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GEOS 212 Exam 1 Review

by: madelinef

GEOS 212 Exam 1 Review GEOS 212

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Tier 2 Gen Ed > GEOS 212 > GEOS 212 Exam 1 Review
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Exam 1 review guide for geos 212.
Introduction to Oceanography
Joellen Russell
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Introduction to Oceanography

Popular in Tier 2 Gen Ed

This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by madelinef on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOS 212 at University of Arizona taught by Joellen Russell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Oceanography in Tier 2 Gen Ed at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
GEOS 212 Exam 1 Review Guide  Diagram of characteristics of layers of the earth  Continental v. oceanic crust o Diagram o Oceanic crust is heavier than continental crust  Driving Force of Plate Tectonics o Divergent=moving apart o Convergent= moving together o Transform= sliding o Plates move because of convection (movement of low density fluid through another)  Hot rises, cold sinks  Convection cells= flow of hot and cold  We do not know if convection is chaotic or simple o Plates are not defined by what they are made of but where they end! o Rate of spreading: (distance/time) /10 to get to cm/yr.  Spreading Centers o Divergent o Factory for making oceanic crust (diagram) o View homework #1 locations! o We know when spreading began because of the age of the continental rocks at the edges. Thick bands of dark red on the map are active and fastest spreading centers o How the south Atlantic began to open: Rift beganrift valleylinear seamature ocean  Linear sea- sinks to ocean and water comes in. raw basalt  Rift valley- E. African Rift Valley is here today!  Subduction Zones Convergent o Destroying oceanic crust  Happens from plates moving apart in a spreading center  Mountains are formed in a spreading enter  Example: mid-ocean ridge o Creating continental crust  Happens from plates moving together in a subduction zone o Profile view drawing o Ocean/Continent subduction zone  Destroys oceanic crust, factory for continental crust o Ocean/Ocean Subduction zone  Destroys old oceanic crust and creates new oceanic crust o Pacific Ocean= almost all subduction zones hence “ring of fire” nickname. Indian picture is the same. o How does magma form? (drawing) o Trenches on the oceanic floor- see homework #1 o Chain of volcanoes on land o Map information from homework #1  Types of volcanoes o Where they are found  Subduction zones  Spreading centers  Hot spots  Continents pulling apart Shield Volcano Strato Volcano Caldera Hawaii, Mauna kea, Mount Fiji, Andes and Blow so much that the Iceland, Hawaii, japan cascades, mount St. top comes off. Helens Oceanic crust- Continental crust- Crater lake in Oregon ocean/ocean ocean/continent subduction zones, hot subduction zone, spots, spreading continental rift, hot centers, mid-Atlantic spots ridge No steep sides Steep sides Basalt=liquidity, very Andesite= sticky and hot hot Continuous eruptions Rare eruptions Not Explosive explosive/hazardous Lava flows Hazardous! Lava flows, ash, cinders, magma is sticky o Relative probability of an eruption in the cascades  Age of the ocean floor o be able to use age map to figure out history of various ocean basins o plate velocity calculation= distance/time and divide answer by 10 to get in cm/yr. o general age patterns in Atlantic and pacific basins and why they are different  the Atlantic is younger than the pacific and has different plates around it.  Depth of the ocean floor o Water depth (see hw #1)  on shelf  at spreading centers  deep ocean floor  trenches  Hot spots o Example is Hawaii  active volcanoes and using volcano ages/positions to calculate velocities o ~1500 active around the world and ~12 erupting  History of major ocean basins on earth and when opened o 50 my- Australia was dis-attaching from Antarctica and India was crashing into Asia o 100 my- India was down below Africa and Antarctica and Australia were attached o Pangea was 200 my ago  Pangea/Tethys o Pangea was when all the continents were one! o Tethys ocean was where ocean life was most abundant during Pangea 200my ago. Now is it the oil store in the middle east!  Main controls on sea level o Ice on landremoves water o Ocean temperature warms=expanding o Shape of ocean basins deeper=less water on land o NOT SEA ICE! o Warmer climates=higher sea levels  Times of higher and lower sea level in the past o Post glacial sea level rise was 100m.  Elements/minerals/rocks that make up continental crust o Drawing  5 processes of mountain building and where they occur in the world o pulling continent apart- continental rifting (Africa and west USA) o chain of subduction zone volcanoes (Andes and cascades) o colliding continents (Himalayas, Appalachians) o transform faults (san Andrea’s fault, san Gabriel’s in LA) o hot spots (Hawaii, Yellowstone)  weathering process and where occur on a map/diagram o water (main agent), sunlight, salt, wind o freeze-thaw- liquid drips into cracks during the day and freezes at night pushing the crack to get bigger. Process resets itself the next morning  cold, high areas o growth of salt crystals- water covers rock and then evaporates, leaving behind salt which dissolves into rick.  Warm, low areas o Wind in the desert is common weathering because it picks up sand which acts like sandpaper on the rocks.  how sediment is transported into the ocean basins and what happens physically and chemically to sediments during transport (drawing)  connection between floors, floodplains, and society o floods help agriculture grow in the floodplains, this is why society flourished around floodplains. However, those houses and societies end up getting destroyed by dangerous floods on occasion. It is a win-some, lose-some situation. o In terms of transporting bigger rocks and other things from the headwaters, flooding makes it happen because there is more water so it can carry bigger things  deposition of sediments in o delta- bigger pieces of sediment o continental shelf- gets smaller o deep sea floor- the smallest particles o (drawing) River Headwaters Floodplain Delta Mississippi Lake Itasca in MN The Midwest Gulf of Mexico Amazon (largest Andes South America Atlantic dischargend Congo (2 Africa Africa Atlantic largest discharge 2ndlongest after Nile ) Yangtze Asia Pacific Ganges Himalayas India Pacific Indus Himalayas India Indian Ocean  Sediment on deep sea floor o Main types  Turbidities- submarine land slide with mud and skeletons.  Can create a tsunami because of water displacement off of edge of shelf  Skeletons of marine organisms  Diatoms- most abundant organism on earth. Like silica  Plankton- microscopic and floating  Cocoliths- 2ndmost abundant  Sand and dust blown from deserts covers much of the deep sea floor o General location (diagram)  Thickness of sediment around the world and why Atlantic and pacific are so different o Sediment can be thicker in the ocean because of subsidence (bending of crust b/c of weight of sediment) and recycling of oceanic crust creating new sediment. o Atlantic and Pacific are different because of the amount flowing into them and where it is coming from  Types of sediment around the world and origin of each time o Be able to use map o Closest to land- shelf sediments and turbidities o Next to that is skeletons of diatoms (plankton). Not everywhere only near India tip and on west side of the Americas o Next to skeletons or shelf sediments is mud (carried from deserts by wind) o Farthest out in the middle is skeletons of cocoliths (plankton) o Sediment is thickest near big rivers, continents, big in high productivity zones and thin far from land (especially where spreading happens)  Chemistry of sea water o Main elements- granite  Quartz- oxygen and silicon  Mica- oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, magnesium  Feldspar= oxygen, silicon, aluminum, calcium, sodium, potassium o Headwaters  Sediment= boulders and weathering  Minerals= quartz, mica, feldspar o Chemical weathering  Quartzquartz  Micaclay (mud) and releases iron and magnesium  Feldsparclay (mud) and releases calcium, sodium, and potassium o Floodplain  Sediment=sand and mud  Minerals- quartz and clay  Water= iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium (same as what is released during chemical weathering)  Mica= clay- iron and magnesium (that is why it is dark) o drawing  Salinity o 85% of the salt in the ocean is sodium and chlorine. Can also be iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium o Very little variation in the ocean. Average is 3.5% by weight. Differences come from adding/removing water o Residence time= amount of reservoir/rate of removal  Long residence time=slow removal  Accumulates (left alone) = long residence time. Straight line  Recycled (biology)= medium residence time. Curves to the right  Scavenger (absorbed)= short residence time. Curves to the left o Atlantic is saltier at the top, pacific is saltier at the deep parts  Hydrologic cycle o Sequence of conditions through which water passes from vapor in the atmosphere through precipitation on land or water surfaces and back into the atmosphere as a result of evaporation and transpiration o Driven by sunlight o Creates clouds o Evaporation, condensation, advection, melts off glaciers  Sediment cycle (drawing)  Dissolved gasses in seawater (depth diagram) o Solubility= the amount of a gas that can dissolve in water o Gasses are more soluble in cold water and less in warm water. The ocean is more soluble in colder parts than warmer.  Relations between gases and plants/animals in the oceans (drawing) o Carbon dioxide is removed from the water by plants and put back in by animals and bacteria o Winter=net O2 invasion o Summer= net O2 evasion o Drawing  Reactions for photosynthesis and respiration o Photosynthesis by plants: CO2+H2OCH2O+O2 o Respiration by animals and bacteria: CH2O+O2CO2+H2O Will Learn in Class Tuesday:  Four things that happen to sunlight entering water  Basics of color and light  Why the oceans are blue BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY STUFF ON THE WORLD MAP!  Subduction zones (volcanoes/trenches)  Spreading centers  Names of main plates  Direction of motion of the main plates  Oldest and youngest oceanic crust in carious ocean basins  Active volcanoes and chains of volcanoes/seamounts at hot spots  Where granite, basalt, and andesite might be found  Examples of 5 different types of mountain ranges  Examples of freeze-thaw and growth of salt crystals would break rocks apart  Sediments on continental shelf and deep sea floor  Thickets vs. thinnest sediments on ocean floor  Where clay can be found and where it may have come from


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