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ANSC Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Alice Trellakis

ANSC Exam 1 Study Guide ANSC 250

Alice Trellakis
GPA 3.3

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These notes cover material for the first exam.
Companion Animals in Society
Albert, S
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alice Trellakis on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANSC 250 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Albert, S in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.

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Date Created: 09/17/16
ANSC 250 Exam #1 Study Guide  Companion Animal: provides humans company and are kept for pleasure than utility by receiving personal attention o Main benefits are non-commerical, roles are for guarding/protection, search/rescue, racing, hunting, etc.  Human-Animal Bond: mutually beneficial and dynamic relationship b/w people & animals that’s influenced by behaviors that are essential to the health of both  Benefits: Reduce stress, promotes healthier lifestyles, increases social interaction, self-esteem, etc.  Domestication: happens to population of animals where traits are passed to offspring and changes in physical and behavioral traits) o Guns Germs & Steel by Jarod Diamond  Flexible Diet  Reasonably fast growth rate  Ability to be bred in captivity (Increased reproduction)  Pleasant disposition  Even temperament  Modifiable social hierarchy  We also often see physical variability (size, color, etc) o NOT TAMING when an individual animal keeps its wild characteristics and doesn’t pass off traits to offspring  Finding one animal and taming it doesn’t mean “tameness” in its genes o “Functional Domestication” (Morphological changes) o Example: Tameness (raising wolf pups) vs. Domestication (silver fox exp.)  Dog History o Believed to appear 16,000 years ago, where’s debated and currently unknown o How: Human Mediated Domestication  Clutton-Brock “Wolves as food/fur, pups are a travel snack”  Taking in orphaned wolf puppies, keeping the most tame, culling those too aggressive to handle  Self Domestication: dog domesticated themselves  Most naturally tame wolves scavenged close to human settlements and got more food -> became more fit  Natural selection creates the domesticated dog o Variability: First were Pariah/Village dogs, first purebred was Saluki (5-6000 ya)  Selective Breeding (intentionally choosing wanted traits)  Pre-1800s: Used for function  Early 1800s: Concern with form  Post WWII: Became family dog (“American Dream”) and increased demand for purebred  Today: VERY selective breeding with Kennel Clubs  When and Where – Cats o Emerged 8,000 years ago from the Fertile Crescent to catch mice o Origin of Variability – mostly relied on different coat colors, fur length  Ancient Egypt first domesticated for respected religious rituals  Middle Ages changed the perception of cats to be connected to witchcraft, the devil to be killed o Majority today are called domestic short, medium, and longhaired cats (mutts) o Kennel Clubs were founded in 1873 in the UK for dog breeders (American Kennel Club, Cat Fancier’s Association) o Issues with breed standards and inbreeding (182 commonly known inbred diseases)  Working Dogs o Traditional working roles  Hunting (sight, scent, and gun dogs)  Livestock protection and herding  Pulling  Protection (guarding and warfare) o Hunting (Sighthounds)  One of the first working roles (Saluki, Greyhound, Irish Wolfhound, Whippet, Scottish Deerhound)  Hunt based on sight from long distances  Faster dogs to chase prey  Developed in arid, desert-like environments where tracking by scent is difficult  Hunting (Scent Hounds)  Large, droopy ears and more open nasal passages for capturing and processing scents  Bred for endurance, not speed o Eg. Basset hounds, Beagles, Foxhounds, Coonhound, Harrier, Bloodhounds  Bird or Sporting Dogs  Gun dogs developed to accommodate the invention of the gun for hunting o Pointers (English, German Shorthaired) o Retrievers (Labs, Goldens, Poodles) o Setters (English and Irish) o Flushing (spaniels, Cocker, Clumber, Sussex)  Livestock Protection  Guarding flocks/herds raised with livestock  Protect them from natural predators (deter, don’t fight or kill) o Eg. Great Pyrenees, Kangal, Anatolian Shepherd  Livestock Herding  Move livestock for handler o Listen to handler, but also think independently o Flocking nature of livestock species o “Heelers” – type of herding dog used to nip at the heels of larger livestock o Eg. Border collies, corgis, Australian cattle dog, German Shepherd, Old English sheepdog  Pulling/Carting  Help owners move large loads in a variety of situations o Sled Dogs (colder, snow covered environments), work in packs  Eg. Huskies, Malamutes, Alaskan husky (mixed breed) o Cart dogs pulled carts, farming equipment, and other heavy loads as well, often individually  Bernese Mountain Dog, Rottweiler, St. Bernards  Ratting/Pest Control  Terriers were dogs org. bred as a form of pest control o Named after the latin word for earth “terra”  Long legged terriers (digging), short legged terriers (chasing quarry underground)  Bull terriers- bred for bull baiting and holding bulls for butchers  Protection/Guard Dogs  Protect people and property  Bark at unfamiliar people and engage if they enter property o Can only discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar  Not good vs. bad people o Warfare  Dogs have historically been bred and trained to be used in warfare o First used by the Romans  Throughout time dogs have been used in the following ways  Attacking the enemy  Scout and Sentry roles  Mine/explosive detection  Intimidation  Messengers o Police Dogs  Many different working roles (eg. Patrol, tracking/trailing, narcotics, explosives, cadaver, arson)  Some dogs cross trained o Patrol Dogs  Form of intimidation (prevents conflicts/fleeing)  Apprehend criminals  Trained to engage and bite on command, or they’re in danger o Tracking – when a dog follows and exact path of a person o Trailing – when a dog can pick up the scent of a person even if it has been dispersed by rain o Narcotics and Explosives  Trained to detect illegal drugs  Use passive (sit) or active (pawing) alet  Capable of detecting even if someone has tried to mask the scent (dog can separate smells) o Cadaver Dogs  Trained to ignore live human/animal scents and to search only for human remains o Arson Dogs  Dogs are trained to find accelerants that may have been used in suspicious fires o Dogs can be trained to detect cellphones smuggled into prison, bed mites, termites, cancer, lost pets, truffles, money, firearms, conservation, mold, etc. o Search and Rescue (SAR) Dogs  Trained for disaster situations  Trained to fine live human scent, ignore remains  Some can search with an article from missing person  Beagle Brigade – employed by USDA to detect illegal agricultural prodcuts entering the US> o Check luggage at airports o Certain foods such as meats, fruits, and vegetables  Water Rescue Dogs o Popular breed is Newfoundland (must wim to victim and two handler/drowning victim back to shore) o Some trained to jump from speeding boats and helicopters  Geese Control Dogs  Run straight into flock of geese  Deter them from living in certain areas  Popular in airports, gold courses, and parks  Exotic Animal Pet Ownership o Exotic Pet: Animals other than native wildlife or common domestic animals, not domesticated though some may be tame  Can be unpredictable, untrainable, and dangerous since retain wild traits  Exotic Eg. Snakes, monkeys, tigers, parrots, etc.  Domesticated eg: rabbits, dogs, cats, rats, guinea pigs, etc. o Pet Trade (Wild Caught)  Many wild animals brought into US illegally, illegal trafficking estimated at $20 billion annually  Impossible to accurately quantify  Concerns (over harvest RTE species, environmental impacts, collection methods, and transport) o Pet Trade (Captive bred)  Responsible/irresponsible breeders, commercial breeding facilities  For pet store/trade, poor living condition  Over breeding and trading out adults (zoos, circuses, public animal attractions o Zanesville, OH  October 19, 2011: dozens of exotic animals were released from their enclosure by owner (Primates, wolves, big cats)  56 released and 48 killed by police for public safety o Zoonotic Diseases  Any infectious disease that can be transmitted between species (some with vectors( between humans and other animals  Account for more than 60% of recognized infectious diseases  Eg. Monkey pox o May 2003 outbreak in US from infected rodents imported from Africa for the exotic pet trade  Prairie dos intended for sale as pets acquired the virus and passed on to humans  Salmonella o 6% of US cases and 74,000 cases from reptiles o Ban small turtle sales (shell less than 4’’) prevents 100,000 cases per year  Herpes B, Rabies, Plague, Tularemia, Scabies, Anthrax, Q Fever o Specialized Needs  Eg. Temperature/humidity, light cycles, diet, enrichment, exercise, space, habitat, grooming, vet care, enclosures, companion, solitary/group, water quantity, salt (elements), etc.  Pet Iguanas  Metabolic bone disease is a very common issue seen in captives caused by calcium deficiencies due to poor care, lack of proper diet, improper temperatures, and lack of UVB light o Can cause bone malformation, stunted growth, pain  Regulations  Varies from state and cities that are usually minimal, some areas have no laws o Animal welfare rarely the cause  Public safety concerns o Illinois: “Dangerous animal” means a lion, tiger, etc….  No person shall keep any dangerous animal or primate except at properly maintained zoology park, fed licensed exhibit, etc.  Federal Regulations o CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna  Regulates the trade of certain species; agreement between many different countries  App 1- No trade of spcecies threatened with extinction o Wild Bird Conservation Act  Enacted on October 23, 1992  Ensures exotic birds aren’t harmed by international trade  Limits the species that can be imported into the U.S o US Captive Wild Animal Safety Act  Passed in 2003, rules not in place until 2007 to ban sale or transport of big cats across state lines  Escaped Exotics  Eg: European Starlings, House Sparrow, Mute swan, Burmese python, Iguana, Veiled chameleons  History of the Animal Protection Movement o Major Changes Beginning in Victorian England (1837-1901)  Interest in the order of the natural world  Reformism  Preoccupation with pain and suffering o Order of the Natural World: Aristotle  “Great Chain of Being”  Hierachy called Linneaean classification o Based on observed anatomical similarities and differences o Similarities between humans and other animals  Charles Darwin (1809-1882)  Origin of Species / The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals  Shared emotional and intellectual traits through evolution o Reformism = concern for socal issues (Slavery, Child Labor, Women’s rights)  William Hogarth’s Four Stages of Cruelty, 1751  Cruelty to animals -> cruelty to humans o Pain and Suffering  Introduction of pain relievers like morphene  Rene Descartes (Animals incapable of feeling pain)  Vivisection debate begins o Common Forms of Cruelty  Overworked and beaten animals, Vivisection, Blood Sports, Random Cruelty to strays, no protection existed  Jeremy Bentham = doesn’t matter if animals can’t talk/reason, they still suffer  Early Legislative Attempts:  1800: Ban bull baiting (failed)  1809: Ban cruelty to all domestic animals (failed)  1822: Passage of the Ill-Treatment of Cattle Act by Richard Martin  Eliminates bull baiting but led to rise of dog fighting  1824: Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) o Richard Marrtin, William Wilberforce, and Rev. Arthur Broome o Early priorities: investigate and enforce laws  1866: Henry Bergh, founded American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) in 1866  RSPCA as model  Anti-cruelty law passes; ASPCA enforces  Early focus -> mistreatment of horsea  Growth of SPCAS in America  1873: 25 US States and territories have their own SPCAs o Independent organizations, early focus on horses/livestock  Plight of strays: Vivisection, work animals, rounded up and killed  1894: ASPCA took over managing the NYC pound after Bergh’s death (he wanted nothing to do with being in charge of it)  Sheltering soon becomes dominant roles for SPCA’s  Mary Ellen Wilson= connected to Bergh for child protection wanted to keep child and animal production separated, children also treated like property  AHA (American Humane Association) est. 1877  First priority: welfare of livestock during transport  Child protection role  Advocates for human education in schools  HSUS Human Society of the US  Part of AHA breaks away in 1954  Chose DC as its base, MAJOR national voice for animal welfare  The Fund for Animals  Founded in 1967 by author Cleveland Amory with wildlife focus, merged with HSUS in 2005  Cleveland Amory Black Beauty Ranch  Animal sanctuary : 1,300 acres located in Texas, 1,400 animals  Established by Cleveland Amory (now maintained by the HSUS  Best Friends Animal Society  Formed in the 1970s, has had several national campaigns  Companions animal sanctuary ranch in Utah with 1,700 animals  Motto: “No More Homeless Pets”  Note: All groups provide resources to local shelters and tackle national issues too big for smaller shelters, but NOT affiliated with local shelters (eg. No direct funding, shelters are independent)  Reflective post due Monday  Beginnings of Animal Sheltering o 1600s-1800s (Impounds informed)  Poundmaster: confined strays, not paid, sold or killed animals o Mid 1800s: Less livestock and more stray cats/dogs  Handling methods the same  Issues with inhumane NYC pound  Development of Animal Shelters o First concern about sheltering: How are animals killed? o Henry Bergh vs. NYC Pound (inhumane treatment, stolen dogs, not picking up strays, ASPCA wouldn’t take over duties)  ASPCA agrees to manage NYC pound:  Dog licensing, reduced stolen animals, stray cats new focus, humane euthanasia methods o From Greek euthantos meaning “death”, the act of killing or permitting the death of hopeless sick or injured individuals in a relatively painless way for mercy (specific to animal shelters: includes healthy or treatable companion animals) o Humane Animal Sheltering  Carolyn Earle White (Pennsylvania SPCA)  First humane shelter (food and care, adoptions, “humane” euthanasia chamber) o Animal Sheltering Grows  Companion animals become new focus, livestock concerns dissipate  Changes in Eunthansia Methods  70s: phase out gas chambers that still exist today since its most human and acceptable o Overdose of sodium phenobarbital  Pet Overpopulation  1960s, second concern for shelters: How many animals are killed? o Phyllis Wright (HSUS): “LES is more”, Legislation, Education, Sterilization  7,600.000 animals/year enter shelters, Less than 5% of cats and 26% of dogs returned to owners, 2,700,000 animals/year are euthanized o 1,200,000 dogs, 1,400,000 cats  13,000+ community animal shelters nationwide o No governmental or national organization to fund/oversee  Types of Sheltering  Municipal shelters: Mandated to control stray animals and enforce laws and “animal control” facilities  Private shelters: Non-profit groups run by local donations and go by many names, may also take in strays by contract  Rescue Groups: Species or breed-focused, age or condition focused o Usually not working out of traditional facilities (home based/foster home)  Shelter Classifications based on admissions o Open Admission: “open door” policy, take in all incoming animals, euthanize when resource become limited o Limited Admission: May “close their doors” when needed, run out space or resources/can be selective what animals enter o Historically, the policy of “no kill” shelters once they ran out of resources  1980s: Third and present concern about sheltering: Why are animals killed?  Goal of the movement: no healthy, adoptable animal should be killed and shelters need a 90% live release rate  Microchipping: technology to reunite lost pets with owners, permanent identification, scanner used to read the chip number  Pet Overpopulation: You can spay or neuter, educate others, license and identify, adopt or foster o Why Adopt?  Saves two lives: Animal that is adopted and animal that takes its place  Fostering saves lives too: Safe Space for animal, opens more space  Cat’s Reproduction o Estrous cycle of the queen (can begin by 4-5months of age  Seasonally polyestrous (multiple cycles per season)  Induced ovulation (mating induces ovulation to occur)  Gestation length averages 63 days or two months  Litter size averages 4-5 kittens  Dog’s Reproduction o Copulatory (coital) ties dogs together during mating from bulbis glandis  Estrous cycle of the bitch varies depending on breed and size  Starts at six months of age, occurs every 7 months on average  Spontaneous ovulation  Gestation length averages 63 days (larger litters -> shorter gestations)  Litter sizes (smaller breeds 2-10, larger breeds 5-20)  Neuter (to render an animal incapable of breeding by removing reproductive organs) o Get done before sexual maturity if possible o Recovery often easier and quicker in younger animals o Pediatric neutering: general rule’s that a kitten or puppy should weigh at least 2 pounds and be at least 2 months old  Prevents accident litters (85% enter shelters are first time litters) o Why? Has benefits related to health like preventing cancer, reduces behaviors lie urine marking, benefits communities by combating overpopulation  Spay (removal of the female reproduction organs (uterus and ovaries) o Females in heat and pregnant females CAN be spayed  Castration (removal of the testicles)  Successful programs o Low income programs o Statewide publicly funded programs o Stationary high volume clinics, mobile clinics, transport vans o Human Alliance Model from the ASPCA based in NC  Non-surgical sterilization o Has potential to be faster, easier, cheaper, used by more segments of society than surgical sterilization  Brain’s control of reproduction o Hypothalamus produces GnRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone) to act directly on pituitary gland  Causes to produce FSH (foillicle stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone)  Bind to receptors on the gonads  MALES: link to sperm maturation and testosterone production  FEMALE: coordination of estrous cycle and estrogen and progesterone production  Hypothalamic Pituitary-Gonadal Axis (HPG) gives negative feedback to rest of the body o Immunocontraception (uses animal’s immune system to prevent successful reproduction by vaccine)  Causes animal to make antibodies against GnRH o Chemical Sterilization(using chemical compounds to destroy or render ineffective essential components of the reproductive system) o Michaelson Prize and Grants for finding the right approach 


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