Art 1300 - Exam #1 Study Guide
Art 1300 - Exam #1 Study Guide 1300
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Furman on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1300 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Davinia N Gomez-Miraval in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Art Appreciation in Art at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Art Appreciation September 16, 2016 Exam #1 Study Guide Visual Elements Line: the path of a moving point • It is the most basic element yet the most complex; it builds all other elements • Take for instance the works of Van Gogh o He had bipolar disorderand was possiblyhomosexual o Poor (whatever money he had went towardart supplies) o No artwork saleswhile he was alive o Ex. A Fishing Boat at Sea, 1888 His use of line in this painting depicts the setting (windy, water is choppy, there is rainoff inthe distance). We can infer that it is not wise for the boat to leave shore (they’re fishermen, storms = fish = $$$). If we look deeper,we can infer that Van Gogh painted this subject matter (the events or objects you are looking at) to portray his own life struggle at that point in time with money and making a living for himself. • Line can have expressive personality, meaning it conveys emotions to those looking at the work of art. Qualities of Line: 1. Directionality: the directionof the line can convey specific emotions or perceptions Vertical Horizontal Diagonal Curved Anxiety Calm Movement Movement Discomfort Quiet (In transition from Based off the Attention- Relaxing vert. to hor.) curves of the Unstable Getting Not Moving human body One last example of Curved Line: Guggenheim Museum in NYC, built in1959, cone shaped (considers the fluidity of movement), has no stairs…instead a wide ramp was built and utilized as exhibition space to both combat the large amounts of visitors and the disabled 2. Hard Line: a. Defined, mostly clean, has a clearbeginning and end, usually made with one single stroke b. Also known as the “male” line c. Ex: Georgia O’Keeffe’s Winter Road 1963 i. Hard, curved, actual line 3. Soft Line a. Hesitant, varied,broken down b. Also known as the “female” line Functions of Line 1. Outline and Contour a. Outline: i. Defines the figure/shape, lineate the figure ii. Not a lot of detail,small shapes or lines, etc. iii. ALWAYS composed of actual lines (whether hard or soft) 1. Actual lines are used to show characteristics b. Contour: i. Shows the edges of the things ii. ALWAYS composed of implied lines iii. You will see this in90% of artwork 2. Shading/Modeling a. Looking for the illusionof three dimensionality seenthrough shadows and light b. Parts of the artworkin front of or behind other objects show depth c. There are two techniques to execute shading/modeling: i. Hatching 1. Creating semi parallellines 2. Lines closer together convey shadow 3. Lines farther awayconvey openness ii. Cross Hatching 1. Crossing of the semi parallellines 2. Followssame trends as the hatch technique 3. Lines closer together convey shadow 4. Lines farther away convey openness 3. Texture a. Something tangible that you can feel with your hands, tactile b. Suggested by the line characteristics i. Lines can imply skin qualities inartwork concerning humans 4. Direction/Movement a. In nature, lookfor lines in the landscape and foreground b. Movement is shown by diagonal lines i. Diagonal lines can also imply instability c. Direction is shown by horizontal lines Shape: 1. Shape is a two dimensional area with identifiable boundaries 2. There are two categories of shape: a. Geometric shape i. Due to its angles and sharp edges, Clean, Perfectly defined ii. Circle is an exception…it falls somewhere in betweenthe two categories; because its curve implies movement, it is alsoconsidered organic iii. Supremacism = belief that the supreme shape is the rectangle b. Organic shape i. No sharp angles, curved, devoid of sharp angles 3. Henri Matisse (1869-1954) a. To him, making art was a central part of his being…even when he was sickand disabled;he tried his best to continue to make art b. Used the cut-out technique: cutting shapes from paper and arranging them 4. Implied triangular shape a. Used during the time of the renaissance to express the religion of Christianity b. The triangle, in Christianity, represents the holy trinity: God, the father, and the holy spirit c. When a triangle is present, it can show that God is present 5. Just like line, shape can be both actual and implied a. Many of Da Vinci’s works include organic shapes (due to the human body) but the placement of their bodies establishes an implied triangular shape b. Rafael is more forwardwithimplied triangular shape inhis works (more so than Da Vinci) i. Rafael could have surpassed both Da Vinci and Michelangelo if he hadn’t died so early on in life ii. He died of syphilis at age 30 6. Figure and Ground a. Figure-Ground relationship i. Figure = the shape ii. Ground = whatever is around the shape, the area where shapes (figures) reside b. Figure-Ground Reversal i. When the ground and the figure interchange places ii. Ex: Faces and Vase artwork 1. When you see the faces (figure), the vase is implied (ground) 2. When you see the vase (figure), the vases are implied (ground) iii. It is possibleto have both reversaland relationship in the same artwork Mass: 1. Mass – a three dimensional object that exists in space 2. Form – objects that have mass a. If it is an illusion of space, it’s a shape NOT a form (shapes are 2D, forms are 3D) b. Only sculptures, metal work, and things that can actually take up 3D space can have mass and be calledform c. There are two types of forms: i. Closed forms 1. Solid, compact, self- sufficient, hard, and have no distractions 2. Ex: Olmec Head a. Found SE of Mexico b. ~13ft tall, made of volcanic rock, weigh 25 tons, doesn’t have any holes inthe form ii. Open Forms 1. See through, has distractions, may or may not be self-sufficient, has to include open spaces 2. Could share many characteristics withclosedforms, but if see through or has open spaces it is still classifiedas open Space: 1. Vertical Placement a. Divides the picture plane in two b. Things at the bottom of the workare closer,things on top of the workare farther away c. There is not a big distance i. Size of the objects are more or less the same, makes sense when used with overlapping 2. Linear Perspective a. It’s a way to create a 3D logical space in a 2D surface b. 2 basic elements i. Horizon line ii. Vanishing point 1. Where all parallellines meet 2. Exclusively works with geometric shapes 3. If it has a vanishing point, it is linear perspective 4. Extremely mathematical (needs to worksystematically, methodically, consistently need to measure everything) 5. Mathematical diminishing size a. Need to use a ratio b. Has a vanishing point 6. Can guide your eye to the focal point 7. Cannot use linear perspective on organic shapes 8. Parallellines can frame scenes 9. Can have more than one vanishing point 3. Atmospheric Perspective a. Things in front are very detailed b. Things in back are blurry and change color Light/Value: 1. Value – the relative lightness or darkness of a color or neutral a. Neutral = black, white, grey, brown b. Translation – using relative value when converting an artworkfrom color into neutrals c. The more value there is ina composition, the more 3D it looks (if there is less value, it looks more flat or 2D) 2. Black and White a. Highlight = the lightest area of the whole composition b. Graduations of value = the in areas of the composition inbetween the highlight and darkest area c. Darkest value = the darkest area of the whole composition 3. Shade – adding black to a color 4. Tone – adding grey to a color 5. Tint – adding white to a color PINK IS NOT A COLOR, IT IS A TINT!!! Color: Isaac Newton Established color theory (created for physics, but artists began to use it heavily) o A ray of white light passes through a prismto create all the colors of the visible spectrum (those colors visibleto the naked eye – colors of the rainbow) o Difference between a law and a theory? Law = 100% sure it’s true Theory = ~90% sure it’s true Color Theory 1. In the absence of light, there is no color – rather, color is light, you cannot have one without the other 2. All objects are going to reflect one color and absorball the others a. Ex: Blue shirt: all colorsexcept blue are absorbed and blue is reflected b. Ex: White shirt: all colors are reflected c. Ex: Black shirt: all colors are absorbed 3. Color affects us both physically and psychologically a. Ex: “Green with envy” – green strikes an envious feeling because we associate it with that b. Blue – sad c. Orange – energy d. Red – warning, passion, anger, love,violence, etc. i. Ex: stop signs ii. Red has one of the larges ranges of feelings associatedwiththe word or color Color Wheel Colors of the visible spectrum organized ina circular pattern Primary Colors – yellow, red, blue; they just exist; they create Y the other colors YO YG Secondary Colors – orange, green, violet; mixing of two primary Colors O G Tertiary Colors – RO, YO, YG, BG, RV, BV; mixing of a primary and secondary color RO BG Pastel – made of pure pigments; have high intensity R B *If you mix all 3 primaries, you will get a neutral color (brown) even though in theory it should be black * If you mix the 3 primaries with light you will get a white light, RV BV this is true in theory and practice V 1. Color has properties a. Hue – means “color” i. Ex: “red hue” is interchangeable with“red color” ii. Only applies to colors of the visiblespectrum, all others outside of the spectrum are not colors/hues b. Value – relative darkness or lightness of a color i. High key values – use of light colors inan artwork’s majority (RO through Y through BG) ii. Low key value – use of dark colorsin an artwork’s majority (RO through V through BG) iii. REMEMBER, ITS DEPENDENT ON WHAT IS USED FOR THE MAJORITY OF THE WORK c. Saturation/Intensity – purity and brilliance of the color,its vibrancy 2. Color has temperature a. Warm colors i. Yellow, orange, red b. Cool colors i. Green, blue, violet c. Base the classificationof warm vs. cool on what colors make up the majority of the work Palette A selection of colors for an artworkOR where you physically place the colors that you’re using Ex: Primary Palette – use of just primary colors Ex: Secondary palette – use of only secondary colors Color Schemes Color combinations, colors that match nicely witheach other (mostly used for fashion) Ex: fall colors, summer colors 1. Monochromatic a. Use of one single color b. Can utilize all shades, tints, tones, and values of the color plus any black, white, gray, or brown c. “Mono” = one; “chroma” = color d. Ex: All blue colors (any blackand white doesn’t count because they are neutrals) 2. Complimentary colors a. Colors that are across the color wheel from eachother b. Yellow and violet; yellow green and red violet c. One color is not taking awayfrom each other, they complement each other fully and seem to “vibrate” together d. Ex: sports logos (Lakers = yellow and purple) e. Ex: holidays (Christmas = green and red) After image Occurs when the brain gets tiredof seeing a color for too long so the brainmakes up the complementary colors o If you stare at red, the mind generates the green complementary color o If you stare at yellow, the mind generates the violet complementary color o If you stare at blue, the mind generates the orange complementary color Optical Color Mixture A mixture of the colors physically does not happen; the artist places two colorsnext to each other o Close up, you see the individual colors o Farther away, you see a blend of the colors because the eye mixes it automatically Pointillism = the use of little dots/points of color placednext to each other but the colors blend when the artwork is viewedfrom farther away Texture: a tactile quality, it is palpable 4. Actual texture a. The one that you are able to touch; the objectis able to be touched i. Ex: tree bark – has a rough texture b. All 3D objects have an actual texture i. Ex: sculptures c. Juxtaposition i. Placing two opposites together ii. Ex: furry cup, plate,and spoon 1. It is soft and pleasurable to the touch, but absolutely absurd to put in your mouth and use d. There is an exception with2D artworks! i. Impasto technique – a heavy applicationof paint (ONLY IN PAINT) ii. The extra paint appliedto the canvas creates actual texture ina 2D format iii. Van Gogh is a famous painter that uses the impasto technique e. It is actual if you can touch it and remember 5. Visual texture a. Suggests a surface quality, the texture is not actually there b. It is implied texture, but you HAVE TO REFER TO IT AS VISUAL TEXTURE i. Ex: 2D art, paintings, prints c. Ex: Arnold Feeny portrait i. Smooth to the touch, but you are able to discernwhat type of materials the subjects are made of 1. Metal lamp, dog, carpet,wood floor, fur coat, etc. eachhave their own textures made by using various tools 2. Has high quality detail to show the texture without having actual texture Time: 1. Ancient calendar depicts cyclical time…time only moves forwardnever backward o Relates to the life of our culture (circleof life) and ancient civilizations (they reach their peak and then begin to decline as time passes) 2. Monet o Paintings of the reflection of light on different objects (haystacks and the roman cathedral) Comes to the same scene multiple times throughout the year and paints the object as it changes with the change in light (depicts the passage of time with that locationand object) 3. Curved lines o The curve of the line helps to depict movement o Van Gogh Utilizes brush strokes to create larger curved lines to help depict movement 4. Matisse o “The Dance” Depicts people dancing ina circular motion and alsodraws the people using curved lines Orange color depicts warmbodies due to their movement Helps the viewerto see how long and intense the people have been dancing Also the positioning of the falling body on a diagonal line helps the viewerto stop time before he falls 5. Implied Time o Comic strips, graphic novel o The time that passes is decidedby the artist o Ex: 7 panel artwork All panels are the same except for panels #1 “come” and #3 “please” There are two females holding each other but nothing is happening between the two figures Little movement candepict a very quick timeframe o Ex: Skeleton painting with 2 panels Holding a key = skeleton has a good idea Skeleton pees on the plant, time passes,and in the second panel, the plant has grown and flowered;the skeleton is happy The time passing here might be longer inorder for the plant to actually grow Movement: Kinetic Movement o Actual movement of the artwork o Wouldn’t expect to see this type of movement in a sculpture o Alexander Calder Made sculptures withwiresthat allow eachpart of the artworkto move, inspired by choreography The bases are still and heavy, but the tops are light and moveable His sculptures have the most elegant movement (a workof art that recreates itself at every turn) His artwork have beenfound in the Guggenheim museum (mobiles); the kinetic movement of his works are complemented by the implied movement of the winding ramp found inthe museum Implied Motion o Can attain implied motion through the repetition and alteration of shapes o Artists are utilizing new camera technology to try new ways to make art (still shots compiled together in a sequence to imply motion) These techniques help give wayto earlymotion pictures o “Nude Descending the Staircase” Staircase depicted inthe lowerleft hand corner of the work The body of the personis depictedalong the height of the right side of the artwork (withthe head inthe upper right hand corner) The chaos inthe shapes, is meant to depictthe speedof the body moving down the stairs…a sense of urgency; the artworkis not meant to be clear and for us to be able to see the body easily(because the artist wanted to portray that speed) o Musicians playing You see the bow movements blend together to show that the piece they are playing is veryfast-paced Art movement – consists of several artists following the same principles,ideas, and rules o Ex: Pointillism, impressionism, etc. 1. Futurism – inspired by motions and the inventions of the 20 century (camera, vehicles, etc.) a. depicts the fast moving life b. praises speed,energy, dynamism movement c. Ex: woman running i. Her head, clothing, shoes, etc. are repeated multiple times to show forwardmovement d. Ex; excited dog i. Movement shown inthe tail,feet, head, and leash ii. Suggests the dog is veryexcited e. “Dynamism of a cyclist” i. Depicts the cyclist moving forwardat a fast pace ii. the outline of the head is in the upper right hand corner and the bike is a blur to show the speed 2. Op Art a. Use of restrictedpalettes b. Use of geometric shapes and neutrals c. Demonstrates restrictedmovement Time and Movement together 1. Crocodiles fighting sculpture o Diagonal and curved lines imply movement o The upward stretch of the crocodile implies movement as wellparticularlyin the form of hunting o Artist freezes the crocodilesinthat position for dramatic pause before the meal 2. Apollo and Daphne sculptures - Bernidi o Curves and diagonals imply movement of the figures’ bodies o Time is stopped/paused as the woman is beginning to turn into a tree Feet = trunk Legs = bark Hands and hair = leaves o Cupid strikes Apollo, and Daphne tries to get away, prays to god for help, and gets turned into a tree in the process o Apollo is still so in love, he devotes his life to taking care of the tree/Daphne 3. Computer generated works o Optical illusions – contrasting colors (use of complementary colors – vibrating together helps with movement), organic shapes help with movement from curved lines Principles of Design Unity and Variety: Unity o Wholeness that is achieved through the repetitionof shape or form o Looking for harmony o Don’t confuse this withthe repetitionof shape for movement (same figure with slightly different positioning), unity repeats the same figure without the difference in positioning o Too much unity canbe considered boring, that is why variety is introduced o Ex: 12 Lions fountain Made of same material, weigh the same, same design, have the same function (fountain) Even the fountain itself has the same motifs where the designs are repeated Variety o When things are different inorder to provide interest o Creates diversity o Too much variety can create chaos, which is why it is complemented by unity o Ex: Campbell’s soup cans All the cans look the same on the outside (unity) but upon further scrutiny, each label is a different soup name (variety) Cheese soup is the artist’s favorite because there is a gold ribbonon that single canwhereas the rest are plain o Ex: Storefront Use of the repetition of rectangular shapes for windows,roofs, the sky, etc. (Unity) Variety is found inthe plant and the barbershop pole that are singular differences o Ex: Dancing Woman at Dinner Party Unity = redcolor scheme Variety = the small pops of yellow color ina few objects o Ex: People on the Train Unity = shape of window,shape of seats,race of the people,colors are the same shade Variety = man stretched diagonally to reachluggage; girl dressedlike a Christmas present Balance: A sense of equilibrium through the distribution of elements Ex: Two figures on a see-saw,mirror images of each other…if we fill one of the figures in, the work is no longer balanced and the darkened figure looks “heavier” o Visual weight 1. Formal Symmetry a. Requires that the image has both sides as mirror images of each other b. Verify by drawing an imaginary line through the center of the workand compare the sides, both sides need to have exactly the same elements c. “Man made,” not necessarilyseen innature, but seenthe most in buildings within architecture i. Ex: Taj Mahal, in India, it’s made of white marble, king had the building made in order to honor his wife who died inchildbirth ii. Within architecture we are looking for order and stability(these are the feelings meant to be convey through buildings) d. Ex: Human bodies, mostly symmetrical however not exactly symmetrical i. However, many cultures raise up the human body and portray it as exactly symmetrical 2. Symmetrical Balance a. It doesn’t match perfectly, but it is veryclose b. The work has the feeling of formal symmetry, but there are little variations that you have to look for c. The smallest difference makes THE difference d. Ex: Henri Matisse’s workwith the flowers and two faces i. The flower shapes do not match on both sides and neither do the colors of the flowers e. Ex: Arc de Triumph f. Ex: Da Vinci’s: The Last Supper g. Ex: Warhol’s Campbell’s Soup artwork 3. Asymmetrical Balance a. An overall sense of equilibrium b. Visual Weight is a concept utilized in this type of balance i. Ex: The old woman sitting in the chair 1. The blackdress she’s wearingvs. the blackcurtain inthe background 2. The vertical of the curtain is mixed withthe horizontal elderly woman c. The two sides willnot match at all d. Ex: the grim reaper vs. human bodies (Clint) i. Shows asymmetrical balance with the slender body of the reaper and the full, multiple bodies of the people ii. Balances the concept: life and death (which is heavier?) Emphasis and Focal Point: Emphasis Draws attention to a specific area of the composition Ex: Woman staring at candle flame o Emphasis placed on her face, the candle, crucifix, whip, skull in her lap, and books o The rest of the painting is too dark to discern o Book may be the Bible,she is probablyvery religious Focal Point Specific spot or figure that the artist wants the viewerto see Faces are a natural focal point Directional forces help to ID the focal point o Implied lines o Pointing gestures o Light o Sight Ex: Painting with Jesus and disciples o The white diagonal of the landscape points toward Jesus o The face of Jesus is a natural focal point o Sight of discipleslooking towardJesus Ex: 3 of may painting o Emphasis placed on the people being captured (no faces of the capturers, but shown of the captured) o Focal point = the man inthe white shirt Lighter area around him, white shirt, arms create a diagonal line leading to him, his face is the most clear Directional forces of the capturers’ guns pointed at this man Ex: Little George Washington o Portrays the cherry tree story o Focal point = little George He is lighter, the tree and other bodies are pointing at him, building is curved toward him, the hat points to him You can see his face (his face as a man is placedon the kid’s body in order to help the viewersrecognize him) Scale and Proportion: Scale Refers to size The relative size of an objectcompare with others of its kind Our expectations of a normal size in relationto its findings Small scale vs. large scale o Small images – have a more intimate feeling, private,detailed o Large images – have more of an impact, shock Our expectations of normal depend on what is around it Compare objects only of the same kind! 1. Hierarchical Scale a. Indicates the relative importance of individuals ina composition b. Ex: Egyptian painting i. The man is most important (largest size), followed by the wife,the animals, and THEN the kid (smallest size) c. Ex: Virgin Mary painting i. She is most important, followedby the angels, priest, guys, girls d. Ex: Virgin Mary with baby Jesus i. Jesus is the most important (because he is the most out of scale for his age portrayal), then Mary, then the others 2. Proportion a. The relationship of the parts to the whole, looking for expectations of normal b. Compare the same object withitself not other objects c. Cannon of proportions i. Rules for how the human being should be depicted ii. 2 types: Egyptian and Greek 1. Egyptian = palm of hand is placedunder the hairline on the forehead (because of crowns and headdresses),18 palms = perfect human proportion intheir books 2. Greek = use the whole head (top to chin) and measure it, repeat that 7.5 times = perfect Greek proportion a. Gods/Heroes = 8 heads b. Still in use today for drawing the human body iii. 20 century 1. Breaking the rules of proportion, no regard to the cannon of proportion 2. Ex: Matisse’s Woman a. Short skinny legs, wide hips, smaller waist, long long arms, small head iv. The Madonna of the Long Neck 1. Baby has ridiculous proportions
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