Biology 103 Midterm Study Guide
Biology 103 Midterm Study Guide BIO 103-002
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lucas Kinsey on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 103-002 at George Mason University taught by Gwendolyne Fondufe in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology I in Biology at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Lucas Kinsey Biology 103 Midterm Review Chapters 1, 14, 15.7-16, and 19 Chapter 1: - There are 2 types of cells: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic - Natural selection is the process in which organisms that are well adapted to their environment survive and live on to create fertile offspring while organisms who are not well adapted to their environment become extinct - The theory of evolution is that life on earth started in a simple state than evolved over a long period of time becoming more and more complex over time - The 7 properties of life are: 1. Order: all life has organization, from patterns in features to cell organization 2. Reproduction: organisms reproduce their own kind 3. Growth and Development: DNA controls the pattern of growth and development of an organism 4. Energy Process: The passing of energy via consumption of energy carries energy through cells and organisms 5. Regulation: Mechanisms regulate organism’s abilities to sustain life 6. Response to Environment: All organisms respond to external stimuli 7. Evolutionary Adaptation: Adaptations evolve over many generations as individuals with traits best suited to their environment have a greater reproductive success and pass their traits to their offspring - Emergent Properties: The higher levels of life’s hierarchy of organization hold properties that were not present at the preceding level - Darwin’s Tree of Life represents the basic idea of evolution by the creation of a phylogenic tree that maps out the ancestral background of all species - Life has unity in that groups of species and populations hold similar qualities yet diverse because every species is as equally diverse as the next - Life’s Hierarchy of Organization: 1. Biosphere 2. Ecosystem 3. Community 4. Population 5. Organism 6. Organ System 7. Tissue 8. Cell 9. Organelle 10. Molecule - Horizontal Classification: Refers to the diversity of life and uses the phylogenic tree to classify and make sense of life, classifies life into 3 distinct categories: 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea 3. Eukarya - Scientific Method: Observation Hypothesis Prediction Experimental Design Results Evidence Supports Hypothesis - Hypotheses usually are narrow in scope while theories have broad explanatory power Chapter 14 and 15.7-end: - Different Species Defining Concepts: o Biological Species Concept: Defines a species as a group of populations whos members have potential to breed successful offspring o Morphological Species Concept: Classifies species by physical traits o Ecological Species Concept: Classifies species depending on their environment and behavior o Phylogenic Species Concept: Defines a species as the smallest group of individuals with a common ancestor - Speciation: The process by which one species splits into two or more species - Prezygotic Barriers (Pre-sex Barriers): o Habitat – lack of opportunities to see each other o Temporal – Breeding at different seasons o Behavioral – Don’t have matching mating signals o Mechanical – Physically incompatible o Gametic – Molecular incompatibility of sperm and eggs - Prostzygotic Barriers (After-sex Barriers): o Reduced Hybrid Viability – Bad genes of offspring o Reduced Hybrid Fertility – Hybrid Can’t Reproduce o Hybrid Breakdown –Hybrid’s offspring has bad genes - Allopatric Speciation: When a geographical Barrier isolates a species - Sympatric Speciation: When a new species arises within the same geographic area as its parent species - Adaptive Radiation: The evolution of many diverse species from a common ancestor o Usually happens after a mass extinction - Continental Drift is the theory that which Earth is made of continental plates that are continuously moving - 2 Greatest Mass Extinctions: o Permian Period – Volcanic Eruptions killed Sea Life o Cretaceous Period – A meteor Killed all the Dinosaurs : ( Chapter 16 - Different Types of Bacteria Cells: o Cocci – Spherical Cells sometimes occur in chains o Bacilli – Rod shaped and occur singly o Spirochetes – Spiral Cells - Gram Stain is a way of identifying harmful types of bacteria by figuring out what their cell membrane is chemically composed of and dying it gram negative if it is dangerous - A lot of prokaryotes can help society by the process called bioremediation where biophilms of prokaryotes are created to filter out water - Major Bacterial Groups: o Cyanobacteria o Chlamydias o Spirochetes - Koch’s postulate describes the nature of a pathogen, and that a pathogen can be grown independently from a cell in a cultured environment - Exotoxins: Proteins that bacteria emit into the environment (poisonous) - Endotoxins: lipid components of the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria that are released when the cell dies - Protists: a diverse collection of mostly unicellular eukaryotes o Algae o Protozoans o Parasites o Mixotrophs - Archaea: Prokaryotes that thrive in extreme environments o Extreme Holophiles – Live in salty places o Extreme Thermophiles – Live in hot watery places o Methanogens – Live in oxygenless environments Chapter 19: - Biodiversity: refers to the diversity that encompasses all aspects of life and arose out of evolution - Ecosystem diversity refers to the vast assortment of ecosystems that can thrive in one place - Jawed vertebrates arose from craniate and first showed up in marine organisms - Tetrapods: jawed and limbed organisms that were the first vertebrates to evolve on Land
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