Chem 116 Study Guide Exam #1
Chem 116 Study Guide Exam #1 Chem 116
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sophia Valla on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 116 at West Virginia University taught by Xu in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Chemistry in Chemistry at West Virginia University.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Chem 116 Exam #1 Study Guide Properties ● Homogenous same property throughout the sample (good mixture) ● Heterogeneous different properties throughout the sample Classifications (classified by particle size) 1. Suspensions particles hang in sample. (large particles) a. (ex: paint/blood) 2. Colloid does not separate on standing (intermediate particles) a. (ex: milk/fog) 3. Solution small particles a. (ex: ions/atoms/molecules) Solubility Nothing is 100% insoluble Similar forces (easier to dissolve) “like dissolves like” Concentration Molarity = moles/L *volume changes with temperature ● Weight % (ppm/ppb) aka (*10^6/*10^9) (mass solute) / (mass soln)*100% ● Mole Fraction (Xi) = (mole solute) / (mole soln) ● Molality (m) = (mole solute) / (kg of solvent) Effects of Temp and Pressure on Solubility 1. Solid solute in liquid solvent a. TEMP i. Δ H > (endo) ↑ T ↑ Solubility ii. Δ H < (exo) ↑ T ↓ Solubility iii. Δ H = no temp effect b. PRESSURE i. NONE 2. Gas solute in liquid solvent a. TEMP i. ↑ T ↓ Solubility 1. Kinetic energy↑ (faster molecules) b. PRESSURE i. ↑ P ↑ Solubility 1. Partial pressure of solutre gas Henry’s Law Gas solubility (mol/L) = K (constant) * P (partial pressure) Colligative Properties Depends on the AMOUNT of dissolved solute particles ● Vapor Pressure Lowering ○ Nonvolatile solid solute in liquid solvent ○ Vapor is pure solvent ■ Vapor pressure is proportional to mole fraction of solvent ■ Raoult’s Law P❑ solution solvent❑ solvent ● Volatile liquid solute in liquid solvent ○ Partial pressure in vapor stays the same P❑ =X❑ ∗P°❑ +X❑ ∗P°❑ ... solution 1 1 2 2 ● Boiling Point Elevation / Freezing Point Depression ○ Nonvolatile solutes ○ BP vapor pressure of liquid = external pressure Δ T=m(molality)∗K (Freezing) Δ T❑ =F∗K❑ f (Boiling) ΔT❑ =mBK ❑ B Strong electrolytes dissociate 100% i= Van’t Hoff Factor Ex: NaCl = 2i Δ T❑ =BmK ❑ B ΔT❑ =iFK❑ F *Highest MOLE FRACTION = highest VAPOR PRESSURE Osmotic Pressure ● Osmosis SOLVENT passes through semipermeable membrane from a more dilute soln to a more concentrated membrane Π=i∗M(mol/L)∗R(L∗atm/mol∗K)∗T(K) R= 0.08206 Chemical Kinetics ● How fast a rxn proceeds and the mechanism by which it occurs ○ Fast rxn 2 H❑ +2❑ →2 2❑ O❑ 2 2 ○ Slow rxn Rusting Fermentation change∈concentration(M) Δ[A] Reaction rate = = change∈time(s) ΔT Δ[products] −Δ[reactants] = Δtime Δtime Rate Law k= special rate constant A,B,C= reactants with different powers exponents= order of reaction Rate = k∗[A] [B]❑ [C]❑ c m =k∗M❑ ∗M→k= 1 s M❑ ∗s 4 Factors Affecting Rxn Rate 1. Conc. or reactants surface area 2. Nature of reactants and products 3. Temperature directly affects k a. T ↑ k ↑ r ↑ 4. Pressure of catalyst Determine rate law of rxn experimentally
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