BSC 215 Lab Exam 1 Study Guide
BSC 215 Lab Exam 1 Study Guide BSC 215
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordana Baraad on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology I in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Lab 1 Units 4: Intro & Microscopy—less than 1/3 of exam Two different types of lenses on light microscope: – Ocular lens – Objective lens Parafocal: should stay in focus (for the most part) after switching from lower to higher magnification power important parts: condenser: concentrates light on specimen (lens beneath the stage) aperture: hole in stage where light passes through iris diaphragm: regulates amount of light through the specimen lenses (ocular and objective): magnify specimen magnification ocular (in eyepiece): 10x objective (rotating): 4x40x scanning: 4x low power: 10x high power: 40x oil immersion objective: 100 x total magnification: ocular (10x) x objective (4x40x) image appears upside down and inverted Working distance: distance between the specimen and the bottom of the objective lens Determine w/ mm ruler Field diameter: Necessary to estimate the size of objects viewed (Fig. 4.4) Field diam (lens B) = [field diam(lens A) x total mag(lens A)] / total mag (lens B) Derived from ratio/ proportion Depth of field: When looking at a large, or layered object, not all of it may be in focus at the same time Proper Microscope Handling Use two hands when carrying: one on the arm and other supporting the base (Fig. 4.2) Keep cord wrapped around and not dangling Clean the lenses only with lens paper provided Make sure you always begin on the lowest power objective when using the microscope and during transport o on higher power, use only the fine focus knob As you move from lower to higher magnification… Field diameter decreases Working distance decreases Amount of light required increases Resolution increases to a point Lab 2 (~1/3 exam) Unit 3: bonding chemistry, water, pH, buffers Hydrogen bond: Forms when slightly + charge on a hydrogen atom of one polar molecule is weakly attracted to the slightly – charge of an atom of another polar molecule Typically O, N, or F Intermolecular bonds in water—gives it unique properties Ionic bond: attraction btwn positive (cation) and negative (anion) ions Hydrophilic compounds Covalent bond: electrons shared between molecules Nonpolar covalent: electrons spend equal time around each atom (ex. H ) 2 Hydrophobic compounds Polar covalent bond: electrons spend more time around more electronegative atom (ex. hydrogen bonds in water) hydrophilic compounds Water’s 5 properties 1. Universal solvent Doesn’t dissolve everything—but most biomolecules o Ionic and polar 2. High heat of vaporization. Why sweating helps cooling the body! 3. High heat capacity. Absorb or release large amounts of heat while T changes only slightly 4. Reactivity. Participate in many chemical reactions. 5. Adhesion/cohesion. e.g, surface tension. Cohesion: sticking to self o Ex. forming a puddle o Reduced by surfactant in lungs Adhesion: sticking to other surfaces o Moving up xylem and down phloem in plants pH • Measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions • pH= log[H+] • Water breaks into H+ and OH ions • Neutralization rxn: Acid + Base salt + water • acids: release H+ ions increasing [H+] of the solution • bases: accept H+ ions decreasing [H+] of the solution • salts: when acids and bases mix • contain cations (+)other than H+ and anions () other than OH ex. NaCl, KCl, etc. buffers: act as acid or base to stabilize pH o when pH drops, binds H+ to make solution more basic o when pH rises, releases H+ to make solution more acidic Experimental Takewaways Ethanol boils faster than water bc water has high heat of vaporization Exercise increases blood CO2 which decreases blood pH Soap decreases cohesive effect of water Surfactant decreases cohesive effect of water in lungs Absence lung collapse Correct infant respiratory distress syndrome (IDS) by administering surfactant Unit 5: Cellular Components and Transport Basic Components 1. plasma membrane (PM) – Surrounds cell, defines boundaries – Made of proteins and lipids – Selectively permeable 2. cytoplasm (a.k.a. intracellular matrix (ICM)) Cytosol – Fluid portion containing water, solutes, enzymes, and proteins • Cytoskeleton – Filaments that give structure, support, and locomotive abilities • Organelles – Specialized cellular components with a variety of functions BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY MAJOR ORGANELLES & FUNCTIONS Cellular Structures and Functions: Ribosome: protein synthesis RER: protein synthesis/ transport SER: lipid synthesis; detoxification Golgi apparatus: protein modification/ packaging Mitochondrion: ATP synthesis Lysosome: enzymatic brkdwn of wornout organelles and other substances entering cell Peroxisome: detoxifies toxic substances Centrosomes (w/ centrioles): organizes mitotic spindle dur cell division/ replication Cytosekeleton Microtubules: support cell; give shape; components of centrioles, cilia, flagella; form spindle apparatus dur mitosis; organelle transport intermed filaments: strengthen cell; support shape; stabilize organelle positions microfilaments: anchor cytoskeleton to integral proteins of PM; cell motility Cellular Adaptation Erythrocytes: no nucleus Cardiac muscle fiber: intercalated disks; lots of actin and myosin Neuron: axons and dendrites (fingerlike projections) Sperm cell: flagellum for motility Transport Types Thru PCM • Passive: substances cross the membrane without the cell expending any energy. • Diffusion • Simple: unassisted net movement of particles down concentration gradient • Facilitated: channel protein assist above process • Filtration: substances thru semipermeable membrane via hydrostatic pressure • osmosis: Special type of diffusion across a selectively permeable membrane • Movement of a solvent from an area of higher water concentration (lower solute concentration) to an area of lower water concentration (higher solute concentration) • Active: requires the cell to expend energy (ATP) • ex. Na/K pump (not covered in this lab) Tonicity Isotonic: same solute concentration in solution on either side of membrane Hypertonic: higher solute concentration in solution outside; causes net water loss Hypotonic: lower solute concentration in solution outside; causes net water gain Experimental Takeaways “normal cell” maintains (or only slightly gains) weight in .9% NaCl solution “defective cell” has net weight gain indicative of effect of defective Cl channels in CF patient thicker mucus Lab 3 (1/3 – ½ exam) Unit 6: Histology Tips for narrowing down identification 1. look at the ECM/ cell ratio If mostly cells—probably epithelilial If lots of ECM—probably connective 2. Look at nucleus shape Stretched horizontally—squamous Very round/ balllike—cuboidal Stretched vertically—columnar Very distorted—likely transitional Other tips to help w/ identification 1. Cardiac muscle is muscle cross section most likely to be tested Intercalated disks are their defining feature—identify them 2. If there are cilia, you are looking at pseudostratified columnar epithelium 3. Domed on top: transitional epithelium 4. If looking at tubule… Around most of the tuble, mostly simple cuboidal epithelium At the most rounded parts, simple columnar epithelium Pointer pointing into flat row different from the surrounding tissue… simple squamous epithelium sperm cells also found in seminiferous tubules flagella can be hard to identify look for white space—it’s likely in there has leaflike appearance 5. orientation relative to basement membrane… epithelium is above connective tissue is below 6. adipose has nuclei pushed to side—cells are mostly white space 7. reticular tissue doesn’t look like lab manual diagram, at all 8. in connective tissue, dark purplish spots are fibroblasts, NOT nuclei 9. distinguishing btwn types of cartilage… from most to least densely packed… elastic > hyaline > fibrocartilage hyaline v. fibrocartilage fibrocartilage recognizable by cells clumped together helpful if cells more densely packed than lab manual ex. 4 basic types of tissues: –Epithelial –Connective – Muscular – Nervous All have 2 main components: 1. Cells (unique to tissue type) 2. Extracellular matrix (ECM) (contains ground substance) Epithelial tissues structure – Supported by connective tissue beneath the basement membrane – Avascular: no blood supply – Regeneration – a lot of friction, need to regenerate if well nourished Function: cover and line surfaces Protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion Classification – By thickness – Simple: One layer of cells attached to basement membrane – Stratified: 2+ layers of cells – By shape – Squamous – Flat and scalelike – Cuboidal – Cube shaped or squared – Columnar – Column shaped and tall Structure/ function/ location (only need to know one per CT type) Structure Function Location Simple squamous elliptically shaped cells filtration and diffusion Kidneys—Bowman’s with flattened nuclei capsules, glomerulus Lungs—alveoli Circulatory system— endothelium Simple cuboidal Cubeshaped protection (against Excretory ducts Large, central nucleus abrasion, foreign Misc. organs/ glands particles, bacteria, and Kidneys—tubules excessive water loss); Ovarian surface absorption; transport Lungsbronchioles Simple columnar Cells longer than wide Absorption, protection Most prolific cells in the Large, circular nucleus, constant regeneration body oriented closer to basement membrane, Digestive tract, female sometimes innervated reproductive organs, nasal passage. Stratified squamous Flat, compact, scalylike Protection against Epidermis, esophagus cells. mechanical and physical Can be keratinized or damage, chemical nonkeratinized. damage in the esophagus Stratified cuboidal or Commonly twolayered Protection; secretion Rare columnar (but can be Linings of large ducts multilayered) (salivary, mammary, Circular nuclei that sweat glands) appear stacked. Transitional Stretchy Distension to allow for Walls of ureter, bladder, Constriction dome water filling cavity urethra shape Stretching flat shape Pseudostratified Typ covered in cilia Secretion, absorption, Trachea, vas deferens 1 row of misaligned movement (thru ciliary and epididymis, cells action) endometrium in females can tell it’s not multiple rows bc all touch basement membrane Connective tissue Function • Protects, supports, and binds together other tissues of the body, i.e. bone, cartilage, etc. Structure • With the exception of cartilage, connective tissue is highly vascularized • Typically have few cells extensive nonliving material (matrix) between cells of connective tissue 3 main components o 1) Elastic and/or collagenous fibers (3 main types) 1. Collagen fibers provides tensile strength 2. Elastic fibers gives tissues distensible properties (stretch, compress) 3. Reticular fibers Network for support o 2) Ground substance (gellike substance with extracellular matrix) o 3) Cells (specific to cell type Classification • Connective tissue proper o Widely distributed throughout body o fibroblasts secrete ECM o many fiber types (collagen, elastic, reticular) o Highly vascularized o 4 subtypes – Loose (areolar) – Structure: – Cell type: fibroblasts – Fiber type: – thinelastic fibers – thicker collagen fibers Primarily ground substance. – Location: (most widespread) walls of hollow organs Surrounds blood vessels, nerves, and muscles Part of lamina of digestive and respiratory tract – Dense – Regular CT – Structure: – Fiber type: Primarily parallel collagen fibers – Thin nuclei run along fibers – Good for Resisting unidirectional stress – Function: Resists tension and pulling from a single direction – Location: Tendons and ligaments – Dense Irregular CT: – Structure: – Fiber type: collagen (closely packed) – Randomly arranged – Resist stress from every direction Location: Deep layer of thick skin (dermis), around joints, submucosa of digestive tract – Reticular Structure: Cell type: fibroblast Fiber type: reticular fiber (type III collagen) Function: gives support to soft organs – Location: Spleen, lymph nodes, bone, liver – Adipose – Cell type: Adipocytes consisting of fat (lipid) droplets – Nuclei at point of adipocytes – Location: Deep to the skin; surrounding heart and abdominal organs – Adaptation: consist of primarily adipocytes • Cartilage o Tough, flexible tissue resistant to tension, twisting and compressive forces o Cell type: Chondrocytes; housed in in lacunae o Avascular • 3 subtypes 1. Hyaline structure: fiber type: collagen (Large amount) Cell type: chondrocytes; found with the lacunae of ECM Chondrocytes are often found in pairs, location: Tissues in the ear, nose, trachea, larynx, and small respiratory tubules Synovial joints. Rib connection to sternum 2. Fibrocartilage structure: fiber type: collagen (spongier) cell type: chondrocytes; found in lacunae (often aligning) function: shock absorption location: ligaments, intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis, knee disks 3. Elastic Cartilage structure: fiber type: elastic (tightly packed) cell type: chondrocytes embedded in ground substance function: great dispensability/ flexibility to withstand bending location: Pinna (outer ear) and epiglottis • Bone o structure: o Hard calcified matrix o many collagen fibers o rocklike o very vascularized o cell type: osteocytes; lie in lacunae o Location: bones throughout body (obviously) o function: Supports and protects, calcium storage, rbc / wbc formation, mech movement • Blood o structure: o cell type: Red blood cells (erythrocytes) & white blood cells (leukocytes) ECM called plasma contains platelets, fat globules, gases, proteins, and hormones Red blood cells: donutlike, smaller than WBC’s White blood cells: larger, filled in o Function: Transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, waste, and other substances; immune response Simple Simple stratified Stratified Stratified Pseudostratifie Transitional Squamous Cuboidal Squamous Cuboidal Columnar d Columnar # cell 1 1 1 2+ 2+ 1 2+ layers Shape of Flat Round Stretched Flat Round Stretched Flat or nuclei round Defining Cilia#1 layer, Dome feature but looks like shaped multiple; multi cells level nuclei Commonly Confused Samples and How to Differentiate Elastic v. hyaline cartilage Much higher density in EC Simple squamous v. adipose Simple squamous is smaller Adipose has nuclei pushed to corners (in blood) RBC’s v. WBC’s WBC’s have nuclei Loose CT v. nerves Loose CT looks more like paint splatters away from cells
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