Psychology 1101 First Exam study guide
Psychology 1101 First Exam study guide PSYCH 1101 C
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Argueta on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1101 C at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Kristy Sorenson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 121 views.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Psychology 1101 (Dr. Sorenson) First Exam Study Guide Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term Chapter 1: Thinking Critically WITH Psychological Science History & Scope of Psychology - Psychologist approaches behavior with: - Curiosity, skepticism, and humility, - The birth of Psychology as a science – 1879 William Wundt - Developed the first lab of psych w/ a test of awareness Structuralism- Titchener - Method: introspection: looking inside the mind and becoming aware of them . This technique was very systematic and structured to aim for a certain goal for each trial. - Think of it as atoms of the mind - Problem: human mind is too complicated to give the same systematic answer - Functionalism: James - Topic: function of human thoughts/feelings & behaviors of survival - Method: influence of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection Problem: there was no easy evidence that proves this theory, so James gave up & went back to philosophy - Behaviorism (1930-1960) - Method: no reference to mental processes, only observational behavior only - Watson’s famous “Little Albert” experiment of learning fear - Skinner’s operant conditioning - Psychoanalysis: (Freud) - Topic: unconscious thought. Ideas were mostly behavioral and not controlled by the conscious mind - Method: childhood experience affect later behavior Psychological Science Develops - Humanistic Psychology: mental process in which humans need love a nd acceptance (it is vital for them) - Cognitive Psychology: the mental process - The modern definition for psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. - Cognitive neuroscience: mix of cognitive psychology and neuroscience Types of Research - Basic: doing studies on a topic to understand something, this method is s trictly observational & based on curiosity - Applied: trying to solve a particular problem, not based on general curiosity The big nature-nurture question: - “nature” is anything that’s genetic, while “nurture” is something that is learned - contemporary science describes this method as “ nurture works on what nature endows” Positive psychology: happiness is a by-product of a pleasant, engaged, and meaningful life. Basically, it explores the good life of skills The Biopsychological Approach: - Biological influence: chemical reaction - Psychological influence: the thought process - Social-cultural influence: how other people act around you - Evolutionary: how natural selection of traits has promoted survival of specific genes - Psychodynamic: behavior springs from unconscious thoughts and conflicts Psychology’s subfields -Counseling psychologist help people cop e with challenges crises to improve their personal and social functioning -Clinical psychologist assess and treat people with mental/emotional/behavior disorders. -Psychiatrists are licensed medical doctors to prescribe drugs or treat physical caused of psychological disorders The limit of intuition and common sense - Hindsight bias: looking back in time and assume something will happen - Overconfidence: think we know more than we actually do - Perceiving order in random events: trying to find patterns when there actually isn’t Chapter 12: Social Psychology Social Thinking - Attribution theory: attribute behavior to a person’s stable traits ( which is a Dispositional attribution) or to a situation ( situational attribution) - Fundamental attribution error : overestimate the influence of personality and underestimate the influence of situations - Ex: Julie is shy, so that’s why she’s quiet in class (dispositional) Julie is crazy at a party, she much be a party animal (situational) Attitudes: feels influenced by beliefs that predispose our reactions to objects, people, and events - - Altruism: unselfish interest in helping another person - Attitudes à Behavior - Attitudes predict behavior whe n: - Attitudes are strong - We show awareness of attitudes and practice them - We have a vested interest - Behavior à attitudes - Cognitive dissonance theo ry: bring attitudes into line with out acions - Discomfort caused by inconsistent thoughts can be reduced by: - Behavior to fit attitude - Attitude to fit behavior - Effort justification - Rationalizing the amount of effort put into something Social influence - Conformity: a person’s attempt to behave w/in the group standard - Asch’s experiment: five participants (one volunteer, four confederates/the experimenters) were to look at two cards, one which a standard line and the other with varying lines, and choose which line resembled the standard line. - This experiment was a test for conformity b/c it shows to see if a person would follow the social order even when its obviously wrong - Obedience: behavior that complies with explicit demands made by the individual in authority - Milgram’s Obedience experiment: volunteers were to ask and punish (if the other participant was wrong) with electric shocks. The other participants receiving the shocks were confederates but in the end basically 2/3 of volunteers obeyed the experimenter with the punish - Stanford prison experiment: college volunteers were to either play a prison guard or a jailbird for two weeks. People actually conformed and obeyed the stere otypical roles of how a guard or a jailbird would be. This experiment didn’t last long due to the dramatic change in college students - Group influence - Deindividuation: when being part of a group reduce one personal identity and roles one’s sense of personal responsibility - Social loafing: tendency to exert less effort in a group due to less accountability for individual effort - Group think: a group’s impaired decision making and avoidance of realistic appeal in order to maintain group harmony - Prejudice v. discrimination - Prejudice: a negative attitude toward an individual/group caused by stereotypes or in group/out group bias - Discrimination: a negative behavior - Improving intergroup relations - Researchers examined how various features of a contact situation can reduce prejudice and promote intergroup harmony - Studies shown that contact is better if people invo lves think that they are of equal statues, feel positive relations, and believe that a friendship can emerge - Two groups work together to achieve a shared goal Chapter 2: The Biology of the Mind [Neurons: nerve cells - Dendrite: receive info and conduct it toward the cell b ody - Axon: passes message through terminal branches to other neurons or to muscles/glands - - Sensory neurons: carry messages from body’s tissues and sensory receptors inward to the brain - Motor neurons: carry info from the central nervous system out to the body ’s muscles and glands - Inter neurons: the neurons in between motor and sensory (you have billions of these compared to motor and sensory) Action potential : electrical charge that tr avels down the axon How it works: 1) Neuron stimulation causes a brief change in electrical charge. This opens to allow positively charged sodium (Na) ions to flood in ( thi s action potential) 2) Polarization occurs in the next portion of the axon. Gates then allow potassium (K) ions to flow out, repolarizing where the Na ions are coming in 3) As action potential moves down the axon, Na & K pumps/gates in the cell membrane finish restoring the first section of the axon to its resting potential - Threshold: combined signals that trigger action potential - Refractory period: the resting stage where action potentials cant occue until the axon returns to its resting state - All-or-none response: strong stimulus that triggers more neurons to fire Synapse - Neurotransmitters: knob like terminals that trigg ers the release of chemical messengers neurotransmitters function Examples of malfunctions Acetylcholine (Ach) Enables muscle action, Helps w/ Alzheimer’s learning, and memory disease Dopamine Influences movement, Oversupply in learning, attention, & schizophrenia, undersupply emotions for tremors and decreased mobility in Parkinson’s disease Serotonin Affects mood, hunger, Undersupply to depression sleep, & arousal Norepinephrine Helps control alertness & Undersupply to suppress arousal mood GABA Major inhibitory Undersupply linked to neurotransmitter seizures, tremors, insomnia Glutamate A major excitatory Oversupply can create neurotransmitter, involved in migraines and seizures memory Endorphins Neurotransmitters that Oversupply w/ opiate drugs influence the perception of pain or pleasure - Reuptake: excess neurotransmitters that are broken down by enzymes or are reabsorbed by sending the neuron - agonists v. antagonist - agonist: increase neurotransmitters - antagonist: decreases neurotransmitters action Nervous System - Central nervous system : connection between the brain and spinal cord - Peripheral nervous system: responsible for gather info and for transmitting CNS decisions to other body parts - - sympathetic nervous system: arouses and expends energy - parasympathetic nervous system : produce opposite effects, calming your body - somatic nervous system: enables voluntary control of skeletal muscles - autonomic nervous system : controls glands and internal organ muscles Endocrine System: glands secrete another form of chemical messages, hormones Brain structures: Part Function Medulla Controls your heartbeat and breathing Pons Coordinate movement and sleep Cerebellum Enables nonverbal learning and kill memory Reticular formation Filters incoming stimuli and relays important info to other brain areas and controls arousal thalamus Brain’s sensory control center Limbic system: Part Function Amygdala Links aggression and fear Hypothalamus Link in governing bodily maintenance Hippocampus Conscious memory Pituitary Gland Master endocrine gland • Cerebral cortex o Frontal: involved in speaking/ muscle movements, making thoughts or plans o Temporal: auditory area o Parietal: sensory input for body and touch o Occipital: receives info from visual fields
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