New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Study Guide: Test 1

by: Madelyne Crawford

Study Guide: Test 1 CHEM-111

Marketplace > Campbell University > Chemistry > CHEM-111 > Study Guide Test 1
Madelyne Crawford


Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes are a compliment of everything from chapter one to chapter three that we will be tested on.
General Chemistry
Dr. Kesling
Study Guide
General Chemistry
50 ?




Popular in General Chemistry

Popular in Chemistry

This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madelyne Crawford on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM-111 at Campbell University taught by Dr. Kesling in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at Campbell University.


Reviews for Study Guide: Test 1


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/17/16
General Chem: Test 1 Study Guide (Chapter 1-3) By Madelyne Crawford Vocabulary  Hypothesis- an interpretation of observations; explains scientific findings  Law- explains what nature does  Theory- explains WHY nature behaves in a certain way  Solid- atoms or molecules packed tight together; fixed volume and rigid shape  Liquids- pack close, but are free to move; fixed volume, but not a fixed shape  Gas- lots of space, compressible; ALWAYS take on shape and volume of containers  Crystalline solid- long-range order in terms of atoms and molecules o Table salt, diamonds  Amorphous solid- no long-range order o Glass, plastic  Pure substance- one component, composition does not vary from sample to sample o Ex: water  Mixture- two or more components that can vary (ex: sweet tea)  Element vs. compound- cannot be broken down into simpler things (helium) vs. composed of two or more elements in a fixed amount (water)  Homogeneous vs. heterogeneous- composition that differs from one part of the mixture to another vs. same composition throughout the mixture  Physical vs. chemical property- displayed without going through physical change vs. displayed by going through a chemical change  Energy- the capacity to do work and measured in Joules  Work- action of a force through a distance  Intensive vs. extensive properties- independent of the amount of a substance (density) vs. dependent on the amount of a substance (mass)  Precision vs. accuracy- how close measurements are to each other and their reproducibility vs. how close measured value is to the actual value  Matter- anything that occupies space and has mass  Cathode rays- beams of electrons that come out of the cathode ray tube invented by JJ Thomson  Electrostatic forces- compose atoms, which result in attractive and repulsive forces  Electric field- area around a charged particle where electrons are  Plum-pudding model- JJ Thomson’s idea; negatively charged electrons were tiny particles within a positively charged sphere  Atomic number- # of protons in an atom (symbol is Z)  Chemical symbol- one or two letter abbreviation (Gold is Au)  Isotope- atoms with the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons  Natural abundance- the natural amount of isotopes an element has  Mass number- the sume of the number of neutrons and protons in an atoms (A)  Ions- atoms lose and gain electrons, becoming charged particles  Cations- positively charged ions  Anions- negatively charged ions  Periodic law- when the elements are arranged in order of increasing mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically  Metals- lower left and middle of periodic table; good conductors of heat and electricity, malleability, ductility, shiny, lose electrons during chemical reactions  Nonmetals- upper right side of periodic table; poor conductors of heat and electricity, gain electrons during reactions  Metalloids- along zigzag on periodic table; semiconductors  Noble gases- 8A; mostly unreactive  Alkaline metals- 1A; all reactive  Alkaline earth metals- fairly unreactive  Halogens- 7A; very reactive nonmetals  Mass spectrometry- method that separates particles in terms of their mass  Molar mass- mass on one mole of atoms of an element  Ionic bond- metals and nonmetals; TRANSFER of electrons  Covalent bond- two or more nonmetals; SHARING of electrons  Ionic compound- the result of ionic bonds; lattice of alternating cations and anions  Molecule- composed of covalently bonded atoms  Empirical formula- relative # of atoms  Molecular formula- actual # of atoms  Structural formula- uses lines to represent covalent bonds and shows how atoms in a molecule connect or bond to one another  Ball and stick model- atoms= balls, bond= sticks; reflects a molecule’s shape  Space-filling model- atoms fill up the space between each other to more accurately show the best guess for how a molecule may look if it were a visible site  Atomic elements- found in nature with their basic units being single atoms  Molecular elements- not usually found in nature with their basic units being single atoms  Formal unit- basic unit of an ionic compound; smallest neutral group of ions  Binary compound- only have two different elements  Oxyanions- anions that have oxygen and another elements  Hydrates- have a specific # of water molecules associate with each formal unit  Acids- molecular compounds that put out hydrogen ions when dissolved in water; sour taste and ability to dissolve many metals  Inorganic nomenclature- having to name a compound without knowing what category it is part of  Reactants- substances on left side of chemical reaction  Products- right side of chemical reaction  Organic compounds- made up of carbon and hydrogen (found in every substance)  Alkanes- hydrocarbons containing only single bonds  Alkenes- hydrocarbons containing double bonds  Alkynes- hydrocarbons containing triple bonds Important People  Plato (427-347 BCE) Greek philosopher; thought the best way to learn about reality was through reason instead of the senses  Antoine Lavoisier- French chemist; study combustion and how there was no change in total mass of material in container during combustion  John Dalton- atomic theory  Robert Brown- observed particles in continuous motion; lead to Einstein’s Brownian Motion and the idea of thermal energy  Jean Perrin- confirmed Brownian motion and won a Nobel Prize for it (ended doubt that the public had with the presence of particles)  Leucippus and Democritus- first to propose the idea of matter being composed of small, indestructible particles  Copernicus- marked the beginning of science in the modern world; “On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres”; idea that the sun was the center of the universe instead of earth  Joseph Proust- discovered the composition of compounds; 1797; always in fixed proportions; law of definite proportions  JJ Thomson- discovered cathode rays and anodes; invented the cathode ray tube  Robert Millikan- oil drop experiment that determined that a charge must be a whole number that is a whole number multiple of the electron’s charge (1909)  Ernest Rutherford- nuclear theory; attempted to disprove Thomson  James Chadwick- discovered the idea of neutrons  Dmitri Mendeleev- developed the first periodic table; elements arranged based on similar properties Theories & Laws  Law of conservation of mass- in a chemical reaction, matter can neither be created nor destroyed  Law of conservation of energy- energy is neither created nor destroyed  Brownian motion- particles encountering thermal energy that keep them in constant motion  Law of definite proportions- all samples of a given compound, regardless of their source or how they were prepared, have the same properties of their constituent elements  Law of multiple proportions- when two elements form to different compounds, the masses of element B that combine with 1g of element A can be expressed as a ration of small whole numbers  Atomic theory o 1. Elements composed of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms o 2. All specific atoms of a certain element have the same mass o 3. Combine in whole number ratios to construct compounds o 4. Not interchangeable (they can only change the way they are bound with other atoms)  nuclear theory- o 1. Nucleus contains most of atom’s mass; all positive charge in core o 2. Volume is mostly empty space; negative charged atoms spread throughout o 3. Negative charge in abundance on outside nucleus and protons inside Quizlet Links o Chapter 1: 1-flash-cards/ o Chapter 2: 2-flash-cards/ o Chapter 3:


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.