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UF / Communications / ADV 3001 / What is broadcasting?

What is broadcasting?

What is broadcasting?

Description

School: University of Florida
Department: Communications
Course: Introduction to Media Industries
Professor: William renkus
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: RTV 3001 ∙ Study Guide ∙ First Exam Sept 22
Description: Traditional mass electronic media. Pioneers: know the significance of their contribution to the development of radio, television, cable, the internet, etc. You will not be expected to recall specific
Uploaded: 09/17/2016
13 Pages 11 Views 8 Unlocks
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Ora R Knopik Study Guide


What is broadcasting?



RTV 3001 ∙ Study Guide ∙ First Exam Sept 22 

Topics 

● Traditional mass electronic media. 

● Pioneers: know the significance of their contribution to the development of radio, television, cable, the internet, etc. 

● You will not be expected to recall specific dates: have an understanding of general periods and events that help illustrate important trends or developments. 

● The exam will consist of 50 multiple choice questions,covering material reviewed during class (including the “Empire of the Air” documentary) and in the assigned readings – Chapters 1, 4, & 5. 

OVERVIEW 

1. Telecommunication​: dissemination of messages over a great distance.


What is telecommunication?



2. Broadcasting​: the distribution of seeds (comes from an agriculture synonym). It is when a noun (person, place, thing, or idea) goes from one source to many other outlets. If you want to learn more check out bus 401 week 1 assignment

3. Recent trends in media ownership:

a. Commercial structures: media does not exist within a vacuum. US media is influenced by capitalism and US culture.

b. In the US: We have a ​free market system with limited government regulation.

c. Convergence: when corporations or national entities consume and consolidate smaller technologies. The big fish swallow the little fish and grow bigger. There are three different types:Technological, economic, cultural.

4. What are technological, economic, and cultural convergences? 

a. Technological convergence: T​ he rapid interchangeable aspects of technological products.


Who is alexander g. bell?



b. Economic convergence:​ The merging of media corporations.

c. Cultural convergence:​ shared values, beliefs and practices influenced by how we create, consume, and distribute media Don't forget about the age old question of What about more than one trait, each inherited independently (not linked)?

5. Traditional Content vs. On Demand Content:

a. Traditional content:​ a programming director decides what viewers would see and when. (Little input from viewers.)

b. On demand content:​ audiences can time shift and decide what they want to see (Netflix, VCR, DVR)

6. Functions of Electronic Media: 

a. Surveillance​: journalism and information.

Ora R Knopik Study Guide

b. Correlation​: What the media does to help frame what’s happening, putting events into context and giving meaning to them. (Journalism, advertising, etc can help shape ­but not hypnotize­ public opinion.)

c. Cultural transmission:​ how information spreads from one generation to the next about cultural norms (what is socially acceptable or cool, the rules of society.)

i. Sometimes these can cross internationally. How do you know what to wear when you wake up in the morning? “You all look the same.”

ii. Includes socialization/culturalization which helps move us forward and be more accepting of others.

d. Connection​: Connectivity: Fear of Missing Out (FOMO). We also have a 24/7 instantaneous media environment. So we are always plugged in and the media is mobile, as well as the relaxation ­ Entertainment­ ​and companionship o​ f a cell phone. News. Don't forget about the age old question of central michigan university psychology

TELEGRAPH, RADIO, AND MUSIC

7. Weaknesses of wired communication: 1) concern of construction, lots of wires and 2) maintenance is complex.

8. Samuel Morse:​ invented the Telegraph in the ​middle of the 19th Century

a. this destroyed the distinction between space and time. The first telegraph went from DC to baltimore “What hath God wrought?”

b.  First electronic media to become very successful.

9. A​lexander G. Bell​: Invented the telephone in the mid to late 19th century : now people can send voice from one place to another.

a. Like the telegraph, the telephone supported itself through commercial means, and they are point to point communications (source to receiver).

10. H​einrich Hertz​: demonstrates that electromagnetic energy exists and can be transmitted between two points. 

11. Guglielmo Marconi: ​Started experimenting with radio transmitters and receivers. Eventually he developed a powerful wireless business.

a. His electronic waves first traveled through the air across the house to ring a bell. Eventually the pulse distance grew. If you want to learn more check out calculus 1 pitt

b. The idea was rejected in Italy, so he went to England where it was patented in the very end of 19th century as the “wireless telegraph.” He became a

multimillionaire and expanded to America.

12. Initial uses of radio before broadcasting: It was used on boats and helped to prevent maritime disasters

Ora R Knopik Study Guide We also discuss several other topics like sdsu medical terminology
Don't forget about the age old question of brian goegan

13. Titanic and its affect on radio regulation and shipping industry: The Titanic had radio operators on board! A telegraph operator was onboard, but there was no one on the telegraph key to call for help. This was within the law at the time. So in 1912, over 1,000 people perish.

a. The law at the time: Wireless Ship Act of 1910 (f​ irst radio law): a ship had to have somebody on the telegraph key, but did not specify that you had to be there for more than 8 hours.

b. Consequently: Congress is spurred to action = Provisions Radio act of 1912:​ Regulatory Authority to Secretary of Commerce: Set frequencies and hours of operation (24/7), Had to issue License on Application in order to use electronic media.

14. Reginald Fessenden:​ (20th century), first person who was credited with transmitting voice and music through the air (it was very faint).

15. Lee De Forest’s Audion:​ Credited with the “Audion”​ a glass enclosed tube that amplified weak radio signals. It harnessed electromagnetic waves. (Lawsuits against him, including Marconi’s American company.)

16. Navy and WWI’s effect on radio development: The Navy took control of all radio operations in the US and assumed all responsibility for patent infringement. They also installed radio equipment in all ships. =  eliminated competition and improved technology at a rapid rate.

a. Business interests began to realize that broadcasting could make money.

b. Many radio operators received training during the war. They came home and became ameteur radio operators called “HAM radio operators.”

17. Formation of RCA: emerged as Radio Corporation of America after WWI with experimental stations. Over time it became a huge player in US media for years to come after taking controlling interest of American Marconi. Later controlled by David Sarnoff. 

18. Significance of KDKA: ​in Pittsburgh started an uninterrupted service since 1920. 24/7 radio with regularly scheduled programming. Still exists.

19. Telephone group and toll broadcasting: Radio stations had to figure out how to pay their bills.   The telephone group’s answer was “toll” broadcasting, in which businesses would finance a broadcast in exchange for being mentioned on the radio.

20. Radio group:  Their answer to the “bills” question was the development of indirect support and set the template: how to make money off of American media? = Advertising.

21. RCA­AT&T Agreement: AT&T bows out of radio because of internal questions and gov’t concerns related to their Jingoistic behavior:​ nationalism in the form of aggressive foreign policy

Ora R Knopik Study Guide

a. AT&T RCA Agreement: AT&T leaves broadcasting to do telephone and gives up monopoly claim. WEAF (flagship radio station) sold to RCA for 1 million = true birth of RCA.

22. David Sarnoff: started NBC in 1926. NBC began radio network broadcasting, overseeing two radio networks.

a. He was a Russian immigrant boy who climbed the corporate latter of Marconi to NBC, he foresaw one person talking to millions. He was called the “boy wonder of Radio” because he was the radio panic calls from the titanic.

b. He sought to make the radio a household utility like the piano or the phonograph. He wanted to bring music into American homes.

23. Creation of NBC: RCA corp establishes NBC radio network: it unites the entire nation, people are listening to the same programs across the nation.

a. NBC red, NBC blue

24. Creation of CBS: Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS): 1927, bought out by William Paley​ Family: brands his network as the Tiffany Network (“high quality network”). Invested into fine journalism. Drove CBS to prominence

a. CBS becomes very successful = 3 big networks

25. Edwin Armstrong: greatest inventor of the 20th century: Regeneration of radio: everyone could hear messages louder and clearer

a. Understood science unlike De Forest

b. “Compromise” was not in his dictionary, he was always fascinated by great heights, obsessed with wireless from a young age.

c. Armstrong demonstrated his invention for the chief inspector of Marconi ­ David Sarnoff ­ who said it was the “most remarkable receiving system in existence.”

d. Superheterodyne Radio:​ The first portable radio, changed the world 26.  State of regulation and radio waves for broadcasting in the 1920’s 

a. By the early 1920s in the US there are: 6000 amateur radio stations and 4600 commercial stations so interference became a major headache (so many stations and so much licensing available)

b. Regulations needed because there were more stations than frequencies, some stations ignored the rules and some had bad equipment. The industry was poorly organized.

27. Provisions of Radio Act of 1927: Assumed the radio spectrum was a national resource.  Individuals could not own frequencies. Provisions:

a. Licensees would have to operate in the public interest.

Ora R Knopik Study Guide

b. Gov’t censorship was forbidden.

c. Established the Federal Radio Commission to regulate broadcasting (has 5 members)

d. Solved the growing interference problems and had the authority to determine licensees and placed an emphasis on local stations. Bedrock of media regulation in the US.

28. Federal Radio Commission (FRC) and the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934: FRC becomes FCC and superseded the Radio Act of 1927.

a. The FCC was a permanent body established to oversee regulation of wireless and wired communications.

b. Plus, it anticipated future growth of a variety of telecom industries.

29. Use of “Fireside Chats” by Franklin D. Roosevelt: Great depression: Roosevelt a​ sked for radio time on Sunday evening to tell the American People how he and they would handle the problem. He explained Banking to everyone. FDR’s fireside chats established that presidents have to talk to the masses as individuals, after FDR, presidents had to be personable.

30. NBC Break­up & formation of ABC: NBC controlled two networks: Telephone group and Radio group.  Here are their progressions. 

a. Telephone group ­­ NBC red ­­ NBC ­­ NBC Television

b. Radio Group ­­ NBC blue ­­ ABC ­­ ABC/Capital Cities ­­ Disney/ABC 31. Radio’s programming response to TV’s popularity and growth in 1950s and 1960s: 

a. TV becomes a viable competitor in the 50s and people were stopping to talk about radio.

i. Impact on radio (J curve): changes the format of broadcasting (shows die, but music, news, and talk grows): radios turn to specialized audiences = fragmentation of american culture

b. ADAPT OR DIE = get on the tv band or get out

c. TV brought the radio and record industry closer (giving away free music?) d. Radio stations became more dependent on local revenue

32. Role FCC in development of FM: Howard Armstrong invents the regenerative circuit, Frequency Modulation,​ (a different radio system, gets rid of static that AM channels have.)  in 1934

a. David Sarnoff (RCA) gave him space at the top of the empire state building to experiment with FM. In the end, Sarnoff decided not to support FM​ because all

Ora R Knopik Study Guide

of the radio equipment would become obsolete and in the 30s in addition to RCA’s desire to develop tv.

b. Armstrong decided to develop FM alone: he broadcasted and licenced others to broadcast. FM caught on.​ Sarnoff belatedly offered 1M to own the rights to FM. Armstrong refused. So Sarnoff hid FM from the world.

c. WWII halted the development of FM

i. Armstrong offered his help to the war effort (so he donated FM to the US government)

1. FCC changes the FM band, on the electromagnetic spectrum

because TV would go over FM.

33. Radio in the 21st century – deregulation, personalization: 

a. Consolidation:​ 20th century ­ radio station ownership diverse, loss in shares. Deregulation in 1990s consolidation among a few large corporations (a few big businesses own all of the stations).

b. Radio Today:

i. Clear Channel (texas): owned over 1,000 radio stations out of 1,600

1. Now called iHeartMedia si ​ nce has sold half of its radio stations ­

goes private

ii. Declining terrestrial revenues: people just don’t listen like they used to

1. But: there is cautious optimism for growth because of digital

revenue

iii. Personal radio stations (slacker, pandora, spotify)

1. Blurring of subscription, download, and traditional radio

iv. Satellite Radio: uses digital signals broadcast from a satellite, beaming the same programming across a wide territory

34. What  is the first mass media not based on print? Recorded music 35. “Tin Pan Alley’” & The British Invasion: 

a. Tin Pan Alley:​ the top of the industry that supplies the disk, eventually to be called records. It was a popular music producer and promoter. It was close to vaudeville, so it had employees who worked for both vaudeville and TPA.

b. British Invasion: R​ edefining Rock

i. 1960s, The Beatles, the Who, the Rolling stones

Ora R Knopik Study Guide

ii. 1970s known for glam rock and punk rock

iii. 1980s for heavy metal, pop, and rap

iv. 1990s for alternative/progressive rap

36. Who  was Berry Gordy? He started Motown Record Co:​ motor city, detroit. He produced Smokey robinson, diana ross & The supremes, Marvin Gaye, Stevie Wonder and the Jackson 5 all recorded with Berry Gordy’s Record company.

37. Music today: creation, promotion, distribution: New business models b/c of internet technology: downloads, subscription services (change in the amount of revenue that goes to the artists), freemium: some free content, but monthly subscription.

a. Creation: record labels sign talent

i. Artist royalties traditionally 10%

ii. Most releases sell fewer than 5,000

b. Promotion: getting heard

i. Traditionally on radio (payola: DJs paid to play artists records ­ illegal)

ii. New strategies: artists can make their own videos and make money from it.

c. Distribution: sale to customers

i. Longtail ­ selling a few of many items can be bought

ii. Digital media changing distribution: now material is online

iii. Easy to download and copy

FROM: “EMPIRE OF THE AIR: THE MEN WHO MADE RADIO” DOCUMENTARY

38. Although DeForest liked to claim credit for the first radio broadcast of voice and music, who made the first known broadcast of voice and music on December 24, 1906? Reginald Fessenden: w​ as credited with transmitting voice and music through the air (it was very faint).

39. Who was given credit for inventing the Audion Tube? Lee De Forest. 

40. During his younger years, who set out to discover exactly how the Audion Tube worked? Edwin Howard Armstrong

41. What two inventors were involved in one of the longest court battles involving patent rights?  Edwin Howard Armstrong and Lee De Forest. 

42. Who was the individual that invented FM radio? Edwin Howard Armstrong

Ora R Knopik Study Guide

43. What did Armstrong do, after having his idea for FM radio turned down by Sarnoff? Armstrong decided to develop FM alone: he broadcasted and licenced others to broadcast.

44. After Sarnoff belatedly offered $1,000,000.00 for the rights to the FM System, what did Armstrong do?  He said to Sarnoff “suck my cock.” and created the "Yankee Network" and told Sarnoff that he had to pay a fee for rights to FM. 

45. What did Sarnoff do after the FCC decided the audio band for television would be carried by FM waves? Sarnoff at RCA screwed up Armstrong’s equipment and it becomes obsolete, but Armstrong gets royalties anyway but was paying off legal fees to sue RCA claiming that antitrust laws protected him.

46. When and where did Sarnoff announce the existence and development of television? RCA demonstrates TV at 1939 world’s fair in NYC

47. Did Armstrong's problems, caused by Sarnoff, affect his personal life? If so, how? Yes, he basically lost his mind over time and all of his money, his wife, his drive, his health. He had snapped. He jumped to his death.

48. Who possessed a knack for looking over another inventor's shoulder, taking what had been developed, adding something to it then claim to have developed a completely new revolutionary electronic device? Lee De Forest. 

49. Who eventually won the patent court battle between Armstrong and DeForest? Ultimate victor Armstrong. Armstrong’s wife carries all of his litigation, it takes her 15 years but she wins all of them.

FILM

50. Who invented the Kinetiscope? Thomas Alva Edison in the late 20th century

51. What were the contributions of the Lumiere brothers to film development? They patented a camera that could shoot, record, and then project it. (Notes: film was a strip of plastic. The camera was small enough to be portable (suitcase sized), they used their camera to show real life).

52. What  were the contributions of Griffith, Flaherty and Eisenstein to film history? 

a. Griffith: Film Language: uses close ups for effect, changes in speed, cross cutting: changes in locations, AKA the beginnings of modern editing. Solved all of the aesthetic problems of film making in just 20 years.

i. His greatest film: Birth of a Nation (exceptionally racist, but an

exceptionally well made movie at the time = a mega hit), a break with the patent of the Edison Trust.

ii. Established Hollywood as a place to make motion pictures.

b. Flaherty: (1920) The first non fiction movie: Documentary

Ora R Knopik Study Guide

c. Eisenstein: Film is a universal kind of medium. Looked at Griffith’s works: the sum of the smaller pieces amounted to a larger whole: Montage (rapid

intercutting of short clips).

53. What was the first sound film in the USA? Begins with the Jazz Singer in 1927: not a lot of talk in it, but had sound a​ s well as film and it revolutionized the film industry. (Note: Sound technology was bulky, so it limited freedom for filming. AKA sound films were more stilted now.)

54. Why was the American film industry described as a “star system?” Hollywood wanted a celebrity system so that audiences could be enthralled with people in films. We identify with our stars

55. What is different about an independent film? Films that are made outside of the Hollywood system:

56. What are the advantages and disadvantages of digital film distribution? Digitization ​has had profound effects on the movie industry: it saves money, yet increases the potential for piracy.  It has also introduced product placement​ in place of advertisements.

TELEVISION

57. RCA television is an all electronic scanning system largely credited to the work of:

a. Vladimir Zworykin: ​worked for RCA

i. RCA’s electronic lab used Zworykin’s iconoscope and Farnsworth’s image dissector camera

b. P​hilo Farnsworth​: compared to Armstrong, was an independent inventor. Understood as a teenager how the electronic scanning system will work.

i. Invented a system that broke pictures into lines of light and dark; it

scanned across a phosphorus coated screen just like you would across a page.

ii. Attempted to establish a TV corporation, but RCA froze Farnsworth out and prevented him from being successful. Then WWII intervened, and

his patents expired in 1947, RCA takes the patents.

58. Mechanical vs. Electronic Scanning: 

a. Mechanical: invented Germany in 1884, revolving a disk with tiny holes.

b. Electronic: developed in the US in the 1920s. An electron gun shoots beams of electrons to capture pictures.

59.  Role of RCA’s Electronic Research Laboratory: Together their system combined Zworykin and Farnsworth's inventions to create a successful electronic scanning system. 

60. At the age of 14, who provided a design for television on a school blackboard? Philo Farnsworth

Ora R Knopik Study Guide

61. Which inventor won the early patent battle concerning television and how did they respond to RCA’s request to buy the rights to the patents? Farnsworth won the early patent battle concerning TV and he asked RCA for continuous royalties.

62. Which decade did Sarnoff believe TV would be in most people’s homes? Why didn’t the launch of TV happen under this timeline? In the 1930s. However, this launch didn't occur as fast because there was no public demand and no way to reliably send the signal by broadcast. Further development of TV was interrupted by WWII

63. What type of problem did early TV actors experience in the studio/on set? Everything was live originally for TV, everyone involved had to be on their game always. (other cons: Intensely hot lights and pancake makeup)

64. Which network had their standard for color TV initially approved by the FCC? Why was this standard changed? Which company was eventually granted the standard for color TV?  Color was a new technology by CBS, but would have made technology obsolete, so the FCC replaced CBS mechanical standard in 1950 with RCA’s electronic standard in 1954.  Color TV doesn’t take off until mid 1960s.

65. What company helped to develop communication satellites? 

66. Formation of NTSC Standard: Early NTSC standard was Black and White, they also set a standard for the number of lines and frames per second in the U.S.

67. TV Freezes during and after WWII: VHF was getting full because there were so many tv stations. So there was a freeze on TV licenses until a solution was found to stop interference (static).

a. Solution = creation of the UHF system on TVs to make more channels. 68. Sixth Report and Order and Channel­Allotment Plan:

a. Channels 2­13 on VHF

b. 14+ on UHF

c. A table of channel assignments was created (TV guide) which structured the provision of TV service to all parts of the us

69.  What was the first TV program to record on film: I Love Lucy

70. Origins of early TV program formats: originated from the formats of radio programs. 

71. what were some of the challenges and characteristics of Live TV: the producers and actors couldn’t make mistakes. 

72. How did the growing popularity of television impact radio, film, dining, and sports  in the 1950’s?  National attendance for all of these events decreased. 

73. What were the consequences of the Quiz Show Scandals? People lost trust in television.  There was no longer any sort of blind following. Reforms enacted: prize

Ora R Knopik Study Guide

money is capped, no longer a single sponsor, audience must be informed if contestant obtained assistance.

74. McCarthyism and Blacklisting: 

a. M​cCarthyism, ​right after WWII, fear of communist subversion fueled the career of wisconsin senator Joseph McCarthy​ who constantly and bombastically accused people of being spies in his Senate subcommittee for communism.

b. 1950s era of blacklisting: g​ etting rid of someone because you are a suspected communist or you did not name a suspected communist.

75. Red Channels: Red Channels listed 151 show biz people with supposed communist ties.

76.  Cultural and sociological impact of TV in the 1960’s  (“The National Hearth”): Television emerges as primary source of news and information 

77. What was the first “television war”? Vietnam 

78. What was the impact of satellite technology on electronic newsgathering? 79. Cigarette advertising ends in 1971 to protect the public good 

80. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS): a nationwide network programming for universities to create educational programming. 

81. How did TV content change in the 1970’s? 

a. 1971 Congress bans advertising of cigarettes.

b. Government is afraid of oligopoly: so, Financial Interest/Domestic Syndication Rule (fin­syn) 1970

i. Mandates that networks can only produce 3.5 hours of 22 hours in prime time

ii. Fragmentation: Power shifts to independent production companies iii. Fin­syn expires in 1995 because there is deregulation

iv. One of the first big cracks in the Big 3

c. Prime Time Access Rule 1971

i. 7:30 pm to 11 prime time

ii. Mandates return of 7:30 to 8 pm to local affiliates for programming, big three had to relinquish these times

iii. Power shifts to syndicators

iv. PTAR ends in 1995

d. Escapist comedies and tv in the late 1960s give way to more realism in the 1970s =more hard hitting realistic shows that deal with issues

e. Growing popularity of cable = competition for broadcast television

f. Videocassette recorders become popular. = hurt big 3

Ora R Knopik Study Guide

82. Development of new TV broadcast networks (e.g. FOX, UPN, WB): New tv broadcast networks came about in the 1980s because audiences wanted more and the major networks weren’t delivering. 

a. Brought about UPN for minority audiences, WB for teens, and FOX and MyNetworkTV 

83. Effects of satellites and cable television on broadcasting: Lead to more fragmentation of the audience and more competition for advertising dollars. Satellites allowed the setup of networks to provide info from all over the world.

84. What were the effects of Fin­Syn 1970 and PTAR 1971: Power shifts from broadcast networks to independent production companies and syndicators. 

85. What is a rating​? cThe estimate of the size of a television audience relative to the total universe, expressed as a percentage. The estimated percent of all TV households or persons tuned to a specific station. 

a. How to calculate Rating: (Households tuned into a given program) / (all households with tv) X 100

86. How has Television been affected by recent economic, technological and legal trends in the 21st century? 

a. Job loss, content changes, and new revenue streams = more business mergers who are fighting for available “real estate” on the spectrum. 

CABLE TELEVISION & SATELLITES 

87. CATV’s origination and initial uses: “Community Antennae TV” allowed people in rural and fringe areas could now pick up cable TV by installing an antenna in a high location. Wires would run down from the antenna to the homes. 

88. How is cable different than broadcast? 

a. Cable has to come through a wire, and these wires had be strung and installed. i. uses no space on the spectrum. 

b. Transmissions are different, broadcast can be transmitted through the air (or through a wire), don’t need cables or a satellite antenna 

89. The development of pay channels (HBO): satellites developed pay channels, cable networks (CNN) and super stations which allowed cable networks to develop and distribute the same programming all across the nation. 

a. HBO (Home Box Office) rented a transponder on the communications satellite Satcom and announced plans for a satellite interconnected cable programming network.  They would transmit first­run movies to buy, and offered wide coverage nationwide at a low cost. It was the first pay service distributed by satellite.

Ora R Knopik Study Guide

90. Ted Turner ​and formation of cable­specific program networks including CNN: he founded CNN and used cable to turn ATL (a UHF station) into the superstation WTBS. 

91. What are some key events in the development of ESPN: ESPN covered exclusive events that no one else did. They merged with Disney and continue to have unique coverage and content. 

92. Why did cable growth surge in the late 1970’s and 1980’s: 

a. The Cable Communications Policy Act​ endorsed localism and established a system of community regulation tempered by federal oversight. 

b. Local communities became a major force in regulating cable. It exercised power through the franchising process. 

c. TCI ​invested in cable. 

93. 103. Significant deregulatory provisions of the Telecommunications Act of 1996: It Deregulated cable and television providers in the US so now TV can provide telephone services and telephone companies can offer cable. 

a. Also: lifted the national ownership limits in radio stations = consolidation in the media industries, and it allowed a single radio group to own as many stations as it wanted to 

94. Alternatives to cable ­ Home video – VCR, DVD, DVR, TiVO: 

a. VTR: video tape recorder 

b. VCR: Videocassette recorder­ the table model could record up to 1 hour of video 

c. DVD: digital video/versatile digital­ replaced videotapes as the dominant home video medium. Contained more content, has better picture and audio quality, and doesn't wear out after repeated plays 

d. TiVo: a set­top computer that collects info about what tv shows are on and when, and it will record programs. 

95. How has the development of communication satellites changed television? 

a. Communication Satellites: invented Arthur Clarke who ​theorized that global communications could be possible by reflecting signals off three satellites parked in orbit at equal distance from one another 

b. Development of direct broadcast satellite (DBS) services: ​ Provided for nationwide distribution of TV from a new generation of orbiting satellites to home dish receivers (over 200 channels from 4 competing organizations ­DirecTV, USSB, Echo Star, and Dish Network.)  This was another alternative to cable TV. 

96. DBS consolidation to two providers: Mergers and acquisitions = DirectTV and Dish Network dominating the field

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