STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1
STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 201g
Popular in Introduction to Anthropology
Popular in Cultural Anthropology
verified elite notetaker
This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brenna Graham on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 201g at New Mexico State University taught by Dr. Kelly jenks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in Cultural Anthropology at New Mexico State University.
Reviews for STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/17/16
Study guide for Anthropology Includes study guide answers and list of necessary terms. Terms and main ideas: DEFINATLY ON TEST IS THIS COLOR HIGHLIGHT MAYBE ON TEST IS THIS COLOR If not highlighted, then not mentioned in lectures. Lecture/chapter 1: Anthropology The study of humanity Evolutionthe change of life over time Culture Learned behavior that humans and primates acquire as part of society along with objects that they create and use. Biocultural organisms: creatures whose behavior is determined by both culture and biology Material culture: things created by cultural creatures that indicate values or meaning belonging to said culture. Anthropology is cross disciplinary involves biology, linguistics, culture, and archeology Biological anthropology discovers differences between animals and humans to better understand humans, also studies their genetics etc. Racenot biological but cultural since not fixed Primatology study of nonhuman primates Paleoanthropology study of human fossils Cultural anthropologyshows variation of beliefs and behaviors of members of society shaped by sets of learned behaviors and ideas CyberneticsTechnologies that connect people through machines Cyborg Anthropology focus on ethic behind machine hybrids or artificial intelligence Ethnographyan anthropologist’s description of culture (generally published) Ethnology comparison of 2+ cultures Ethnohistory using oral or written histories to study culture. Linguistic anthropologystudy of symbols and communication focusing on norms surrounding language and its relation to other areas of study Sociolinguistics relationship of language and culture Historical linguistics how languages evolve and the influences behind it Archeologystudy of remains of material objects used by humans Applied Anthropology Subfield that proposes solutions to modern problems Medical anthropology linking biological and cultural anthropology studies factors that contribute to health and medicine Scientific and nonscientific explanations both tell stories, usually explaining the world, connect to contemporary life Assumptions unquestioned understanding of the way the world works Evidence what we can see when we examine the world Material evidence – physical objects or information recorded about them. Can be inspected by anyone and can’t speak for themselves Inferred evidence material evidence plus interpretation, uses emphasis on certain aspects of a material to prove an idea Hypothesisstatements connect fact and interpretation or they are guesses about the future based on current data Testability requirement to test hypothesis correctness and multiple test prove correctness. Theories in normal speech is an unproven idea but scientifically it is a well proven idea via testing, can still be disproven. Objectivity judgment free of personal bias. Important n scientific research. Science studies research done connecting various parts of society which makes science possible and successful. Scientific method Observation, Induction (specific too general), Hypothesis, Deduction (general too specific), Test, Repeat. Essentialist all animals unrelated and no change Static unchanging and made that way Hierarchical certain animals are closer to god. Humans are closest and worms or plants are closest to hell or other types of religious good and bad. Speciesa community of animals that can interbreed and reproduce. Law of Superposition sediments accumulate over time so lower levels are older than the upper levels. Catastrophism (introduced in 1769) all animals were killed off and replaced, animals never changed. Due to comparative anatomy. Uniformitarianism changes in landscape is natural. God's made all things without mistakes Lamarckian Evolution (or transformational evolution) animals from different ancestors which were placed differently on earth by god. They would evolve to be perfect but the same species. He thought they would adapt throughout their own life time. Example people wanting to be tall so they grow. Natural Selection variation are selected for or against. Those most suited for the environment (the fittest) make the most babies. Competition between and in species. Can create new species. Darwin determined this Common ancestry all organisms descended form same ancestor Variation evolution different members of a species have different traits and react differently to the same environments. Adaptation useful feature of an organism shaped by natural selection Exaptation adaptation of a feature for one purpose, then use of the feature for a different purpose in a different environment Mendelian geneticstraits don’t blend. Some traits are dominant and some are recessive. Traits are inherited independently. LAW OF SEGREGATION An individual receives one genetic particle from each parent and each retain their own separate characteristics. Allele One form of the same gene that determines one type of trait ex: bug color, the allele can either be dominant and usually be expressed 100% of the time when present or be recessive which is usually expressed only when there are no dominants for that trait in the individual Homozygous: same allele from both parents (ex AA or aa) Heterozygous: opposite or different alleles from parents (Aa Genotype the types of alleles used for a certain gene that determines the trait and phenotypes such as AA or aa Phenotypes the physical expression of the genotype Trait the phenotype and environmental factors combined EX; seeds This is a punned square: The chances of getting AA =25% Aa=50% and aa=25% (these are probabilities so it is possible to result in all AA children) (the below substitutes Y for A) Law of independent assortment different traits are inherited independently of one another; this is usually true except when traits are liked. Codominant both genes equally dominant as in blood type AB Partially dominant as in they don’t completely cause the trait and result in a weaker or less obvious version of the trait. Polygenetic in heritance (poly means many) Many traits controlled by multiple genes. EX: skin color or eye color (also environmental factors) Chromosomes coiled pieces of continuous DNA, Humans have 23 pairs, 22 are autosomal and 1 pair are sex chromosomes which determine gender (X and Y) MITOSIScreates copy of cell once to cause growth, healing, or replace cells. The daughter cells have copies of parent cell’s DNA Meiosis creates gametes (sex cells) by replicating twice once like mitosis the second time splitting the pairs of chromosomes causing variation in the daughter cells Mutation A chance alteration of genetic material produces a new variation. This is in the Gamete (sex cell) before baby is born or cells of baby replicate. Results in a new allele. Evolution changes in Allele frequencies over time in a specific population. Microevolution short term change in a species, with in thousands of years Macroevolution longterm evolutionary change leading to new species MEMORIZE: 4 EVOLUTIONARY FORCES 1.Mutationrandom creation of new allele 2. Natural selectionenvironmental pressures leading to change in allele frequency 3. Gene Flow change in gene frequency due to sudden immigration 4. Genetic drift random gene frequency change due to reduction of population (death, migration etc.) More significant in small populations. Fission (precursor to allopatric speciation)splitting of population into smaller group: Fission Causes founder effect genetic differences in populations due to founding populations genetic variations. Niche construction organisms impact on physical environment EX cities. Gene pool all genes in a population Gene frequency frequency of which certain alleles occur in a gene pool Sub species population that differs in allelic frequency than other populations Problem with race biologically speaking 1. Arbitrary; no agreed upon definition of required difference to constitute a race. 2. no exclusive possession of genes and gene flow between racial groups. 3. Difference between individuals in a race are greater than differences between populations. (a Caucasian person can be more related to an African person than another Caucasian) General variations such as Causations’ have light eye color while darker skin individuals don’t are wrong as often as not. Genes in each race POLYTYPIC distribution of polymorphic traits geographically CLINE: The graduation over space in form or frequency of a trait Bergmann’s rule: Larger animals in colder climates EX: ice age mammoths and giant sloths so Large chunky people because surface area: volume ratio reduces heat loss. Allen’s rule: shorter limbs in colder climbs to prevent heat loss and longer limbs in hotter areas to lose excess heat. Thompson’s Nose rule: noses are longer in colder climates to allow air to warm longer before entering lungs. Melanin the pigment of skin. Melanocytes produce melanin. Melanocytes are Influenced by genes and environment. In areas with lots of UV exposure More Melanin protects from UV rays and too much vitamin D production. Some Vitamin D is necessary. Sickle cell anemia: Hemoglobin: HbA is around large surface area and can carry lots of O2 and rarely gets clogged in veins. HbS is mutant and sickled and has less surface area for O2 and clogs easily. Thus those with only sickled cells die young. Malaria is in these areas where sickle cell anemia is common. This is because sickle cells that contract malaria burst, killing the malaria. So Malaria kills those with no Sickle cell anemia and Sickle cell anemia kills those with only sickled cells or AA but those with Aa survive. This is called heterozygote balance/advantage Malaria wasn’t a big issue until people began staying long term near water instead of just getting water and moving on. Then People began cutting down trees for wood and creating more space for stagnant water nearby settlements. Culture affects gene flow Ex: prejudice against skin color, Mating rules, and transportation technology Examples of mating rules: marrying only cousins or never marry in the family as well Biocultural incest taboos, this effects the gene pool and increases genetic diseases because people in the same family will likely have the same genetic faults increasing its frequency in the subsequent generations. Cultural adaptationslike clothing and vitamin D milk allow different skin colors at different climes. Sexual selection in culture certain appearances are preferred like in our culture too tan isn’t preferred. This results in a lighter skinned population. Culture acting as an agent of biological selection: Lactose tolerance People are generally unable to digest lactose (found in milk) but those who can make lactase which digests lactose are selected for in cultures where milk is a staple of the diet since those with lactose digestion get more nutrition than others. This is shown by the populations with many cows having many lactose tolerant individuals, so 80% of European decent have tolerance while it is 300% in those with other decent. Thrifty Genotype This is a combination of genes that promote fat storage and have been developed due to a combination of times of scarcity and plenty, this is especially common in desert dwelling populations. Those who have regular access to glucose through lactose led to selection for a nonthrifty type gene as a protection against diabetes. Not All traits are AdaptiveBlue eyes have no advantage but was a random mutation that spread. Source likely 710 k ago around black sea since that is where they are most common. BELL CURVE BOOKHarvard dudes used IQ tests geared toward Caucasian culture to judge which race had highest IQ. They thought this could predict employment and criminality and should affect reproduction (eugenics). Multiple types of “smart” and each has different values in different cultures. It is not a trait. Environment and nutrition impacts cognitive abilities. Some cultures focus on musical ability, tools, brain maps (video game like skills). Many IQ tests are based on cultural ability to respond to questions Examples Which is different? a. Laundry b. beer c. clothing Laundry when being cleaned looks like beer but laundry is a type of clothing, Beer and clothing are both objects. So depends on cultural values to choose which of three definitions are most important Phyletic Gradualism Species gradually transforms into a new species over time Punctuated equilibrium stasis then extinction causes a new species to quickly develop, Sudden environment change and takes hundreds of thousands of years Linnaean TaxonomyOrganizes on physical attributes(morphology) Goes Kingdom, Phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species focused on skeletal anatomy. Binomial nomenclature genus + species name such as homo sapiens. Traits and Origins: Homologous: shared due to similar ancestry Examples are front legs on most mammals Analogous: similar due to similar environmental pressures, Wings on insects and bats and birds. TYPES of primate Prosimians: Lemurs and lorises Dog like pointed and wet noses with a lip attached to the gums or “bound”. This bound lip makes them Strepsirrhines Tarsiers (AKA bush babies) Dry flat noses without bound in middle and very large eyes. Basically creepy Platyrrhines (New World Monkeys) Generally south America, Have flat noses with outward flaring nostrils 100% tree dwelling Prehensile tails (gripping) so swinging from tail. Includes squirrel monkeys and howler monkeys Catarrhines (old world and apes) Sharp noses with downward pointing nostrils No prehensile tails (sometimes none at all) Cercopithecoids (old world monkeys) Typically, quadrupedal, cover Africa, Asia, or the OLD world. Less tree dwelling. Hominoids (apes) NO TAIL Include greater and lesser apes Lesser apes: SE Asia and Malaysia Great at swinging between branches (brachiating) Little sexual dimorphism (differences between sexes) Generally monogamous pairs, nuclear families Great apes 4 types Orangutans (pongo) Gorilla Chimpanzees and bonobos (pan) Humans (homo) Orangutans Two types are Borneo and Sumatra Sumatra are larger Usually eat fruit but are omnivorous Endangered Very sexually dimorphic Live in groups or alone depending on the spread of resources. If few resources in an area than alone but if plentiful than the area supports groups. Gorilla Found naturally in SubSaharan Africa HUGE and thus heavy and usually avoid trees for long term living but do climb for food etc. Weight causes mostly knuckle walking which is walking balanced on the long forearms. Despite cinema interpretation they don’t eat people, usually eat foliage, fruit or insects. Most sexually dimorphic, males almost double size of females. PAN Chimpanzees and bonobos SubSaharan Africa Arboreal and terrestrial Eat fruit foliage, insects, eggs and sometimes hunt small animals (monkeys) Make and use basic tools Can move bipedally Some sexual dimorphism Mixed communities with smaller subgroups Humans Largest relative brain size, flattest face, longest most opposable thumbs, Terrestrial and bipedal, feet are not grippy L Arms most flexible and shorter Due to large brain size the child takes longest to mature so depends on parents long. Primate analogy: studying nonhumans to understand prehumen ancestors Most studied Baboons where we’re from Chimpanzeessimilar to us Bonobossimilar to us Most animals only have intercourse when the females are in heat. This isn’t true for Bonobos and humans; we ovulate in such a way that no one can tell when it happens barring science. Thus bonobos and humans use intercourse for things other than reproduction. As Dr. Jenks put it “if it’s in porn bonobo’s have done it” this includes homosexuality. The infants are cared for extensively etc. the babies watch the parents and learn from them cultural things. Socializing and bonding, Monkeys have similar body language, will hug, kiss, pet, groom etc. They have distinct emotions similar to humans and will comfort one another etc. Communication and cooperating They have the ability to learn sign language and also develop a symbol language, also they cooperate by hunting together and will hand out food proudly to others. They don’t have human like vocal cords so speech isn’t an option Learned behaviors They can be taught language, also can be taught to create fire, to use and make tools even in an experiment to wash thing like food by others of their group. They have distinct cultures different from group to group and different tools and food gathering techniques. So despite the older philosophers what differs between humans and animals isn’t necessarily culture. Endangering apes Many apes are hunted for hands, and their novelty products, this is not generally illegal. Experimentation on apes is only illegal for chimpanzees even though many monkeys have culture. Chapter 5 Notes Apes appeared and developed between 235 mya Homnin appear 5 mya Climate change may have added pressure for Habitual bipedalism where bipedalism is more common than not Most ancestors found in South Africa and eastern Africa along the great rift valley and Chad Dating methods Stratigraphy dating when a fossil lived relative to the layers of dirt around them. Potassiumargon dating using volcanic ash to specifically date when the ash on the fossils were deposited by how much an isotope has degraded Primary DepositsWhere a fossil was originally and where they lived and died\ Secondary Depositswhere the fossils are moved by natural /cultural processes and are very unreliable for dating methods. Caves in south America is a great source of fossils but is hard to date fossils Bipedalism earliest derived trait for hominins is walking on two legs Mosaic Evolution the evolution of different body parts at different speeds. Bipedalism needs short bowl shaped pelvis, big toe doesn’t diverge, s shaped spine, angled in femur, arched feet Savvannah theory bipedalism evolved to allow carrying stuff, easier to see food and danger, cool body, energy efficient BUT bonobos are bipedal but live in forests Hominins lived in forests No abrupt climate change occurred Long annoying list of early hominins here. Study Guide Answers Chapter 1: Introduction 1. What is anthropology? The study of humanity and of its many aspects such as culture and biology. 2. Describe the main subfields of modern anthropology The main subfields are Biology and cultural which study the biology and culture of humanity respectively these can be further broken down to fields such as primatology which is the study of primates and using those studies to understand humans, and Archeology the study of the material possessions left behind by a culture, showing what is valued by this culture. 3. Summarize the difference between ethnography and ethnology. Ethnography is the description of a culture by an anthropologist while the ethnology is the comparison of two or more cultures. 4. How is applied anthropology connected to the other branches of anthropology? Applied anthropology uses the research from the other branches of anthropology to apply it to modern problems. 5. What are scientific theories, and why are they taken seriously even when their hypotheses remain open to testing? Scientific theories are hypothesis that are repeatedly not disproven, these are taken seriously because if they aren’t wrong they have to be right and are right until proven otherwise. Chapter 2: Evolutionary theory 6. Explain the difference between transformational (Lamarckian) evolution and variation (Darwinian) evolution. Transformational or Lamarckian evolution is within a life time the trait changes but the Darwinian evolution takes generations and is based on inherited traits that are developed over time and thus made more common. 7. Describe the basic principles and driving force of natural selection. The basic principle of natural selection is that certain traits make an individual better able to survive and reproduce in an environment and this makes more babies of this type and certain traits become common and change to the point that they are totally different. 8. Explain how, from a Darwinian perspective, it is populations (not individual organisms) that can evolve. It requires multiple individuals to result in change throughout time and it is not a slow change over time for a single individual but likely a single mutation. Basically no significant changes can be made by one individual and their mutation but many individuals in a population is a significant change. 9. Explain nonblending, singleparticle inheritance (Mendelian inheritance). `One gene is inherited from each parent and determines a trait that is either the dominant homozygous heterozygous or recessive homozygous resulting in one or the other variant of said trait. 10. What are the differences between genotype and phenotype, and why are they important? Genotype is the alleles and can be for ex AA aa or Aa types where the phenotype in a normal Mendelian trait is the effect of the genes on this trait and is either the version of the dominant (AA or Aa) or recessive(aa) Chapter 3: Human variation 11. Distinguish between microevolution and macroevolution. Microevolution is generally smaller changes that takes place over a shorter period of time while macroevolution takes a long time and is generally a very distinctive change. 12. Explain what a cline is and why it is important. A cline is a map that shows the spread of a trait throughout an area and the density of said trait. This can show the source of the trait or the importance of the trait to survival in certain areas. 13. What are the four forces of evolution described in class lectures and in the text? Can you describe each force in detail? Can you provide examples of each? 1) Natural Selection, it is the natural forces of survival against or for a trait to survive such as if birds a can see red well and so they tend to eat the red bugs they see the bugs that are green are more likely to survive to be old enough to reproduce creating more green bugs than red. 2) Mutation, a random change in a gene creating a new allele such as if a human has a kid and they have a tail when no human has had a tail for a while. Sometimes said tail might be able to be passed on to their children. 3) Genetic drift the loss of certain individuals from a population resulting in a change in the frequency of certain alleles, such as if a person walks through a pile of bugs and (for no particular reason) kills many red ones, then the green ones will be more common. I apparently have something against red bugs. 4) Genetic flow, when there are more than one population and individuals move from one to the other changing the allelic frequency of the populations. For example, there is a Population of 5 green and one red bug then a red bug from the group with only one green and 6 red comes into the first population thus changing population one to 2 red 5 green and population 2 to 1 green to 5 red making there be a higher ratio in each group, in this circumstance. 14. Describe how natural selection explains why a high proportion of the sickle cell allele is maintained in certain human populations and not others. Certain areas Malaria is high and in those areas sickle cell anemia is high because heterozygotes with one gene for Sickle cell anemia and one for the normal gene are resistant to sickle cell anemia thus allowing people with this to survive the most and are able to reproduce. The normal type would die a lot and the sickle cell homozygote would die young so there aren’t many homozygotes of this type. 15. What do we learn from a Clinal analysis of skin color? What about a Clinal analysis of lactose tolerance? What traits are being selected for or against, and why? 1) we learn from the Clinal analysis of Skin color that where there is less UV radiation and thus less Vitamin D people evolved to have lighter skin while the areas with significant UV radiation have darker skin. This allows people in areas with minimal UV radiation to receive enough Vitamin D 2) Lactose Clinal analysis shows us that in areas where dairy has been a staple of the diet people with tolerance are significantly more tolerant than areas where there is little to no dairy available. The dairy tolerance is selected for in areas with dairy since then they would get more nutrition from their food and be more likely to survive. Chapter 4: Primates 16. What are the differences between Linnaean and Cladistic taxonomies? Linnaean is based on the Comparative anatomy and likely relationships where cladistics focuses on relating animals according to time of divergence from ancestral lines, using traits to determine this. 17. Distinguish between homologous and analogous structures. Homologous structures are similar structures in different species because they share a common ancestor where Analogous structures are developed separately and, such as with wing on bats and bugs, have nothing to with relatedness but filling a niche in and environment. 18. Summarize the features used to distinguish different kinds of primates from each other. Some features would first be a bound lip and wet nose separating tarsiers and lemurs+ lorises, the next is the tarsiers a weird with HUGE eyes and new world monkeys have prehensile tails and are bigger than tarsiers and more diverse. Old world monkeys are from nonAmerica areas such as Asia and Africa and have nongrabby tails and are less tree bound but still arboreal. They include macaques and Baboons. Then there are apes with no tails which include orange orangutans, huge gorillas, and chimpanzees which are light skinned and human like as well as bonobos which have flat faces and are partially bipedal. Then humans have flat faces and bipedal 19. Discuss the differences and similarities of chimpanzees and bonobos. Chimpanzees and Bonobos are of a similar size and are both of the pan genus and have similar face though chimpanzees have a lighter skin color and are not as endangered and bonobos have a concealed ovulation and thus have intercourse for multiple reasons similar to humans and dolphins such as fun. Chapter 5: Human evolution 20. Define bipedalism and explain its importance in human evolution. How do we identify bipedalism in fossils? Bipedalism is the ability to walk on only two legs. It is the first part of humans to evolve and allowed for the rest of the human to evolve. We identify it in a inwardly curving femur and a s shaped spine which connects to the bottom of the skull. 21. Compare the different environments (eastern and southern Africa) where early hominin remains are found. How are these remains dated? Eastern Africa has a large crevice that is forming and is unearthing very deep fossils covered in dateable dust. The Southern one is mostly in caves and are difficult to date since many of these crevices have had fossils fall from their place to even deeper and are no longer dateable
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'