ANSC Exam 1 Study Guide
ANSC Exam 1 Study Guide ANSC 250
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alice Trellakis on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANSC 250 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Albert, S in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
ANSC 250 Exam #1 Study Guide Companion Animal: provides humans company and are kept for pleasure than utility by receiving personal attention o Main benefits are non-commerical, roles are for guarding/protection, search/rescue, racing, hunting, etc. Human-Animal Bond: mutually beneficial and dynamic relationship b/w people & animals that’s influenced by behaviors that are essential to the health of both Benefits: Reduce stress, promotes healthier lifestyles, increases social interaction, self-esteem, etc. Domestication: happens to population of animals where traits are passed to offspring and changes in physical and behavioral traits) o Guns Germs & Steel by Jarod Diamond Flexible Diet Reasonably fast growth rate Ability to be bred in captivity (Increased reproduction) Pleasant disposition Even temperament Modifiable social hierarchy We also often see physical variability (size, color, etc) o NOT TAMING when an individual animal keeps its wild characteristics and doesn’t pass off traits to offspring Finding one animal and taming it doesn’t mean “tameness” in its genes o “Functional Domestication” (Morphological changes) o Example: Tameness (raising wolf pups) vs. Domestication (silver fox exp.) Dog History o Believed to appear 16,000 years ago, where’s debated and currently unknown o How: Human Mediated Domestication Clutton-Brock “Wolves as food/fur, pups are a travel snack” Taking in orphaned wolf puppies, keeping the most tame, culling those too aggressive to handle Self Domestication: dog domesticated themselves Most naturally tame wolves scavenged close to human settlements and got more food -> became more fit Natural selection creates the domesticated dog o Variability: First were Pariah/Village dogs, first purebred was Saluki (5-6000 ya) Selective Breeding (intentionally choosing wanted traits) Pre-1800s: Used for function Early 1800s: Concern with form Post WWII: Became family dog (“American Dream”) and increased demand for purebred Today: VERY selective breeding with Kennel Clubs When and Where – Cats o Emerged 8,000 years ago from the Fertile Crescent to catch mice o Origin of Variability – mostly relied on different coat colors, fur length Ancient Egypt first domesticated for respected religious rituals Middle Ages changed the perception of cats to be connected to witchcraft, the devil to be killed o Majority today are called domestic short, medium, and longhaired cats (mutts) o Kennel Clubs were founded in 1873 in the UK for dog breeders (American Kennel Club, Cat Fancier’s Association) o Issues with breed standards and inbreeding (182 commonly known inbred diseases) Working Dogs o Traditional working roles Hunting (sight, scent, and gun dogs) Livestock protection and herding Pulling Protection (guarding and warfare) o Hunting (Sighthounds) One of the first working roles (Saluki, Greyhound, Irish Wolfhound, Whippet, Scottish Deerhound) Hunt based on sight from long distances Faster dogs to chase prey Developed in arid, desert-like environments where tracking by scent is difficult Hunting (Scent Hounds) Large, droopy ears and more open nasal passages for capturing and processing scents Bred for endurance, not speed o Eg. Basset hounds, Beagles, Foxhounds, Coonhound, Harrier, Bloodhounds Bird or Sporting Dogs Gun dogs developed to accommodate the invention of the gun for hunting o Pointers (English, German Shorthaired) o Retrievers (Labs, Goldens, Poodles) o Setters (English and Irish) o Flushing (spaniels, Cocker, Clumber, Sussex) Livestock Protection Guarding flocks/herds raised with livestock Protect them from natural predators (deter, don’t fight or kill) o Eg. Great Pyrenees, Kangal, Anatolian Shepherd Livestock Herding Move livestock for handler o Listen to handler, but also think independently o Flocking nature of livestock species o “Heelers” – type of herding dog used to nip at the heels of larger livestock o Eg. Border collies, corgis, Australian cattle dog, German Shepherd, Old English sheepdog Pulling/Carting Help owners move large loads in a variety of situations o Sled Dogs (colder, snow covered environments), work in packs Eg. Huskies, Malamutes, Alaskan husky (mixed breed) o Cart dogs pulled carts, farming equipment, and other heavy loads as well, often individually Bernese Mountain Dog, Rottweiler, St. Bernards Ratting/Pest Control Terriers were dogs org. bred as a form of pest control o Named after the latin word for earth “terra” Long legged terriers (digging), short legged terriers (chasing quarry underground) Bull terriers- bred for bull baiting and holding bulls for butchers Protection/Guard Dogs Protect people and property Bark at unfamiliar people and engage if they enter property o Can only discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar Not good vs. bad people o Warfare Dogs have historically been bred and trained to be used in warfare o First used by the Romans Throughout time dogs have been used in the following ways Attacking the enemy Scout and Sentry roles Mine/explosive detection Intimidation Messengers o Police Dogs Many different working roles (eg. Patrol, tracking/trailing, narcotics, explosives, cadaver, arson) Some dogs cross trained o Patrol Dogs Form of intimidation (prevents conflicts/fleeing) Apprehend criminals Trained to engage and bite on command, or they’re in danger o Tracking – when a dog follows and exact path of a person o Trailing – when a dog can pick up the scent of a person even if it has been dispersed by rain o Narcotics and Explosives Trained to detect illegal drugs Use passive (sit) or active (pawing) alet Capable of detecting even if someone has tried to mask the scent (dog can separate smells) o Cadaver Dogs Trained to ignore live human/animal scents and to search only for human remains o Arson Dogs Dogs are trained to find accelerants that may have been used in suspicious fires o Dogs can be trained to detect cellphones smuggled into prison, bed mites, termites, cancer, lost pets, truffles, money, firearms, conservation, mold, etc. o Search and Rescue (SAR) Dogs Trained for disaster situations Trained to fine live human scent, ignore remains Some can search with an article from missing person Beagle Brigade – employed by USDA to detect illegal agricultural prodcuts entering the US> o Check luggage at airports o Certain foods such as meats, fruits, and vegetables Water Rescue Dogs o Popular breed is Newfoundland (must wim to victim and two handler/drowning victim back to shore) o Some trained to jump from speeding boats and helicopters Geese Control Dogs Run straight into flock of geese Deter them from living in certain areas Popular in airports, gold courses, and parks Exotic Animal Pet Ownership o Exotic Pet: Animals other than native wildlife or common domestic animals, not domesticated though some may be tame Can be unpredictable, untrainable, and dangerous since retain wild traits Exotic Eg. Snakes, monkeys, tigers, parrots, etc. Domesticated eg: rabbits, dogs, cats, rats, guinea pigs, etc. o Pet Trade (Wild Caught) Many wild animals brought into US illegally, illegal trafficking estimated at $20 billion annually Impossible to accurately quantify Concerns (over harvest RTE species, environmental impacts, collection methods, and transport) o Pet Trade (Captive bred) Responsible/irresponsible breeders, commercial breeding facilities For pet store/trade, poor living condition Over breeding and trading out adults (zoos, circuses, public animal attractions o Zanesville, OH October 19, 2011: dozens of exotic animals were released from their enclosure by owner (Primates, wolves, big cats) 56 released and 48 killed by police for public safety o Zoonotic Diseases Any infectious disease that can be transmitted between species (some with vectors( between humans and other animals Account for more than 60% of recognized infectious diseases Eg. Monkey pox o May 2003 outbreak in US from infected rodents imported from Africa for the exotic pet trade Prairie dos intended for sale as pets acquired the virus and passed on to humans Salmonella o 6% of US cases and 74,000 cases from reptiles o Ban small turtle sales (shell less than 4’’) prevents 100,000 cases per year Herpes B, Rabies, Plague, Tularemia, Scabies, Anthrax, Q Fever o Specialized Needs Eg. Temperature/humidity, light cycles, diet, enrichment, exercise, space, habitat, grooming, vet care, enclosures, companion, solitary/group, water quantity, salt (elements), etc. Pet Iguanas Metabolic bone disease is a very common issue seen in captives caused by calcium deficiencies due to poor care, lack of proper diet, improper temperatures, and lack of UVB light o Can cause bone malformation, stunted growth, pain Regulations Varies from state and cities that are usually minimal, some areas have no laws o Animal welfare rarely the cause Public safety concerns o Illinois: “Dangerous animal” means a lion, tiger, etc…. No person shall keep any dangerous animal or primate except at properly maintained zoology park, fed licensed exhibit, etc. Federal Regulations o CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna Regulates the trade of certain species; agreement between many different countries App 1- No trade of spcecies threatened with extinction o Wild Bird Conservation Act Enacted on October 23, 1992 Ensures exotic birds aren’t harmed by international trade Limits the species that can be imported into the U.S o US Captive Wild Animal Safety Act Passed in 2003, rules not in place until 2007 to ban sale or transport of big cats across state lines Escaped Exotics Eg: European Starlings, House Sparrow, Mute swan, Burmese python, Iguana, Veiled chameleons History of the Animal Protection Movement o Major Changes Beginning in Victorian England (1837-1901) Interest in the order of the natural world Reformism Preoccupation with pain and suffering o Order of the Natural World: Aristotle “Great Chain of Being” Hierachy called Linneaean classification o Based on observed anatomical similarities and differences o Similarities between humans and other animals Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Origin of Species / The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals Shared emotional and intellectual traits through evolution o Reformism = concern for socal issues (Slavery, Child Labor, Women’s rights) William Hogarth’s Four Stages of Cruelty, 1751 Cruelty to animals -> cruelty to humans o Pain and Suffering Introduction of pain relievers like morphene Rene Descartes (Animals incapable of feeling pain) Vivisection debate begins o Common Forms of Cruelty Overworked and beaten animals, Vivisection, Blood Sports, Random Cruelty to strays, no protection existed Jeremy Bentham = doesn’t matter if animals can’t talk/reason, they still suffer Early Legislative Attempts: 1800: Ban bull baiting (failed) 1809: Ban cruelty to all domestic animals (failed) 1822: Passage of the Ill-Treatment of Cattle Act by Richard Martin Eliminates bull baiting but led to rise of dog fighting 1824: Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) o Richard Marrtin, William Wilberforce, and Rev. Arthur Broome o Early priorities: investigate and enforce laws 1866: Henry Bergh, founded American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) in 1866 RSPCA as model Anti-cruelty law passes; ASPCA enforces Early focus -> mistreatment of horsea Growth of SPCAS in America 1873: 25 US States and territories have their own SPCAs o Independent organizations, early focus on horses/livestock Plight of strays: Vivisection, work animals, rounded up and killed 1894: ASPCA took over managing the NYC pound after Bergh’s death (he wanted nothing to do with being in charge of it) Sheltering soon becomes dominant roles for SPCA’s Mary Ellen Wilson= connected to Bergh for child protection wanted to keep child and animal production separated, children also treated like property AHA (American Humane Association) est. 1877 First priority: welfare of livestock during transport Child protection role Advocates for human education in schools HSUS Human Society of the US Part of AHA breaks away in 1954 Chose DC as its base, MAJOR national voice for animal welfare The Fund for Animals Founded in 1967 by author Cleveland Amory with wildlife focus, merged with HSUS in 2005 Cleveland Amory Black Beauty Ranch Animal sanctuary : 1,300 acres located in Texas, 1,400 animals Established by Cleveland Amory (now maintained by the HSUS Best Friends Animal Society Formed in the 1970s, has had several national campaigns Companions animal sanctuary ranch in Utah with 1,700 animals Motto: “No More Homeless Pets” Note: All groups provide resources to local shelters and tackle national issues too big for smaller shelters, but NOT affiliated with local shelters (eg. No direct funding, shelters are independent) Reflective post due Monday Beginnings of Animal Sheltering o 1600s-1800s (Impounds informed) Poundmaster: confined strays, not paid, sold or killed animals o Mid 1800s: Less livestock and more stray cats/dogs Handling methods the same Issues with inhumane NYC pound Development of Animal Shelters o First concern about sheltering: How are animals killed? o Henry Bergh vs. NYC Pound (inhumane treatment, stolen dogs, not picking up strays, ASPCA wouldn’t take over duties) ASPCA agrees to manage NYC pound: Dog licensing, reduced stolen animals, stray cats new focus, humane euthanasia methods o From Greek euthantos meaning “death”, the act of killing or permitting the death of hopeless sick or injured individuals in a relatively painless way for mercy (specific to animal shelters: includes healthy or treatable companion animals) o Humane Animal Sheltering Carolyn Earle White (Pennsylvania SPCA) First humane shelter (food and care, adoptions, “humane” euthanasia chamber) o Animal Sheltering Grows Companion animals become new focus, livestock concerns dissipate Changes in Eunthansia Methods 70s: phase out gas chambers that still exist today since its most human and acceptable o Overdose of sodium phenobarbital Pet Overpopulation 1960s, second concern for shelters: How many animals are killed? o Phyllis Wright (HSUS): “LES is more”, Legislation, Education, Sterilization 7,600.000 animals/year enter shelters, Less than 5% of cats and 26% of dogs returned to owners, 2,700,000 animals/year are euthanized o 1,200,000 dogs, 1,400,000 cats 13,000+ community animal shelters nationwide o No governmental or national organization to fund/oversee Types of Sheltering Municipal shelters: Mandated to control stray animals and enforce laws and “animal control” facilities Private shelters: Non-profit groups run by local donations and go by many names, may also take in strays by contract Rescue Groups: Species or breed-focused, age or condition focused o Usually not working out of traditional facilities (home based/foster home) Shelter Classifications based on admissions o Open Admission: “open door” policy, take in all incoming animals, euthanize when resource become limited o Limited Admission: May “close their doors” when needed, run out space or resources/can be selective what animals enter o Historically, the policy of “no kill” shelters once they ran out of resources 1980s: Third and present concern about sheltering: Why are animals killed? Goal of the movement: no healthy, adoptable animal should be killed and shelters need a 90% live release rate Microchipping: technology to reunite lost pets with owners, permanent identification, scanner used to read the chip number Pet Overpopulation: You can spay or neuter, educate others, license and identify, adopt or foster o Why Adopt? Saves two lives: Animal that is adopted and animal that takes its place Fostering saves lives too: Safe Space for animal, opens more space Cat’s Reproduction o Estrous cycle of the queen (can begin by 4-5months of age Seasonally polyestrous (multiple cycles per season) Induced ovulation (mating induces ovulation to occur) Gestation length averages 63 days or two months Litter size averages 4-5 kittens Dog’s Reproduction o Copulatory (coital) ties dogs together during mating from bulbis glandis Estrous cycle of the bitch varies depending on breed and size Starts at six months of age, occurs every 7 months on average Spontaneous ovulation Gestation length averages 63 days (larger litters -> shorter gestations) Litter sizes (smaller breeds 2-10, larger breeds 5-20) Neuter (to render an animal incapable of breeding by removing reproductive organs) o Get done before sexual maturity if possible o Recovery often easier and quicker in younger animals o Pediatric neutering: general rule’s that a kitten or puppy should weigh at least 2 pounds and be at least 2 months old Prevents accident litters (85% enter shelters are first time litters) o Why? Has benefits related to health like preventing cancer, reduces behaviors lie urine marking, benefits communities by combating overpopulation Spay (removal of the female reproduction organs (uterus and ovaries) o Females in heat and pregnant females CAN be spayed Castration (removal of the testicles) Successful programs o Low income programs o Statewide publicly funded programs o Stationary high volume clinics, mobile clinics, transport vans o Human Alliance Model from the ASPCA based in NC Non-surgical sterilization o Has potential to be faster, easier, cheaper, used by more segments of society than surgical sterilization Brain’s control of reproduction o Hypothalamus produces GnRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone) to act directly on pituitary gland Causes to produce FSH (foillicle stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone) Bind to receptors on the gonads MALES: link to sperm maturation and testosterone production FEMALE: coordination of estrous cycle and estrogen and progesterone production Hypothalamic Pituitary-Gonadal Axis (HPG) gives negative feedback to rest of the body o Immunocontraception (uses animal’s immune system to prevent successful reproduction by vaccine) Causes animal to make antibodies against GnRH o Chemical Sterilization(using chemical compounds to destroy or render ineffective essential components of the reproductive system) o Michaelson Prize and Grants for finding the right approach
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