Soc 1 Exam 1 Study Guide
Soc 1 Exam 1 Study Guide SOC 101LEC- Introduction to sociology
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Rosenzweig on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 101LEC- Introduction to sociology at Pennsylvania State University taught by John Fulton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Soc 1 Exam 1 Study Guide Intro Reading - Sociologists are trained to find answers to questions about people’s behavior and are especially interested in understanding the effects that people have on each other - Sociology is the scientific study of interactions and relations among human beings - W.I. Thomas, one of the most basic sociological truths: “If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences.” - The Thomas theorem states that if one truly wants to understand why people do the things they do, one must take into accounts not only what is really going on in a particular situation but also what people think is going on Chapter 1 Reading -Karl Marx: argued that the people of any society could be divided into two distinct classes (the bourgeoisie and the proletariat) - Bourgeoisie: consists of the people who owned the mean of production, specifically the owners of the factories that produced the goods sold and distributed throughout society -Proletariat: consists of the workers who survived by selling their labor to the bourgeoisie - Everything else such as ideas, values, social conventions, arts, literature, morals, law, and even religion were all “epiphenomenal” or secondary to and in the service of the economic realities of society - Durkheim argued that even a society filled with selfish individuals would hold together, because even selfish people need one another to survive - With a very simple division of labor, people’s work would be alike, and so would the people and this likeness is so important because it was what held people together in premodern societies - suicide rates tended to vary with the degree of social integration in a particular society…the rate of suicide varies with the degree to which people have strong ties to their social groups - Mechanical solidarity: people in the community function together as a simple machine - Organic solidarity: society functions as a complex entity that depends on the proper functioning of a variety of parts or organs (specialization of labor and differences would make people depend on each other more) - Social Facts: things in society that transcend or are bigger than individuals, “manners of acting, thinking, and feeling external to the individual, which are invested with a coercive power by virtue of which they exercise control over him” ex: social norms - Ferdinand Tonnies concluded that there are two basic types of relationships, such as social relationships that people enter into as end in and of themselves and the other one includes social relationships that people enter into as means to specific ends - Gemeinschaft: relationships that are ends in and of themselves for emotional or affective reasons such as a relationship with a family member (communal relationships) - Gesellschaft: relationships that are a means to and end, not out of affection or natural affinity, but to achieve some specific goals (ex: financial gain, tutor), these are social relationships - Max Weber: people act with a variety of motives and that the type of motive makes a difference in what they do, people had begun to see each other more and more as mean to end which led to a trend called rational behavior…rational behavior was synonymous with calculating as in if you have a goals and you sit down to plot how to achieve it efficiently that that is being rational - Herbert Spencer: saw the world in terms of social Darwinism, which is when people saw the world as a jungle in which only the superior ought to process - Survival of the fittest: if we simply leave people alone to compete, the best will survive and the inferior will perish - According to Spencer, social improvement will continue only so long as people do not interfere with the natural course of things, which means that Spencer and his followers opposed to any kind of state assistance to the poor and even opposed public schools - Additionally this thought process was used to justify the superior positions in society of white over blacks and rich over poor and his ideas were found compelling to Nazis Chapter 2 Reading - C. Wright Mills: discovered the concept of the sociological imagination, which is looking beyond personal troubles of individuals to see the public issues of social structure that is the social forces operating in a larger society - Personal trouble: a problem that’s causes stem from the individual - Public issues of social structure: problems which have causes that lie outside the individual - Individualism: favors freedom of action for individuals over collective or state control - Skepticism: attitude of doubting the truth of something - Manifest function: intended and obvious consequence of something - Latent function: unintended and frequently hidden consequence of something Chapter 3 Reading - Paradigms in Sociology - Functionalist: * Within a particular society, there is a great deal of consensus about what values and norms are important. In a particular society, for example, there may be consensus that working hard is important, that murder is bad, that obtaining a lot of wealth is good, and so on. Regardless of the nature of the values and norms, functional perspectives assume that there is a general consensus about them in a society. * Society is an entity or whole that is made up of many integrated parts. Because all the parts are integrated, or tied together, when one part of society changes, other parts will change in response. For example, if the economic system changes, then the education and family systems will change as well. * Society tends to seek stability and avoid conflict. Conflict is not normal, but is dysfunctional or pathological. - Conflict: theories tend to be opposite of functionalist * Within any particular society, there are subgroups of people who cherish different beliefs and have conflicting values and goals * Society is made up of subgroups that are in ruthless competition for scarce resources * Society is never harmonious; conflict is normal in a society - Symbolic Interaction: sometimes called social constructionists because of their interest in how people construct their own social worlds. The kinds of questions that symbolic integrationists ask have to do with such issues as how many people use symbols to make sense with their environments * How people act depends on how they see and evaluate reality * People learn from other how to see and evaluate reality * People constantly work to interpret their own behavior and the behavior of other to determine what these behaviors “mean” * When people do not attach the same meanings to behaviors or perceive reality in the same way, there will be misunderstanding and conflict Chapter 4 Reading - Chagnon and Yanamo Indians: Chagnon went to South America and lived among the Yanamo people for a year. He was in complete culture shock and was genuinely disgusted by how they lived, but immersed himself into the journey anyway. - Cultural Relativism: the belief that other people and their ways of doing things can be understood only in terms of the cultural context of those people - Inconvenient facts: (Weber) facts or data that go against one’s social and political beliefs. For example, if you were in favor of imposing the death penalty or convicted murderers then facts like the death penalty has no beneficial effects would be categorized as an inconvenient fact - Ethnocentrism: occurs in situations where we judge other people’s customs and behaviors against the standards of our own culture - Empirical: things that can be observed though the use of one’s physical senses such as sight, hearing, taste, and smell Syllabus - Attendance: you get attendance extra credit for coming to most classes but the attendance grade is not the same thing as the clicker participation grade - You get to miss three classes as pre-excused absenses or freebies - If you miss four or more classes 1 point will be deducted from your semester final percent grade for each absence over three - If you miss fewer than three classes, 1 point of extra credit will be added to your final grade - Example: if you miss ten classes, deduct 7 points because of three freebies (86%-7%= 79%) -Grading: - Exam 3 is worth a little more than other exams - There are 9 homeworks and all are worth 1% of the final grade except for homework 2 and 3 are worth 2% for a total of 11% - If you answer 144 out of 150 available clicker questions then you have answered 96% of them - Grade rounding: 845.45 rounds to 86 - Clicker Issues: forgot licker, thought clicker was working but it didn’t record attendance, forgot to register clicker - Sign in sheet: emergency measure, not for routine use. You can only use this two times and you must provide a student ID number - Late homework policy: late homework will not be accepted - Each homework has a very specific due date - Use turnitin - No hard copies are accepted if it is supposed to be on turnitin and vice versa - No late papers due to printer problems or turnitin - Makeup Policy: you can make something up if… - You missed the quiz/exam due to documented and legitimate family, medical, legal, or university-related reasons - Notify at the latest before the exam/quiz that you will be missing it… there is no makeup if you notify afterwards - Must makeup exam within 1 week of your return to campus and you must provide evidence for why you missed the exam before the make- up and bring it with you to the make-up - There are no make-up make-ups 40-Collions, The Sociological Eye and its Blinders” - The sociological eye is looking at the world around us and observing and being able to see things in a fresh new way - Social activism is wanting to chance society, help people, fight injustice, and elevate the oppressed - The biggest blinder to the sociological eye is the activist mentality and blocks you from seeing the social pattern: right and wrong, social control, and conflict management - Arie Hochschild wrote “The Time Blind” - Research on “ The Time Blind” began with a puzzle: Hochschild notices that relatively few people were taking advantage of family- friendly employment policies such as part-time work, parental leave, or flexible time. - The answer to this puzzle was that for many middle-class people, work and home was changing places. Home was becoming more of a hassle for women who were working long hours with not much help from their husbands. - The main factor behind public controversy over this was because most people do not have the sociological eye and did not see this issue in the same was as Hochschild - The partisan position is how the government views social issues - Hochschild was attacked for his findings because home was being more commercially serviced. Hochschild was attacked for undermining the family leave act, blaming working mothers for emotionally abandoning their children, and for misperceiving the fight of working women against the pressures of corporate organization - Collins sees that the sociological eye is more important because if that is lost, all is lost 9- Miner, Body Ritual Among the Nacirema - The Miner article was really about using the sociological eye to present that society and customs of America in a new light to make the normal strange - The Nacirema is characterized by a highly developed market economy which has evolved in a rich natural habitat, shrines are bathrooms, the charm boxes or chests are medicine cabinets, they also discuss getting plastic surgery, going to the dentist, and shaving as abnormal behaviors - Making the familiar strange is taking something that is known to be normal to you and twisting it and putting it in a new light to make it seem abnormal - Sociologists make the familiar strange to exercise the sociological eye and to put things into new perspectives - An advantage of making the familiar strange is that it allows sociologists to see things in a new light and to analyze situations in a new way - An intentionally bad explanation helps make the familiar strange because the rewording of the familiar can twist it to make it sound strange 2-Coontz, how History and Sociology can help today’s families - Rolelessness is a lack of the notion that young people do better on almost every level when they have meaningful involvement in useful and necessary tasks and teens also benefit from taking responsibility for younger or less fortunate children. Furthermore, many of the paths that once led teenagers toward the mastery of productive and social roles have turned into dead ends. Instead of having a variety of routes to adulthood, teens are now expected to stay in high school until age 17 or 18. - Rolelessness contributes to parent/teen conflicts because adolescence has become a social and economic holding period. Parents are expected to do the holding and most parent/teen conflicts stem from the fact that readiness for adulthood comes about two years later than the adolescent claims and about two years before the parent will admit it. Parents think it is vital that kids stay in school while kids think that this waiting period is almost unbearable. - Job markets offer fewer and fewer ways for teens to assert their independence and show that they are more grown up than younger kinds while consumer markets and the media offer more and more. In terms of history, teens used to quickly become immersed into adult word professionally. - A social and economic holding period is when children are carried through adolescence on their parents terms, and are not yet independent socially or financially. - What contributes to today’s rolelessness in teens is that today they have very few opportunities to do socially necessary work. Every since the abolition of child labor, the extension of schooling, and the decline in farm work the problem has accelerated. Many of the paths that once led teenagers toward mastery of productive social roles have turned to a dead end. - Teens feel like second-class citizens - Situated social power is that various groups in society have unequal access to economic resources, political power, and social status, and these differences limit how fair or equal a personal relationship between two individuals from different groups can really be - These social imbalances affect personal behavior regardless of sincere intentions of both parties to “not let it make a difference” - In terms of the couple discussed, the wife seemed to be assessing the risk of not keeping a nice house or putting meals on the table, and finding it too high to just relax and let the housework go and was resenting her husbands unwillingness to help - Better communication can help Lectures - 2 Facets of Sociology: a) a focus on the social b) skepticism= not easily convinced, having doubts or reservations, not easily convinced about everyday explanations of social phenomena - Manifest function: the intended and obvious function - Latent function: an unintended and/or frequently hidden function (side effect) - Function: the consequence of something - Using war as an example: manifest= to protect your country, latent= we need a group of people to be warriors (militia or professional army?) so do we use a universal draft or recruitment, women or men or both - Sociological eye: observing the world around you and seeing things in a new light - Sociological activism: “we can change the world” - Sociology: study of reciprocal interactions and relationships among humans - Interactions: reciprocal action or influence - Sociological eye (further): the practice of observing social interactions and relations in every day life, practice means do, includes observing physical stuff which people make such as magazine, clothing, etc. - Evidence: the physical stud we observe, it is evidence of values, norms, and beliefs of the people who use this stuff - Coffee mug as an example: represents being near, energized and awake, college students normally lack sleep, etc. - Social interaction: social actions and reactions between individuals, individuals modify their actions based on reactions by their partner(s) - Social relations: the way in which two or more people are connected socially (ex: father and son or boss and employee) - Making the familiar strange: everyone’s culture looks strange to outsiders but it’s hard for us to believe that our culture can look strange to others, as a solution it can be helpful to make our culture look strange to us too and pretend we don’t know what makes people do something to make it unrecognizable - The sociological imagination: lots of stuff happens in our daily lives that can only be properly understood as a combination of individual factors and public issues outside of the individual, the ability to see the connection between personal troubles and public issues of social structure - Personal trouble: a trouble that one has personally (unemployment for example) - Public issue of social structure: problems whose causes lie outside the individual - Unemployment for example: individual factors would be their personality, skills, education, and reliability but when thousands of people are unemployed it is irrational to attribute this to their individual characteristics - Instead sociologists look at the causes as public issues of social structure, the ability to see the connection between biography and history - War for example: personal troubles would be the loss of loved ones, children grow up without a parent (biography) and public issues would be political strife, ethnic conflicts, religious conflict, etc (history) - Sociologists say many if not most of the trouble people face is in this sense like war - Public issues of social structure arise due to the way humans organize their societies - To add to the public issues definition, conflicts or crises in social institutions (ex: between the institution of marriage and the institution of workplace) - Institution: solution to the problem - According to Coontz, marriage and workplace are in conflict, less incentive to get married, more work means less time for spouse - New definition of public issues: problems that lie outside any one individual, including form normal operations of social institutions (that just happen to conflict with each other) - Sociological imagination in terms of eating disorders: many people struggle with these including anorexia, bulimia, binge eating, etc. - 5-10% of girls and women have an eating disorder - 1 million boys and men do as well - Causes of an eating disorder: outside individual= society’s ideal of beauty makes people want to look that way, other people enforce such ideas, the media, triggering events that lead to mental illness, athletic commitments (specific weight for wrestling/gymnastics) individual factors= people want to look like society’s ideals of beauty, depression (mental illness), compulsions (body building can lead to a disorder), genetics/heredity, poor self esteem, and teenage dieting - Factors in the development of sociology: enclosure, industrial revolution, colonialism, and political change - With these factors it stopped being clear how the world worked and how the world was supposed to work -Sociology arose as a way to answer these questions - Enclosure: made public grazing land “off limits” to peasants, which cause social change, urbanization, and people started living in highly concentrated poverty, crime, diseases, and strangers - Industrial Revolution: caused urbanization, social change, environmental degradation, people went from rural farm and craft occupations (spinning wheel) to urban mass production occupations (textile mill) - Colonialism: culture shock on a society level, people did things very different - Political change: if the king is no good, get rid of him but how? This raised questions about what really holds a society together, before these changes, society was stuck in a rut, and sociology arose through people’s attempts to explain what holds society together - Symbolic interaction paradigm: - Symbolic: people use symbols to communicate - Interaction: social actions and reactions between individuals - Types of symbols in interactions: spoken languages, facial expressions, gestures, body language, and costume
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