to advance in the end and work your way up, and the rising class will eventually lose.


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