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OSU / Behavioral Science / PSYCH 3313 / what are the types of Highly Invasive Methods?

what are the types of Highly Invasive Methods?

what are the types of Highly Invasive Methods?


School: Ohio State University
Department: Behavioral Science
Course: Behavioral Neuroscience
Professor: Supe
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Behavioral, neuroscience, Psychology, and brain
Cost: 50
Name: Unit 1 Study Guide Psych 3313 Behavioral Neuroscience
Description: I went through the slide and my own notes to comprise all of the information that seemed relevant for the exam. There are the professors ideas and my own pieced together to hopefully further the understanding of the class!
Uploaded: 09/17/2016
11 Pages 9 Views 12 Unlocks

Unit 1 Study Guide Psych 3313 

what are the types of Highly Invasive Methods?

Chapter 1: Research Methods 

Highly Invasive Methods:

∙ Surgery (with stereotaxic device to hold the head steady)

o Ablation - removing a small part of the brain

o Lesioning - Damaging a small part of the brain, on purpose or by  accident

o Cannulation  

∙ Infusion / microdialysis - inserting a very small tube into the  brain and either putting in a chemical, or measuring output in the  brain

o Electrode implantation - to monitor parts of the brain

∙ Single unit / local field potential  

Staining and Imaging Neurons

∙ Histology - microanatomy of cells, looking at brain cells in a microscope, brain must be frozen and sliced and often processed and stained  

o Golgi Silver Stain - stains random single cells, shows structural  features

o Myelin Stains - stains axon / fiber tracts, shows connections in neurons o Nissl Stains - stains cell bodies / nuclei, shows layers

what is Histology?

Electrophysiological Techniques Don't forget about the age old question of What is the classification of amino acids?

∙ Electroencephalograph (EEG) - measures extracellular ionic flow from many,  many neurons

o Changes as behavior changes

o Some rhythmical patterns and some not

o Used during sleep, waking, consciousness

o Measuring cognitive or sensory behavior tasks

o Pros

∙ Fast, precise

∙ Non-invasive

∙ Low-cost

∙ Portable

o Cons  

∙ Poor signal localization

∙ Not effective for deep structures

∙ Magnetoencephalography (MEG) - measures neural activity  o Generates an electrical field and produces a magnetic field o Allows a 3-D localization of cell groups If you want to learn more check out In logic, a premise is what?

o Pros

∙ Measures function

∙ High precision spatial resolution

∙ High precision temporal resolution

∙ Non-invasive

o Cons

∙ Very expensive

∙ SQUID machine that is used to measure is very large

what is Myelin Stains?

∙ Computed Axial Tomography Scans (CAT) - combines x-ray images taken from different angles to create cross-sectional images

o Used for head injuries, strokes, brain tumors, brain diseases o Risk of radiation exposure  

∙ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - passes strong magnetic field through  brain, then radio waves, and measures movement from hydrogen atoms o Structural view  

o High resolution

o Better contrast than CT

o No radiation risk

∙ PET - image is produced by emissions from injected substances that have  been made radioactive

o Tracks changing activity If you want to learn more check out What is Research?

o Detects receptors

Chapter 2: Protecting the Nervous Systems / Peripheral Nervous System 

The Meninges - three layers that provide protection to the brain ∙ Dura mater

∙ Arachnoid mater

∙ Pia Mater  

Infection of the meninges - meningitis, can be fungal, viral, or bacterial  ∙ Symptoms and side effects are close to those of a migraine so often people  do not know they have this infection

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) - lines walls of the cerebral ventricles, made by the  choroid plexus  

∙ Replenishes the 100-150 mL of CSF 3 times a day

∙ Similar in composition to clear plasma of blood  

Hydrocephalus - "water on the brain" is caused by the blockage of CSF  ∙ Enlarged head

∙ Treated through a shunting process that can alleviate the blockage and let  CSF flow through brain properly  

Blood-Brain Barrier - tight junctions between endothelial cells and astrocyte end  feet along the capillaries  

∙ Protects brain from foreign substances, hormones, and neurotransmitters in  the rest of the body  

∙ Maintains a constant environment for brain, homeostasis  Don't forget about the age old question of what is Seller Tasks?

∙ Has very selective permeability

o Allows in

∙ Water, some gasses, lipid soluble molecules, glucose, amino  acids

o Does not allow in

∙ Large molecules, non-lipid soluble molecules, highly charged  molecules, potential neurotoxins, many drugs

It is very important to protect our brain!!!

Nervous Systems: Chart

If you want to learn more check out What are Milankovitch cycles, and what produces them?

Peripheral Nerves

∙ Afferent (sensory) - go toward CNS from sensory receptors Don't forget about the age old question of what is kinship?

∙ Efferent (motor) - go out from CNS to muscles and organs

o Cranial Nerves - need to know 9!!

∙ Olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens,  facial, vestibulocochlear / auditory, and vagus  

o Spinal Nerves

∙ Dermatome - area of skin supplied with afferent (sensory) nerve  fibers by a single spinal-cord dorsal root  

∙ Spinal cord segments are connected so other segments can  operate together to work complex coordinated movements

∙ The spinal nerve is mixed in a way that splits into

∙ Dorsal - sensory afferents

∙ Ventral - motor efferents

Autonomic Nervous System

∙ Split into sympathetic and parasympathetic  

∙ Controls things like

o Heart beat, blood pressure, respiration, perspiration, digestion ∙ Can be influenced by emotions

Sympathetic Nervous System

∙ Controls the fight/flight/freeze response

∙ Releases adrenaline and norepinephrine

∙ Raises heart rate and blood pressure and blood flow to skeletal muscles ∙ Inhibits digestive functions  

Parasympathetic Nervous System

∙ Lets us rest and digest

∙ Calms the body down in order to conserve and maintain energy ∙ Releases acetylcholine

∙ Brings down heart rate and blood pressure

∙ Stimulates digestion

Chapter 2: Central Nervous System 

The Spinal Cord Anatomy

∙ Includes 31 peripheral spinal nerves

∙ If you look at a cross section, you will see white matter (the nerve fibers) and  grey matter (the cell bodies)

Spinal Reflexes

∙ The patellar reflex - knee jerk reaction, when you hit the knee with a reflex  hammer it sends a signal through the sensory and motor neurons up to the  part of the spinal cord that is in charge of the knee movement.  

o The jerk reaction of the knee is from the ventral horn and the feeling is  from the dorsal horn

∙ Withdrawal Reflex - pulling your hand back from a flame or something painful o How does the pain and direction of impulse get registered?

Damage to the Spinal Cord

∙ Not good

∙ Can lead to loss of sensation, loss of voluntary movement, loss of control of  bladder and bowel

∙ Loss of voluntary movement happens at or below the damaged area, never  above

Division of the Brain

∙ Forebrain - telencephalon, diencephalon

o Cerebral cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia, thalamus,  hypothalamus  

∙ Midbrain - mesencephalon

o Tectum - dorsal half

o Tegmentum - ventral half

∙ Hindbrain - metencephalon, myelecephalon  

o Pons, medulla, cerebellum


Medulla - myelencephalon

∙ Relay between spinal cord and brain

∙ Role in vital processes - breathing, heart rate, blood pressure ∙ Contains the reticular formation

Pons - metencephalon

∙ Bridge between the cerebral cortex and cerebellum

∙ Role in sleep, arousal, audition, balance, and motion sickness ∙ Contains neurotransmitter nuclei  

o Serotonin, norepinephrine  


∙ Role in motor coordination, balance, and speech, and some cognitive  functions

∙ Controls the speed, intensity, and direction of complex voluntary movements Midbrain 

Periaqueductal Gray

∙ Natural pain management

Red Nucleus

∙ Motor output pathway

Substancia Nigra  

∙ Motor output pathway

Superior and Inferior Colliculi

∙ Visual gaze and localization of auditory stimuli


Thalamus - diencephalon

∙ Receiver of sensory and regulatory info

∙ Roles in states of consciousness, learning, and memory  

Hypothalamus - diencephalon

∙ Regulatory center - responsible for maintaining a constant internal state  (homeostasis)

∙ Also regulates eating, drinking, sex, biorhythms, temp control ∙ Control the pituitary gland - and therefore hormones

∙ Directs the autonomic nervous system

Basal Ganglia

∙ Helps to control and filter movement

∙ Role in implicit procedural memories - automatic processes like tying a shoe  Amygdala

∙ Key roles in threat detection, fear, excitement, and arousal  Hippocampus

∙ Role in spatial info processing

∙ Helps form new long-term declarative memories - what you know you know  Cingulate Cortex

∙ Anterior cingulate cortex  

o Role in decision making, error detection, emotion, anticipation of  reward, pain, and empathy

∙ Posterior cingulate cortex

o Role in eye movement, spatial orientation, memory  

The Neocortex

∙ 90% of the human cerebral cortex - the wrinkly outside part Cerebral Cortex

∙ Outermost part of the forebrain

∙ Role in sensory processing, motor commands, and higher brain functions ∙ Grey matter is superficial, white matter is deep

∙ 6 layers

o 1, 2, 3 - integrative functions

o 4 - sensory input

o 5, 6 - outputs to other parts of the brain

Lobes of the Cortex

∙ Frontal lobe (front of brain)

∙ Parietal lobe (top of brain)

∙ Temporal lobe (side of brain)

∙ Occipital Lobe (back of brain)

Contralateral Connections in the Brain

∙ Corpus Callosum - large band of fibers connecting and carrying info between  the cerebral hemispheres

∙ Anterior Commisure - small band of fibers connecting left and right  hemispheres

Chapter 3: Neurons and Glia 

Glia vs. Neurons

∙ Glia - primary supporting cells

∙ Neurons - primary functioning cells

Glial Cells

∙ Non-neural

∙ Outnumber neurons 9X

∙ Physical and functional support of neurons

∙ Different types of glia

o Astrocyte - transfer nutrients to neurons, clean up dead neurons and  form scar tissue after damage

o Microglial cell - first and main form of active immune defense in CNS  o Oligodendroglia cell - myelinates many (about 15) axons o Schwann cell - myelinates a single axon segment

Myelin Sheath

∙ The insulation type wrap around axons of a neuron

∙ Myelin makes the signals in a neuron go faster

o Whitish, fatty, casing

o Not present in all cells

Nodes of Ranvier

∙ The gaps in myelination of an axon

∙ Ions move through these nodes, the only place where the ions move  


∙ Sense molecules that are associated with cellular damage, digest the debris  of the damage

∙ First and main form of active immune defense in the CNS  o Help to decrease inflammation  

o Gets rid of infectious/toxic agents  

Microglia can be helpful but can also cause some problems

∙ If microglia are activated for too long or not activated in time it can  contribute to neurodegenerative diseases

o Diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis, and ALS  because they end up breaking down myelin sheaths


Parts of a neuron -  

∙ Cell body / soma - holds the cytoplasm, organelles, nucleus, etc.. o Cell body provides metabolic (energy) and synthetic (protein) support o It "gates" the information flow to and from other neurons o Integrates signals from input

∙ Neural Cytoskeleton -  

o Microtubles - they are responsible for the transport of  

neurotransmitters and other cellular products to and from the cell body o Neurofillaments - structural support to the axon

o Microfillaments - assist in reorganization of neuronal branches ∙ Neuronal Membrane - acts as a barrier / gatekeeper

o Defines the intracellular and extracellular boundaries

o Made of a phospholipid bilayer

o Contains protein molecules - receptors, channels/pumps, and  transporters

o Is selectively permeable  

∙ Dendritic Tree

o Receives input from other neurons

o There can be thousands of inputs  

∙ Dendritic Spines

o The protrusion from a dendrite that greatly increases the surface area  and is the point of contact with axons from other cells

o They are sensitive to the type and amount of synaptic activity that  happens

o In some cases these spines are broken down and degenerative  o The spines are also dynamic in terms of growth

∙ Axon

o Starts at the axon hillock (where the axon connects to the cell body) o Where action potentials are conducted

o Can be myelinated or unmyelinated  

o The diameters can vary based on species (squids are about 1000  larger than ours)

The Functional Classification of Neurons

∙ Sensory - carry info from the body to brain and spinal cord

∙ Interneuron - connects one neuron to another in the brain or the spinal cord ∙ Motor - carries info from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs  

Chapter 3 Resting Potential 

∙ Ions are charged particles  

o Cations (positive ions) - potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), calcium (ca++) o Anions (negative) - chloride (Cl-), protein anions

∙ A- and K+ ions are more concentrated inside the axon / cell (intracellular) ∙ Cl- and Na+ and more concentrated outside the axon / cell (extracellular)

Diffusion - when molecules move from areas of higher concentration to areas of  lower concentration

∙ This is known as a concentration gradient

The electrical gradient is based off of opposite charges attracting and like charges  repelling

There is equilibrium when the concentration gradient = the voltage gradient  

The Barriers to Equilibrium

∙ The cell membrane has a selective permeability

o The different channels and receptors control when and what gets in  and out  

Ion Channels are a protein structure in the cell membrane that allows ions to pass  through without using additional energy

∙ There are voltage-dependent channels (electrical)

∙ And Ligand-gated channels (chemical)

Along with the ion channels there are ion pumps - these are the protein structures in cell membrane that use ATP to move the ions across the membrane

∙ There are sodium-potassium pumps  

∙ And calcium pumps  

The Resting Potential of the Cell  

∙ When the cell has resting potential, it is negatively charged on the inside of  the cell with potassium and positively charged on the outside with Sodium ∙ The resting potential is at -70 millivolts relative to the extracellular side  ∙ The resting membrane is permeable to Potassium

∙ There are also occasionally some minimal leakage of sodium into the cell o The movement of ions can mess with the resting potential, so this is  maintained by controlling the movement of potassium ions with diffusion  of potassium out so overall there is no net change  

The Sodium-Potassium Pump

∙ Pumps 3 Na+ ions out for every 2 K+ ions it pumps in

∙ Consider what the state of the neuron is at rest?

∙ The concentration gradient, what do the molecules want to do based on this?

Chapter 3 The Action Potential  

Local Graded Membrane Potentials  

∙ IPSP (inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potentials)

o They are hyperpolarizing (more negative)

o During this time there is an inward flow of chloride ions and an outward flow of potassium ions

o NO action potential in this state

∙ EPSP (excitatory post-synaptic potentials_

o They are depolarizing (more positive)

o During this time there is an inward flow of sodium

o YES action potential in this state

Spatial Summation - combines all of the EPSPs and IPSPs that occur near in time but at different locations on the dendrite and cell body

∙ Basically will determine if there are enough EPSPs to outnumber the IPSPs to  result in an action potential  

Temporal Summation - combines all of the EPSPs and IPSPs that occur near in place  but at different times on the dendrite and cell body  

The Axon Hillock

∙ This is the junction of the cell body and axon

∙ It contains many of the voltage-gated channels  

∙ If threshold is reach the action potential is initiated here  

o The Threshold is necessary to trigger an action potential

o It is at about -60 mV but can vary  

o When this is reached it initiates the opening of voltage-gated Na+ and  eventually voltage gated K+ channels  

The Action Potential  

∙ Is a large but brief reversal in polarity of an axon

o Meaning the intracellular fluid become positive to the extracellular fluid ∙ Mediated by the opening and closing of voltage-gated ion channels

∙ SIZE AND SHAPE OF ACTION POTENTIAL REMAIN CONSTANT  ∙ All or none - either fires full blast or does not fire at all

Refractory Periods

∙ These periods limits how frequently the neurons can fire  

∙ They maintain unidirectionality of the signals  

Two different refractory periods:

∙ Absolute Refractory Period  

o This means the neuron CANNOT fire again

o The sodium channels are closed and unable to fire

∙ Relative Refractory Period

o This means the neuron CAN fire again but only with a stronger stimulus so action potential is less likely  

o Potassium channels are still open

How does the action potential go so fast?

∙ MYELINATION - this is a layer of glial cells that cover the axon that speed up  the transmission of information within the neurons

∙ Some cells are myelinated and some are not

Chapter 4 The Synapse 

Most common form of synapse (the one we focus on) is the chemical synapse ∙ Although electrical synapses do exist  

The chemical synapse..

∙ Is the junction where the neurotransmitters are released from one neuron to  another

∙ It either excited or inhibits other neurons (depending on the signals it  received from the neuron before it)

There are different parts to a chemical synapse  

∙ The presynaptic membrane - contains the protein molecules that will transmit the chemical messages

∙ The synaptic cleft - small space that separates the presynaptic terminal and  the postsynaptic dendritic spine

∙ The postsynaptic membrane - contains the protein molecules that receive the chemical messages

∙ The mitochondrion - An organelle that provides energy to the cell ∙ Synaptic vesicle - the round granule that contains the neurotransmitter for  transport

∙ The postsynaptic receptor - the site where the neurotransmitter chemical  messages bind

Synapses can be directed or non-directed

∙ Directed synapse - the neurotransmitter is released toward a single neuron ∙ Non-directed synapse - the neurotransmitter is released over a wide area in  order to effect many neurons

o This is called a volume transmission

There are two different varieties of synapses:

∙ Type I

o Excitatory  

o Usually located on the dendrites

o Round vesicles

o Dense material is found on the membranes

o Wide synaptic cleft

o Large active zone  

∙ Type II  

o Inhibitory  

o Typically located on the cell body

o Flat vesicles

o Sparse material on the membranes

o Narrow cleft

o Small active zone

What makes a neurotransmitter?

∙ Synthesized in the cell

∙ It is trigger released by action potential  

∙ It has an effect on the postsynaptic receptors

∙ There is a mechanism for inactivation that can stop their effects Neurotransmitters are either synthesized in the axon terminal

∙ Based on the food we eat that is pumped into the cell with transporters Or in the cell body

∙ DNA is made into RNA which is turned into proteins and they are transported  by the microtubules into the axon terminal  

The Steps of Synaptic Transmission

∙ Arrival of the action potential at the terminal

∙ Voltage gated Ca++ channels open and the Ca++ enters the cell (makes cell  more positive inside)

∙ Vesicles move to and dock on presynaptic membrane (preparing to release  the neurotransmitters into the synapse)

∙ Vesicles fuse with the membrane and release the neurotransmitters into the  synaptic cleft

∙ The neurotransmitter binds to the receptors on the postsynaptic membrane ∙ The neurotransmitters are cleared from the synaptic cleft (some go through  reuptake and are recycled in the neurons)

There are two types of postsynaptic receptors  

∙ Ionotropic - electrical

o Open channels directly

o immediate reactions are required for muscle activity and sensory  processing

o They are relatively fast and also relatively short  

∙ Metabotropic - energy

o Opens channels indirectly

o Uses chemicals called g-proteins to do so

o Relatively slow acting and has long-lasting effects  

G-Proteins are also called second messengers

∙ They are a chemical that carries a message to initiate a biochemical process

∙ They are activated by a neurotransmitter

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