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Western Art Study Guide 1

by: THeller97

Western Art Study Guide 1 ART 225-02


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About this Document

Study guide for chapters 1,2,3,5,7 (Week 1-3 Notes)
Overview of Western Art
Pitluga, Kurt W
Study Guide
WesternArt, Art
50 ?




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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by THeller97 on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ART 225-02 at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania taught by Pitluga, Kurt W in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Overview of Western Art in Art History at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
OVERVIEW TO WESTERN ART EXAM #1 STUDY GUIDE  TEST DATE: SEPTEMBER 21, 2016    Chapters to be covered:  Chapter 1: Prehistoric Art  ● Pgs. 22­31  Chapter 2: Ancient Near Eastern Art  ● Pgs. 32­45  Chapter 3: Egyptian Art  ● Pgs. 46­63  Chapter 5: Greek Art  ● Pgs. 76­111  Chapter 7 :Roman Art  ● Pgs. 122­154    CHAPTER 1: PREHISTORIC ART  Chapter Outline  Paleolithic Art  ● Prehistoric Paintings  ○ Hoped to stimulate fertility in the wild by creating images of pregnant animals  ○ Ritual of men and women throwing spears at images to kill spirit of an mals ● Paleolithic Carvings  ○ Women were frequent subjects in sculpture  ○ ​ Woman of Willendorf (disc. 1908   ■ Emphasis on reproductive qualities  ● Large breasts, hips, thig s ● Paleolithic Dwellings  ○  ​ Mezhirich,​ ​Ukraine ­ farmer discovered a series of dwellings constructed of  mammoth tusks and bones to create a set framework   Neolithic Art  ● Societies and Paleolithic Art  ○  ​ Special skills to acquire over this time included oven­fire pottery, weaving, and  smelting of copper and lead  ○ Artists fashioned clay figurines  ■ Female and Male Figures from Cernavoda, Romania   ● Tombs and Rituals  ○  ​ Stonehenge  ■ 2400 BCE  ■ Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England  ■ Holes hollowed out of capstones fit snugly over projections on the  uprights which forms a​ ortise and tenon joint  ○ Megaliths  ■ Large blocks of stone  ■ Mounted in a​ ost­and­linte​ rrangement  ● Two upright stones supporting a horizontal capstone  ■ Often appear on circles, cal​ romlechs    CHAPTER 2:ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART  Chapter Outline:  Sumerian Art  ● Temple Architecture  ○  ​White Temple and Ziggurat  ■ Uruk, Iraq  ○ Whitewashed brick honored sky god, Anu  ○ Temple of Abu, Tell Asmar, Iraq  ■ Two larger figures usually identified as cult statues of Abu, god of  vegetation  ○ Standard or Ur, Royal Cemetery  ■ “Registers”  ■ Hieratic Scale ­ double scale  ● Displays status in soc   y Babylonian Art  ● Code of Hammurabi  ○ 3,500 lines of cuneiform  ■ Shamash ­ Sun God’   ○ “ an eye for an eye, tooth for a   oth” Assyrian Art  ● Art of Empire: Expressing Royal Power  ○ Citadel of Sargon II (r.721­705)  ■ Multiple corridors surrounded throne of Sargon  ○ Lamassu  ■ Winged guardian figure  ● Exaggerated  figure to be intimidating to enemies  ■ Body of bull, wings of eagle, head of king  ■ Symbol of power for the king  ■ Prevent bad spirits entering king’s palace  ○ Walls of corridors also received sculptural attention with imagery to dominate:  ■ Hunting  ■ Religion  ○ Orthostat  ■ Relief sculptures made of gypsu   Late Babylonian Art  ○ Hanging Gardens of Babylon  ■ One of the seven wonders of the ancient world  ■ Built for the queen who was homesick   ○  ​Ishtar Gate, Babylon c.575 BCE  ■ Predominate use of blue  ■ Lapis Lazuli to demonstrate wealth of Bab lon Persian Art  ● Persian Empire: Mesopotamian Tradition  ○  ​“Palace at Persepolis” 500 BCE  ■ Darius and Xerxes  ■ Infused many different styles of other art into persian art  ■ Dominate feature ­ audience halls  ■  destroyed by Alexander the Great in 131 BCE    CHAPTER 3: EGYPTIAN ART  Chapter Outline:   Predynastic and Early Dynastic Art  ● Palette of King Narmer  ○  ​Purpose was to symbolize the unification of upper and lower  gypt The Old Kingdom: Golden Age  ● Funerary Complexes  ○  ​Ra­ Sun God (Most important god in egyptian culture)  ○ Embalming process  ■ Remove organs  ■ Wrap body with medicinal bandages soaked in liquid to help preserve  body  ○ Canopic Jars  ■ Used to hold the internal organs of the deceased  ○ Gods associated with the dead  ■ Osiris ­ Underworld  ■ Anubis ­ Embalming  ■ Thoth ­ Inventor of Writing  ■ Horus ­ Sky  ■ Ammit­ Devourer of Souls  ○ Mastaba ­ Arabic “bench”  ■ Includes models to take to the afterlife with you  ○ Serdab ­ Arabic “cellar”  ■ Ka Statue chamber  ○ Necropolis ­ Greek “City of the dead”  ● Pyramids of Giza  ○  ​Menkaure  ■ Smallest pyramid  ○ Khafre  ■ Middle pyramid  ○ Khufu  ■ Chamber in middle of pyramid for king’s tomb  ■ First and largest pyramid  ○ “Ben­ben”   ■ Pyramid shaped emblem of Ra (Sun God)  ■ “Heliopolis”  ● Center of sun cu t ● Representing Human Figure  ○ Canon system of proportions  ○ Composite view  ■ Head in profile  ■ Eyes frontal  ■ Torso frontal  ■ Legs and feet in profile  ■ Unnatural, but easy view of human body  ○ Sculptures usually were one foot in front of another to represent stepping into the  afterli e The New Kingdom  ● Royal burials in the Valley of the Kings  ○ Hatshepsut’s Temple  ■ Chief wife and half sister of Thutmose II  ■ Ruled with Thutmose III until her death in 1458 BCE  ○    ● Temple to the Gods  ○   ​emple of Amun­Ra, Karnak Temple Complex  ■ Sun God  ■ Pylon Gate  ● Massive stone entrance gate  ● Slopping walls to characterize gate  ● Exterior would be brightly decorated with illustrations of gods and  goddesses  ● Obelisk  ○ Monolithic, tapering st ne Akhenaten and the Armana Style  ● The Armana Style  ○ Amenhotep IV → Akhenaten  ■ “One who is effective on behalf of Aten”  ○ Created monotheism    ● Tutankhamun and the Aftermath of Armana  ○  ​Believed Akhenaten was father  ○ Received throne between eight and ten years old and died in late teen years  ○ Assassinated to end line of Akhenaten  ○ Throne of Tutankhamun  ○ Three coffins preserved the king’s body  ■ Weighed approximately 250 pounds  ○ Deathmask  ■ Approximately 50 pounds of go d   CHAPTER 5: GREEK ART  Chapter Outline  Geometric Style Art  ● Pottery  ○ Amphora  ■ Small mouth compared to rest  ■ Storage of grains,oils, etc.  ○ Krater  ■ Wide mouth  ■ Used for mixing  ○ Kylix  ■ Smallest   ■ Used for drinking  ● Ceramic Painting  ○ Black for figures is glaze  ■ After firing, detail was etched   ○ Red figure painting  ■ Background is black glaze  ■ Figures are raw clay color and detail painted  Archaic Art  ● Temple Architecture  ○ Temple of Hera II  (c.450 BCE)  ■ Paestum, Italy  ■ Doric orde   Late Classical Age  ● Architecture  ○  Capital displays order  ■ Doric  ● Classic circle shape on top  ● Associated with male qualities  ● Simplest of orders  ■  Ionic  ● Volutes  ​ Age of Alexander and Hellenistic Period  ● Emphasis on death and suffering in art  ● Dying Trumpeter (Gaul)(230­220 BC)  ○ Great deal of realism rather than idealism  ○ Gauls frequently wore chokers  ■ Gold, silver, bronze metals  ● Laocoon (50BC)  ○ Three figures and snakes carved out of one block  ○ Inspired b​ he Odyssey  ○ Laocoon was a trojan priest wishing to warn the Trojans of the Greek deception  of the Horse  ■ Poseidon killed Laocoon and his sons with serpents before he could warn  the trojans  ● “Altar of Zeus”  ○ Open courtyard for sacrifice  ○ “Giagontomachy Frieze”  ■ Battle of the gods and the giants  ○ “Athena battling Alkyoneos  ■ Much movement  ● Old Drunken Woman  ○ Realism  ○ Evokes sympathy from viewers  ● Nike of Samothrace (190 BC)  ○ Nike  ■ Goddess of victory  ○ Create expression that Nike was landing on ship    CHAPTER 7: ROMAN ART  Chapter Outline  Early Rome and the Republic  ● Architecture  ○ Temple of Portunus   ■ God of agriculture  ■ Ionic order  ○ Development of the Arch  ■ Needs wooden framework called​ entering  ■ wedge shaped stones called Voussoirs  ○ Sides of arch must be buttressed or arch will fall  ○ Vaulting systems  ■ Barrel vault  ● Lining arches up behind another  ■ Groin vault  ● 2 barrel vaults intersecting at right angles  ● Most commonly used by romans  ● X Pattern on interior  ■ Dome  ● Most dramatic  ● Building a series of arches around a 360 degree radius  Imperial Roman Art  ● Gaius Octavius “Augustus”  ○ First roman emperor  ○ Breast plate has image of enemy nation surrendering to Augustus  ○ Chariot symbolizes him as a great warrior  ● Portrait of a woman from the flavian period  ○ “Idealism”  ● Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius  ○ Bronze statue  ○ Mistaken for Constantine  Roman Commemorating Structures  ● “Ara Pacis”, Rome 13­9 BCE  ○ Altar of peace  ○ “Pax Romana” (Augustus)  ● “Column of Trajan”, Rome 106­13 CE  ○ Greatest military emperor  ○ Base contains cremated remains of Trajan  ● Forum of Trajan  ○ Big public gathering place  ○ Indoor Markets  ○ Basilica Ulpia  ■ Ulpia­Trajan’s family name  ■ Apse​ ­Semi circular space on short ends of the Basilica  ● Baths of Caracalla, Rome 211­217 CE  ○ Public bath area  ○ Baths were designed to expose body to different temperatures  ○ Caldarium  ■ Hot room  ■ Dome  ○ Tempidarium  ■ Warm room  ○ Frigidarium  ■ Cold room  ■ Biggest room  ■ Groin vaults  ○ Natatio  ■ Swimming pool  ● Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), Rome 72­80 BC  ○ 157’ High, covering 6 acres  ○ Capacity about 50,000 people  ○ “Arena of Death”       


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