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Exam 1 study guide

by: nicole ugelstad

Exam 1 study guide HNES 111

nicole ugelstad
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exam 1 study guide
Sarah gretterman
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by nicole ugelstad on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HNES 111 at North Dakota State University taught by Sarah gretterman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.

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Date Created: 09/17/16
Exam 1 Review HEALTH AND WELLNESS (Chapter 1 and Lecture)  Define health and wellness o Health: sound body, mind, and spirit. WHO defines health as “not merely absence of disease or infirmity but a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing o Wellness: purposeful enjoyable living or, more specifically, a deliberate lifestyle choice characterized by personal responsibility and optimal enhancement of physical, mental, and spiritual health.  Know the dimensions of health and understand the interplay between each. o Physical healthy o Psychological health o Spiritual health o Social health o Intellectual health o Environmental health o Occupational health  Discuss the different health disparities and their impact on health  Define health promotion, health prevention and health protection and understand how they are used within primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare o Health promotion: any planned combination of educational, political, regulatory, and organizational supports for actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups, or communities o Health prevention: information and support offered to help heathy people identify their health risks, reduce stressors, prevent potential medical problems, and enhance their well-being o Health protection: measures that an individual can take when participating in risky behavior to prevent injury or unwanted risks  What are the four main steps discussed in class needed for a successful behavior change? o Stages of change:  Precontemplation  Contemplation  Preparation  Action  Maintenance  termination  Understand the difference between predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors o Predisposing factors: the beliefs, values, attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions that influence our behavior o Enabling factors: the skills, resources, and physical and mental capabilities that shape our behavior. o Reinforcing factors: rewards, encouragement and recognition that influence our behavior in the short run  What is the purpose of the Health Belief Model and how does it impact change? o Health belief model: a model of behavioral change that focuses on the individuals attitudes and beliefs  How does motivation impact change? Which type of motivation has the best success rate for change? o Internal motivation  SMART goals o S ­ specific, significant, stretching o M ­ measurable, meaningful, motivational o A ­ agreed upon, attainable, achievable, acceptable, action­oriented o R ­ realistic, relevant, reasonable, rewarding, results­oriented o T ­ time­based, time­bound, timely, tangible, trackable  Describe each stage in the Stages of Change Model and the processes associated with each stage o Precontemplation: no intention of changing o Contemplation: prefer not to change, start to realize that you cant avoid reality o Preparation: make a clear decision. Gather info, call around, research o Action: actively modifying your behavior according to your plan o Maintenance: stabilizing stage, retain what you’ve worked for and make the change permanent o Termination: change has become “status quo” EMOTIONAL AND SPIRITUAL HEALTH (Chapter 2 and lecture)  Define emotional health and spiritual health o Emotional health: The ability to express and acknowledge one’s feelings and moods and exhibit adaptability and compassion for others o Spiritaul health: the ability to identify ones basic purpose in life and to achieve ones full potential  Define positive psychology and understand the key components/lessons that enhance positive psychology o Positive psychology: the scientific study of ordinary human strengths and virtues  Count ones blessings  Savor experiences  Practice kindness  Pursue meaning  Set personal goals  Express gratitude  Build compassion for self and others  Identifying and using ones strengths  Visualizing and writing about ones best possible self at a time in the future  Define spiritual intelligence o The capacity to sense, understand, and tap into ourselces, others, and world around us  Understand the relationship between spirituality and health o Spirituality: a belief in someone or something that transcends the boundaries of self  Identify ways to enhance your spirituality o Sit quietly o Start small o Step outside o Use activity to tune into your spirit o Ask questions of yourself o Trust your spirit o Develop a spiritual practice  What is gratitude? o Appreciation not just for a special gift but for everything that makes life a bit better MENTAL HEALTH (Chapter 3 and Lecture)  Define mental health and mental disorder o Mental disorder: a behavioral or psychological syndrome associated with distress or disability or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or loss of freedom o Mental health: the ability to perceive reality as it really is and respond to its challenges and develop rational strategies for living  Know the key characteristics of a mentally healthy individual  Understand the different mental health disorders discussed in your textbook o Major depressive disorder: sadness that does not end o Bipolar disorder: sever depression alternating with periods of manic activity and elation o Anxiety disorders: a group of psychological disorders involving episodes of apprehension, tension, or uneasiness, stemming from the anticipation of danger and sometimes accompanied by physical symptoms which cause significant distress and impairment to an individual o Phobias: anxiety disorders marked by an inordinate fear of an object, class of objects, or a situation resulting in extreme avoidance of behaviors o Panic attacks: short episodes characterized by physical sensations of light-headedness, dizziness, hyperventilation, and numbness of extremities, accompanied by an inexplicable terror, usually of a physical disaster such as death o Panic disorder: an anxiety disorder in which the apprehension or experience of recurring panic attacks is so intense that normal functioning is impaired o Generalized anxiety disorder: an anxiety disorder characterized as chronic distress o OCD: an anxiety disorder characterized by obsessions and/or compulsions that impair one’s ability to function and form relationship o ADHD: a spectrum of difficulties in controlling motion, sustaining attention, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and distractibility o Autism spectrum disorder: a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes social and communication impairments o Schizophrenia: a general term for a group of mental disorders with characteristic psychotic symptoms, such as delusions, hallucinations, and disorder thought patterns during the active phase of the illness and a duration of at least six months  What are the four main risk factors for suicide? o Impulsivity o High levels of arousal o High levels of aggression o And past suicidal behavior  Recognize warning signs for mental illness and suicide  What are the counseling center resources? (Location, phone number, hours, etc.) o Location: 212 Ceres Hall  o •   Phone number: 701­231­7671.   o M/W/F 8:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. and T/Th 8:00 a.m.-7:00 p.m. STRESS (Chapter 4 and Lecture)  Homeostasis vs. Stress  Know the five types of stressors and identify examples of each o Acute time-limited stressors: anxiety provoking situations such as having to give a talk in public or work out a math problem, such as calculating a tip or dividing a bill, under pressure. Even small daily hassles like misplacing your keys or cell phone can add to your stress o Brief naturalistic stressors: are more serious challenges such as taking the SAT or meeting a deadline for a big project o Life change events: include planned and predictable occurrences such as graduation or marriage as well as unexpected ones such as the loss of a home. o Chronic stressors: ongoing demands from life changing circumstances that do not have a clear ending point o Distant stressors: traumatic experiences that occurred long ago yet continue to have an emotional and psychological impact  Which systems are primarily responsible for the stress response o When you confront a stressor, the adrenal galdns, two crescent shaped glands that sit atop the kidneys, respond yb producing stress hormones, including catecholamines, cortisol, and epinephrine, that speed up heart rate and raise blood pressure and prepare the body to deal with the threat. This fight or flight response prepares you for quick action o Your heart works harder to pump more blood to your legs and arms o Your muscles tense o Your breathing quickes o Your brain becomes extra alert o Since digestion is nonessential in a crisis, it practically shuts down  Fight-o- Flight vs. Tend-and-befriend o Fight or flight is aggressive o Tend and befriend reaches out to others  Recognize physiological responses to stress o Alarm: body becomes aware of a stressor, the body mobilizes various systems for actions o Resistance: if stress continues the body draws on its internal resources to try to sustain homeostasis o Exhaustion: if stress continues long enough, normal functioning becomes impossible  How does/can stress impact performance, health, and wellness (eg: Yerkes Dodson Law) o With too little stress you might not be motivated enough to get out bed in the morning o With too much stress you cant function at your best  Eustress vs. Distress o Eustress: positive stress o Distress: negative stress  What are the best ways to manage stress? o Progressive relaxation: a method of reducing muscle tension by contracting then relaxing certain areas of the body o Visualization or guided imagery: an approach to stress control, self-healing, or motivating life changes by means of seeing oneself in the state of calmness, wellness, or change o Biofeedback: a technique of becoming aware, with the aid of external monitoring devices, of internal physiological activities in order to develop the capability of altering them o Meditation: a group of approaches that use quiet sitting, breathing techniques, and/or chanting to relax, improve concentration, and bceom attuned to ones inner self o Mindfulness: a method of stress reduction that involves experiencing the physical and mental sensations of the present moment  Time Management and Relaxation techniques o Schedule your time o Develop a game plan o Identify time robbers o Make the most of classes o Develop an efficient study stle o Focus on the task at hand o Turn elephants into hors d’oeuvres (cut a huge task into smaller chunks) o Keep your workspace in order SLEEP  Sleep deprivation vs. sleep debt o Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute. o Sleep debt is the difference between the amount of sleep you should be getting and the amount you actually get.  Know the sleep stages/cycles o NREM  Non-REM sleep, which is perhaps best defined negatively as any sleep not recognizable as REM sleep, consists of three separate stages (stage1, stage 2 and stage 3), which are followed in order upwards and downwards as sleep cycles progress. o REM  a kind of sleep that occurs at intervals during the night and is characterized by rapid eye movements, more dreaming and bodily movement, and faster pulse and breathing. o Physiological adaptations that occur during each stage  Why do we need sleep? o Repair and memory storage  General sleep recommendations o College students 9-10 hours  Sleep interferences o Noise, light,  Health impacts associated with lack of sleep o Learning and memory o Metabolism and weight o Mood o Immunity o Mental disorders o Major diseases and death o Sexuality (more sleep = more sexuality)  Strategies for good sleep Review: Additional key aspects to review would be key points and definitions discussed in the textbook Chapters. NOTE: This is a review sheet and is meant to serve as a guide to study for the exam. The information on the exam may include this and all other information discussed in lecture and textbook.


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