EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE PCB 3063
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This 36 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sharon Stambouli on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PCB 3063 at Florida International University taught by Helena Schmidtmayerova in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Genetics 3063 in Biology at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
PCB Genetics Exam 1 STUDY GUIDE (CHAPTERS 2-5) CHAPTER 2 CHROMOSOMES AND CELLULAR REPRODUCTION All living organisms can be classified into two groups: Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Prokaryotes ü Unicellular, with no compartmentalized cell structure. ü Prokaryotic DNA does not exist in the highly ordered and packed arrangement. ü Made up of eubacteria and archaea. Prokaryotic Cell Division ü Simple division: separation of replicated circular chromosome ü Origin of replication ü High rate of replication under optimal conditions bacterial cells divide every 20 minutes Eukaryotes: ü Both unicellular and multicellular with compartmentalized cell structure. ü Its genetic material is surrounded in a nuclear envelope to form a nucleus. ü DNA is closely associated with histones to form tightly packed chromosomes. Eukaryotic chromosomes: Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes Homologous pair - alike in structure and size, and each carries genetic information for the same set of hereditary characteristics ü Diploid cells carry two sets of genetic information. ü Haploid cells carry one set of genetic information Chromosome structure Each consists of a molecule of DNA ü Centromere ü Telomere ü Origin of replication Eukaryotic chromosomes exist in four major types based on the position of the centromere MITOSIS Genetic consequences of the Cell Cycle ü Producing two cells that are genetic identical with each other and with the cell that gave rise to them. ü Newly formed cells contain a full complement of chromosomes. ü Each newly formed cell contains approximately half (but not necessarily identical) cytoplasm and organelle content of the original parental cell. ü The number of chromosomes and the number of DNA molecules change in the course of cell cycle Sexual Reproduction and Genetic Variation ü Meiosis: the production of haploid gametes ü Fertilization: the fusion of haploid gametes ü Genetic variation: consequences of meiosis MEIOSIS ü Interphase: DNA synthesis and chromosome replication phase ü Meiosis I: separation of homologous chromosome pairs, and reduction of the chromosome number by half ü Meiosis II: separation of sister chromatids, also known as equational division MEIOSIS I Prophase I ü Close pairing of homologous chromosome ü Closely associated four sister chromatids of two homologous chromosomes ü Crossing over: crossing over of chromosome segments from the sister chromatid of one chromosome to the sister chromatid of the other synapsed chromosome – exchange of genetic information, the first mechanism of generating genetic variation in newly formed gametes Metaphase I: Random chromosome distribution: second mechanism of generating genetic variation Consequences of Meiosis and Genetic Variation ü Four cells are produced from each original cell. ü Chromosome number in each new cell is reduced by half. The new cells are haploid. ü Newly formed cells from meiosis are genetically different from one another and from the parental cell. The Separation of sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes Cohesin: a protein that holds the chromatids together and is key to the behavior of chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis Meiosis in the Life Cycle of Animals and Plants Spermatogenesis: male gamete production Oogenesis: female gamete production In Plants
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