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Full length, in depth study guide Biology 003
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Faith M Elissague on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 003 at Los Angeles Valley College taught by Yousef Harfouche in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Intro Biology in Biology at Los Angeles Valley College.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Study Guide For Exam One Chapter 1 The Scientific Method Consists of various steps. ● The Broad outline in which the order is not rigid follows as suc : ○ Observation: Ex: the radio is broken ○ Question: Ex: Why is the radio broken? ○ Hypothesis: Ex: If I lengthen the antenna, the radio will work. Remember that a hypothesis has to be testable and falsifiable. ○ Prediction: Ex: The radio will work when I lengthen the antenna ○ Experiment: Ex: Lengthen the antenna ○ Conclusion: Did the experiment work? If not, try something else. ● A scientific theory is much broader than a hypothesis. A theory is a comprehensive explanation supported by abundant evidence, and is general enough to spin off many new testable hypotheses. !! REMEMBER !! that there has to be supported by an accumulation of extensive and varied evidence and if they have not been contradicted by any scientific data. ○ Examples of theories are: cell theory, evolution theory, germ theory, atomic theory, gravitational theory, and ect. ● Science is able to be tested and falsified. Pseudoscience cannot be backed up by any facts, observations, or testable evidence. ● There are seven properties of life ○ Order ○ Regulation ○ Growth and development ○ Energy and development ○ Energy processing ○ Response to the environment ○ Reproduction ○ Evolution ● Life displays unity through the above important properties above, the sharing of DNA, and all living things are composed of cells. ○ Life displays Diversity in function, and structure. ● Different levels of scale of life: 1. The chemical, cellular, and energetic foundations of life 2. The genetics of individuals 3. The immense diversity and unity of life explained by evolution 4. The interactions between organisms and their environment ● Independent variable: Is not influenced by any outside factors. Is the factor that affects the dependent variable ○ Dependent Variable: is affected by outside factors. ● Control is the factor that is chosen not to be affected by other things so that it can be compared to the things that are affected. Chapter 2 Elements are organized by the number of protons each element contains Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. Mass is a measure of the amount of material in an object. ● There are four important elements that make up 96% of our body ○ Oxygen ○ Nitrogen ○ Carbion ○ Hydrogen ● Atoms are the smallest forms of matter and is comprised of protons, neutrons, and electrons ○ Protons have a positive charge, weighs 1 dalton, and gives atoms their identity ○ Electrons have a negative charge, weight is negligible, and it participates in bonding between atoms ○ Neutrons: have a neutral charge, weighs 1 dalton, and participates in giving elements isotopes Atomic number = the number of protons The atomic mass = the number of protons + the number of neutrons Isotopes are forms of an element that differs in mass because isotopes have different number of neutrons. Carbon 14 is a radioactive isoto ecause it is one in which the nucleus decays spontaneously, shedding particles and energy. Valence Electrons are the electrons on the outermost shel EMEMBER that A LL lements want to have their valence shell completely filled. In order to satisfy this, they will participate in chemical bonding. Charged atoms are called ions. ● Ionic bonds are formed when an element gains or loses an electron. When this happens two elements are then attracted to each other by opposite charges. Ex. NaCl. ● Covalent bonds (strongest bond) are formed when elements share electrons with each other. Ex. CH 2 , C 2 6 ● Hydrogen bonds (weakest bond) are formed when opposite attractions attract when water molecules tend to orient such that a hydrogen atom from one water molecule near the oxygen atom of an adjacent water molecule come together. ○ Polar molecule is one with an uneven distribution of charge that creates two poles, one positive pole and one negative pole. hared unequally ○ Nonpolar: is an even distribution of charges hared equally ● Electronegativity: a measure of tendency an atom to attract itself to bonding pair of electrons. So remember that this is a fancy way of saying some elements are super selfish and want all the electrons for it luorine i s the most selfish, but there are two other elements that are this way: Nitrogen and Oxyge So when we consider this, when we look at H 2we see why this is a hydrogen polar bond because it has that Oxygen which will pull the other two hydrogens to itself. When we consider that against methane: CH 4s nonpolar because there isn’t a really strong pull. ● Chemical reaction: changes in the chemical composition of matter ● Cohesion: water molecules stick together through hydrogen bonds, allowing for surface tension and capillary action. ● Characteristics of water ○ Large heat capacity: it takes a lot of energy to heat up water because it must either break or make a hydrogen bond. ○ Lower density as a solid: ie ice ○ Good solvent ○ Cohesion nature of water: water sticks together, allowing for surface tension ● Acids are proton donors H+) Example: lemon, coffee ○ On the PH scale 06 ● Bases are proton acceptors H) Example: household bleach, oven cleaner ○ On the PH scale 814 ● PH measures the H ion concentration. The PH scale is measure from one number to the next by a factor of 10x how many places it is away from the next factor you are comparing. ● Buffers work to minimize changes in the PH. Depending on the situation, it can absorb or donate H to keep the PH more stable. ○ There are natural buffers in our blood and stomach ● The combustion of fossil fuels add CO 2 to the environment which will go into oceans and it affects the acidity which causes acid rain and ocean acidification Chapter 3 Carbon is the key element to organic compounds. It is very versatile because it can share electrons with other elements in 4 covalent bonds that can branch off in 4 different directions. This chapter we studies macromolecules(polymers) w hich are large molecules made up of smaller building blocks or subunits. Polymers are strung together monomer. Hydrophilic: water loving(dissolves in water): i.e.: almost all carbohydrates. Hydrophobic: water fearing(does not dissolve in water): i.e. lipis ● There are four categories of large important biological molecules ○ Carbohydrates ○ Lipids ○ Proteins ○ Nucleic Acids ● Remember cells link monomers together to form a polymer through dehydration reaction (condensation synthesis): removing a water molecule. Or it can also add a water molecule through hydrolysis ● Carbohydrates: ○ Class of molecules that includes sugars and polymers of sugars ■ Monosaccharides: simple sugars. T hese are the monomers of carbohydrates. Cannot be broken down into smaller sugars. Common examples: glucose and fructose. emember!! Glucose formula C H6 O12 6 ■ Disaccharide: double sugar. Form 2 monosaccharide through dehydration reaction. ommon example of this is lactos milk sugar, formed from combining glucose and galactose, and another common example is ucrose(table sugar). ■ Polysaccharide: long chains of sugars: S tarch, glycoge stored in the liver then breaks down and releases glucose when you need energy), and ellulose are all common examples of polysaccharide ● Lipids ○ Nonpolar and a very diverse group. Long chain hydrocarbons ■ Fats/oils ● Composed of a hydrophilic head and three hydrophobic tails. ● Typical fats are joined by three fatty acid molecules called triglyceride ● Three different types of fat are: ○ Unsaturated fat: Fewer than the maximum amount hydrogens it can contain. Usually liquid. Cannot be stacked together. The body has an easier time breaking this fat down because it does not have to pull it apart ○ Saturated fat: contain the maximum amount of Hydrogen atoms it can contain. Usually solid. Can be packed together. ○ Trans Fat: manmade. Produced by adding hydrogen atoms to an unsaturated fat. A process called hydrogenation. They are not roken down by our bodies, but our bodies get addicted to it and we die!!!!!! (jk, but that stuff is seriously bad for you) ■ Steroids ● All steroids have a carbon skeleton with four fused rings ○ Cholesterol is the base steroid for which your body produces other steroids, such as estrogen and testosterone. ■ Phospholipids ● Main component of the cell membrane ● Composed of a hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic tails ● Proteins: Examples: enzymes, transport proteins, storage proteins ○ A protein is polymer of amino acid monomers. All proteins are made by stringing together 20 kinds of amino acids. Made from instructions in the genetic code ○ Amino Acids: consists of a central carbon atom bounded by four covalent partners. Three of these attachments are common to all 20 amino acids: carboxyl group, an amino group, and a hydrogen group, and a side chain group (R group). ○ Peptide bonds: covalent linkage between carboxyl group and amino group of two amino acids ○ Polypeptide bonds: chain of amino acids (polymer) ■ There are four levels of protein structure ● Primary Structure: Is when a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain are similar to the sequence of letters that spell out a specific word ● Secondary Structure: Is the corkscrew(telephone cord) like twists or pleated folds (snake like) formed by hydrogen bonds between amino acids in the polypeptide chain. ● Tertiary Structure: The complex three dimensional shape formed by multiple twists and bends in the polypeptide chain, based on the side chains interactions with each other and the aqueous solvent ● Quaternary structure: two or more polypeptide chains bonded together Denaturation: Protein destroyed/ruined, loses shape due to temperature change, PH change, solute concentration change, or pressure change ● Nucleic Acids ○ Nucleotides are composed of a 5carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Two main types are DNA deoxyribonucleic acid RNA ribonucleic acid DNA RNA Double helix Single stranded Four nitrogenous bases(A,T, Four nitrogenous bases (A,U, G, G,C) C) emember no T, instead U Deoxyribose Sugar Ribose sugar Instructions for making proteins Copy of DNA used to make proteins Base Pairing: A to T, G to C Base Pairing: A to U, G to C Chapter 4 Cell Theory: All living organisms are made up of one or more cells, and all cells are born from other preexisting cells. All living cells are made up of either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic Eukaryotic No nucleus, DNA floats in the cytoplasm DNA contained in the nucleus Much smaller than eukaryotes Usually 10x bigger than prokaryotes Internal structures mostly not organized into Cytoplasm contains specialized structures compartments called organelles Similarities between these two cells They are bounded by a barrier called a p lasma membrane. The cell membrane regulates traffic between the cell and its surroundings Inside the cells are a thick, jellylike fluid called th ytosol. Cellular components are suspended through this. All cells have one or more chromosomes carrying genes made of DNA All cells have ribosomes that build proteins according to instructions from the genes ● Prokaryotic cells ○ First cell on earth ○ Singlecelled organisms such as bacteria and archaea ○ Tremendous metabolic ability ○ Contains a cell wal EMEMBER PLANT CELLS OF EUKARYOTES CONTAIN A CELL WALL AS WELL. ANIMALS CELLS ARE SURROUNDED BY EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX ● ukaryotic cells ○ Single celled and multicelled organisms ○ Four main groups: plants, animals, fungi, and protists ● Plant Cells vs Animal cells Similarities Differences Contain: plasma membrane, golgi Plant cells only contain: Central vacuole, apparatus, smooth ER, ribosomes, cell wall, and Chloroplasts. rough ER, nucleus, mitochondria, cytoskeleton, cytoplasm Animal cells only contain: centriole and lysosomes ● Plasma Membrane ○ Mostly composed of phospholipids: emember: phospholipid is a type of lipid that has one hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic tails ○ They group together to create the phospholipid bilayer. But they are not locked rigidly in place. Because it is a lipid, it has the texture of salad oil. So the phospholipid and proteins can drift about within the membran HE FUNCTIONS IS TO REGULATE TRAFFIC ACROSS THE MEMBRANE ○ This creates th fluid mosai luid because the molecules can move freely past one another and mosaic because of the diversity of proteins that float like icebergs in the phospholipid sea EMEMBER: LIKE A MOSAIC AT THE ART GALLERY ○ Proteins are embedded in the membrane and there are four main types ■ Receptor proteins: communication with the environment ■ Recognition proteins: identification ■ Transport proteins: movement into and out of the cell ■ Enzymatic proteins: induce necessary chemical reactions ● The Nucleus ○ The control center of the cell. Here is where supervision of the genes, the inherited DNA molecules that direct almost all business of the cell. ○ The largest organelle of the cell (only eukaryotic cells have the nucleus). It is roundish. ○ The nucleus is separated from the cytoplasm by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope It allows materials to enter and exit the membrane ○ Function : Stores DNA and initiates protein production ● Endomembrane system ○ Section like structure like cubicles partitioned through organelle membranes. (So this means that within the cells, they are organized like an office has cubicles.) ○ Some of the membranes are linked by vesicles that transfer membrane segments between organelles. ○ The system includes: nuclear envelope, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, and vacuoles ● Ribosomes ○ Protein synthesis ○ In eukaryotic cells, the components of ribosomes are made in the nucleus and then transported through the pores of the nuclear envelope into the cytoplasm ○ In the cytoplasm is where the ribosomes begin their work ○ Cells that make a lot of protein have a lot of ribosomes ● Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum ○ Interconnected, flattened membranes stacks studded with ribosomes ○ The function: folds and packages proteins by the ribosomes ● Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum ○ Lacks the ribosomes ○ Where lipids, including steroids, are synthesized ● Golgi Apparatus ○ Flattened stacks of unconnected membrane sacs ○ Processes and ships cell products to final destination ● Lysosomes ○ The cell's garbage disposal ○ Vesticle containing digestive enzymes ○ Breaks down food items and recycle nonfunctioning cell parts ● Vacuoles ○ Large sacs made of membrane that bud off from the ER or Golgi apparatus ○ Stores and/or pumps out excess water ○ Central Vacuole: central component that can account for more than half the volume of a mature plant cell. Stores organic nutrients, water, and it helps plants grow ● Chloroplasts ○ Performs photosynthesis ○ Two membranes: Prokaryotic (outer) and Eukaryotic (inner) ○ Only found in plants and some protists ● Mitochondria ○ An envelope of two membranes enclosed the mitochondria. The inner membrane of the envelope has numerous infoldings. ○ Contains its own DNA ○ The organelles that participate in cellular respiration ○ Energy is harvested from sugars and transformed into another form of chemical energy called ATP ○ Endosymbiotic theory: where prokaryotic host cells like chloroplasts and the mitochondria ● Cytoskeleton ○ The cells infrastructure ○ Made up three types of proteins ■ Microtubules ■ Intermediate filaments ■ Microfilaments ○ Serves as a skeleton and muscles of the cell aiding in movement ○ Different components of the cytoskeleton: ■ It provides anchorage and reinforcement for many organelles in a cell. ■ Cytoskeleton is dynamic: It can change shape if it has to ● Flagella: propel cells with an undulating, whiplike motion ● Cilia: shorter and more numerous than flagella and move coordinated backandforth motion, like rhythmic oars of a crew team
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