PSYC 2220 Study Guide-Exam 1
PSYC 2220 Study Guide-Exam 1 Psyc 2220
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandria Dickens on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 2220 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Ben Greenwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 139 views. For similar materials see Biological Basis of Behavior in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
CH 1: Neuropsychology: study of brain function following brain injury or disease Neuroscience: multidisciplinary approach to studying the brain Behavioral Neuroscience/Physiological Psychology/Biological Psychology: study of brain mechanisms underlying behavior Craniotomy: holes drilled in the skull to allow the escape of evil spirits Blindsight: the ability of people who are cortically blind to respond to visual stimuli that they cannot consciously see. (Ex. Of abnormal behavior that can be explained with physiological mechanism) Neuroplasticity: changes in the brain due to experience Cephalocentric Views: Holism: theory that the brain works as a whole to produce behavior. Every area of the brain is capable of controlling all human functions. Localization of Function: Theory that specific structures in the brain to control specific behaviors. Phrenology: defunct field of study once considered a science, in which personality traits of a person were determined by “reading” bumps and fissures in the skull. CH 2: Cell: basic structural, functional, & biological unit of all known living organisms. (“building blocks of life”) Cell body/Soma: contains the nucleus Axon: carries info from cell body of a neuron to its terminal buttons Synapse: junction between terminal button of an axon & membrane of another neuron Central Nervous System (CNS): brain & spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): part of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord, including the nerves attached to both Nerves: group of axons in PNS Tracts: group of axons in CNS Neurons: In the CNS & PNS Info processing and info transmitting element of the nervous system Classified by function (sensory, motor, interneuron) & shape (bipolar, unipolar, multipolar) Sensory Neuron: detects changes in external or internal environment & sends info about these changes to the CNS Motor Neuron: located within CNS, controls contraction of a muscle or secretion of a glad Interneuron: located entirely within the CNS Presynaptic Neuron: releases a NT in response to an action potential Postsynaptic Neuron: receives NT and may undergo an action potential if the NTs stimulate the cell enough Myelin: protects axon & speeds up action potential Terminal Buttons: bud at the end of a branch of an axon; forms synapses with another neuron; sends info to that neuron Neurotransmitter (NT): chemical that is released by a terminal button; has an excitatory or inhibitory effect on another neuron Functions of Internal Neuronal Machinery: Keep neuron structure; hold everything in place Transport proteins Make energy (mitochondria, ATP) Make proteins (receptors, enzymes, NTs, organelles) Amino acids = building blocks of proteins Internal Structure of Neurons: Cell membrane: consists principally of lipid molecules that defines outer boundaries of a cell & constitutes many of the cell organelles Cytoplasm: viscous, semiliquid substance contained in the interior of a cell Microtubule: long strand of bundles of protein filaments arranged around a hollow core; part of the cytoskeleton & Trans port of Proteins: involved in transporting Axoplasmic Transport: substances are propelled along microtubules that run the length of the axon Anterograde Transport = AWAY from the cell, down the axon Retrograde Transport = RETURNING to the cell, up the axon Gene: functional unit of a chromosome, which directs synthesis of 1 or more proteins Transcription: process of making an RNA copy of a gene sequence Translation: process of translating the sequence of mRNA molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis Myelin sheath: sheath that surrounds axons &n insulates them, preventing messages from spreading between adjacent axons Cells of the Nervous System: Neurons Support Cells: Neuroglia (CNS) & Schwann Cells (PNS) 3 Types: 1. Astrocyes (star cells) provide physical support to neurons control chemical composition of extracellular space by actively taking up or releasing substances surround synapse to “insulate” them, keep substances in the synapse form floating away protect neurons from “innocent bystander” damage following brain injury provide nourishment to neurons 2. Oligodendrocytes primary purpose = provides myelin in the CNS myelin is 80% fat & 20% protein each oligo produces up to 50 segments of myelin (Loss of myelin covering of axons in the brain would result fro the death of oligodendrocytes) 3. Microglia smallest of all the neuroglia protects the brain from invading microorganisms primary purpose = phagocytosis: process of engulfing & destroying pathogens or debris of dead cells responsible for the inflammatory reaction following brain damage “immune cells of the brain” Schwann Cells: Provide myelin in the PNS Guide the re-growth of PNS axons Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) purpose = control entrance of substances into the brain comprised of: 1. Semipermeable membrane 2. Tight junctions between endothelial cells of blood vessels 3. Astrocyte & feet Circumventricular Organs Brain areas that are not protected by the BBB Important brain sites where the body can communicate with the BBB via blood born products (& vise-versa) Area postrema: region of the medulla where the BBB is weak; poisons can be detected there & can initiate vomiting Neural Communication = Neurotransmission Action Potential: brief electrical pulse that provides the basis for conduction of info along an axon Membrane Potential: electrical charge across a cell membrane; the difference in electrical potential between the inside relative to the outside of the cell The presence of a membrane potential (change across a membrane) is critical for the generation of action potentials; & therefore for the flow of info along neural circuits Ions: charged molecules Cation: positively charged ion (Ex. = Na+, K+, Ca2+) Anion: negatively charged ion (Ex. = Cl ) Intracellular Fluid: fluid contained within the cells Extracellular Fluid: Body fluids located outside of cells Resting Membrane Potential: membrane potential of a neuron when it is not being altered by excitatory or inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (-70mV) Unequal distribution of ions across the membrane determines the resting potential, un equal distribution creates forces on the ions Diffusion: movement of molecules from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration Direction of force of diffusion depends on ion concentration. Force arrow goes towards side of neuron with lower concentration. Force of diffusion pushes ion in direction from high concentration to low concentration. Electrostatic force: attractive force between atomic particles charged with opposite signs or the repulsive force between atomic particles charged with the same sign Direction of electrical force depends on ion charge. Force arrow does towards side of the neuron that is the opposite charge of the ion. Electrical force pushes ion in direction opposite of its own charge. Hyperpolarization: due to an efflux of K+, making the extracellular side of the membrane more positive Inhibition = membrane potential gets more negative Depolarization: due to an influx of Na+ through normally closed Na+ channels Excitation = membrane potential gets more positive Ion Channels can be chemically or voltage gated: Chemically Gated Ion Channels: open in response to a chemical stimulation Voltage Gated Ion Channels: open in response to a specific change in membrane potential (open when threshold is reached) All or None Law: An action potential always either fires (if threshold is reached) or does not fire (if threshold is not reached) Rate Law: Variations in the intensity of a stimulus being transmitted by an axon are represented by variations in the rate at which the axon fires Threshold of Excitation: membrane potential required to open the voltage gated ion channels Saltatory Conduction: conduction of action potentials by myelinated axons The action potential appears to “jump” from 1 node of Ranvier to the next Axon Hillock: action potential is initiated here because this is where the 1 voltage gated Na+ channels on the axon are located When an excitatory presynaptic neuron fires, it shows a normal action potential & causes depolarization (EPSP) in the postsynaptic neuron. When an inhibitory presynaptic neuron fires, it also shows a normal action potential, but it causes hyperpolarization (IPSP) in the postsynaptic neuron Neural Integration: the summing up of EPSPs & IPSPs Otto Loewi: Discovered that neurons communicate through chemical messengers (NTs) Has been called “father of neuroscience” Communication Between Neurons: Presynaptic Membrane: membrane of a terminal button that lies adjacent to the postsynaptic membrane & through which the NT is released Postsynaptic Membrane: membrane located on the dendrite of the neuron that receives the info Synaptic Cleft: space between presynaptic membrane & postsynaptic membrane Synaptic Vesicle: small hollow, beadlike structure found in the terminal buttons – contains molecules of a NT 3 ways that NT’s can be cleared from the synaptic cleft: 1. Reuptake 2. Enzymatic Deactivation 3. Diffusion Types of Synapses: Communication Between Neurons Contd: Binding site: location on a receptor protein to which a ligand binds Ligand: chemical that binds with the binding site of a receptor Endogenous Ligand (NT): those produced IN the body Exogenous Ligand (drug): comes from OUTSIDE the body Agonist: facilitates or mimics the action of the ligand Antagonist: blocks or inhibits the action of the ligand Axoaxonic Synapses: Presynaptic Inhibition: the action of a presynaptic terminal button in an axoaxonic synapse; reduces amount of NT released by the postsynaptic terminal button Presynaptic Facilitation: the action of presynaptic terminal button in an axoaxonic synapse; increases the amount of NT released by postsynaptic terminal button Autoreceptor: receptor molecule located on a neuron that responds to the NT released by that neuron 2 Types of Receptors: 1. Ionotropic = contains a binding site for NT & an ion channel that opens when a molecule of the NT attaches to the binding site 2. Metabotropic = contains binding site for NT; activates an enzyme that begins a series of events that opens an ion channel elsewhere in the cell’s membrane when a molecule of the NT attaches to the binding site nd can open ion channels & activate 2 messengers
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