Psych 1000 study guide
Psych 1000 study guide Psych 1000
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tyler Notetaker on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1000 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dennis Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 366 views. For similar materials see Psychology 1000 in Psychology at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Chapter 1 Behaviorism- focus on our behavior. John B. Watson. Says the mind proves nothing only behavior proves psychiatric science. Emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing observable behavior. Psychoanalysis- A method adapted by Sigmund Frued that attempts to bring the contents of unconscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed. Introspection- William wundt. an analysis of a subject’s mental experience. The content of one’s thoughts Structuralism-. Edward Titchener. an approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components Functionalism- William James. an approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behavior Evolutionary theory- Charles Darwin theory on reasons why specie change over time Adaptation- changes passes along Natural selection- “survival of the fittest” Gestalt theory- Max Wetheimer. “The whole is different from the sum of its parts” Types of psychologist Cognitive psych- George miller. Focuses on mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, and language, memory, and decision making. Social psych- Kurt lewin. Other people influence others thoughts, feelings, and actions Personality psych- a study of characteristic thoughts, emotions and behavior Neurological psych- study mental activity and behavior Developmental psych- study how people change Cultural psych- study how people are influenced by society Clinical psych- study what causes psychiatric behavior and how to treat them Counseling psych- seek to improve people daily lives School psych- work on educational settings Industrial and organizational psych- concerned with behavior in workforce level Focus What is studied Biological Brain systems, Brain neurochemistry, genetics Individual Perception, cognition, Personality behavior Social Social cognition Groups, relationships Cultural Thoughts, actions, and Norms, beliefs, values, behavior – in different and symbols societies and cultural groups Chapter 2 Four primary goals of science: description, prediction, control, and explanation Critical thinking- systematically questioning and evaluating information using well supported evidence Variable- something that can vary research- the scientific process of carefully collecting data scientific method- a systematic and dynamic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena to answer research questions. Theory- explanation or model of how a phenomenon works Steps to a theory 1. Form a hypothesis (educated guess) must be falsifiable and simple 2. Conduct a literature review 3. Design a study 4. Conduct a study 5. Analyze data 6. Report results Replication- repeating a study and getting the same or similar results Descriptive research – observing behavior to describe that behavior objectively and systematically Case study- looking at a unique situation and studying the details Self reports – surveys or questionnaires to gather data from large groups Naturalistic observation- sit back and watch experiment Participant observation- get involved experiment Correlation study- examine how variables are naturally related in the real world on a scatterplot. (positive- one variable increases and so does the other. Negative- one variable decreases and so does the other. Zero – no correlation at all) can also have a Third variable problem, when another unmeasured variable is responsible for the correlation Concerns with research Reactivity- phenomenon that occurs when knowledge that one is being observes alters behavior Hawthorne effect- change in behavior that occur when people know others are watching Observer bias- errors in observation because of observers expectations Experimenter expecting effect- actual change in the behavior of people being observed due to the expectation of observer Experiments Experiment- research method that test casual hypothesis by manipulating and measuring variables Independent variable- what’s manipulated Dependent variable – whatever behavioral effect that is being measured Control group- people who are apart of experiment that get no treatment Experimental group- those who get treatment in experiment Population- group researcher wants to know about Sample- subject or group actually studied ( random or convenient Random assignment “true experiment”- when participants are randomly assigned to control group and experimental group Selection bias “quasi experiment”- not random Confound- variable factor that was unintended but can influence experiment A good experiment must be 1. Reliable – stability and consistency of a measure over time 2. Valid- internal- a studies results are due to a IV rather than a confound. Construct- variable measure what they are supposed to measure. External- can be generalized to others 3. Accurate – correct 4. Ethical – privacy of experiments can be shared with others. Cannot risk health of participants. Must have informed consent. No one else can access data Descriptive statistics- statistics that summarize the data collected in a study Mean- average Median- middle Mode- the most frequent Range – from smallest to largest Standard deviation- how far away each value is from the mean Chapter 3 Dementia- a decline in a mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life. (includes problems with memory, communication, language, focus, reason, judgement, and visual perception. Alzheimer’s- type of dementia characterized by plague (deposits of protein fragment in spaces outside of cells) and tangles ( buildup of protein inside cells) Nervous system Nervous system- “ who we are’ “The neuron doctrine” Santigo Ramon Y Cajal Glia- cells that provide structure, support, and protection, plus help regulate chemicals , aid communication and repair damaged cells Neurons- basic units of the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit info to the nervous system ( communicate with other nerve cells though chemical signals) Sensory neurons/ afferent detect info from physical world and pass that info along to the brain Motor neurons-/ efferent direct muscles to contract or relax .. producing movement Interneurons- communicate with local or short distance circuits ( integrate activity within a single area ) Neurotransmitters- chemical communication between neurons. Drugs can change neurotransmitters. Agonist drugs- do the same thing as transmitters. Antagonist- blocks the transmitter Neuron structure Dendrites – short branch like appendages that detect chemical signals from neighboring neurons Cell body- aka soma collects and integrates info receives from the dendrites Axon- a long narrow outgrowth of a neuron where info in transmitted to the next neuron. (vary in length =, can be as long as from spinal cord to big toe) Synapse- the site where chemical communication occurs between neurons Terminal buttons- at the end of the axon small nodules that release chemical signals to synapse Membrane- fatty barrier that does not dissolve in water Resting membrane potential – the electric charge of a neuron when it is not active (negative charge) Polarized- when a neuron has more negative ions on the outside. Depolarized- zero ions on the outside (excitatory) causes action potential Brain parts Brain stem – an extension of the spinal cord that is crucial for heartrate, breathing, swallowing, vomiting, urination, and orgasm Broca’s area- a small portion of the left frontal region of the brain crucial for the production of language Cerebellum-(motor function) – a large are in the back of the brain that is essential for coordinating movement and balance Cerebral cortex- outer layer of brain tissue Frontal lobe – thoughts, planning. Movement Parietal lobe- touch, spatial relationships Occipital lobe- vision Temporal lobe- hearing and memory Inside the brain Basal ganglia- deals with movement and reward Hypothalamus- regulates body function Amygdala- responds to emotion (mostly fear) Hippocampus- deals with memory Thalamus-sensory gateway The corpus callosum- a fibrous structure that holds two hemispheres together Left brain hemisphere – better with language, controls right vision Right hemi- better with special relationships, controls left vision Female brain – greater use of language brain region Male brain – greater use of spatial relationship brain region Endocrine system Hormones- chemical substances released from endocrine that travel through bloodstream Gonads- main endocrine glands involved with sexual behavior. For males it is the testes, for females it is the ovaries. Pituitary gland – based in the hypothalamus that sends hormones signals to other endocrine glands controlling hormone release Chapter 4 Consciousness –one’s subjective experience of the world resulting from brain activity Limit to how many things the mind can be conscious of Automatic processing- mastered task that can be performed automatically without trying (walking, driving, talking) Controlled processing- slower performance of complex activities Selective attention- Change blindness- a failure to notice large changes in one’s environment Fruedian slip-when an unconscious thought is suddenly expressed Subliminal perception-when two stimuli get processed by by sensory systems but do not reach consciousness. (subliminal messages are often added to commercials. We see but don’t process) Persistent vegetative state (of consciousness)- state of consciousness after a brain injury leaving one with little awareness (coma) Minimally conscious state- place in between vegetative and fully awake. (very little deliberate movement) Brain dead- no brain activity Brain areas of awareness Different areas of the brain deal with different types of information Prefrontal cortex: “I understand plans” Frontal motor cortex: ” I’m all about movement “ Parietal lobe: ”I’m aware of space” Temporal Lobe: “I hear things” Occipital lobe: “I see things” Left hemisphere- determines outcomes. It attempts to explain behavior produced by the right hemisphere Sleep Sleep is important or overall health and wellbeing the brain is very active when sleep sleep facilitates learning. REM sleep promotes the development of brain circuits for learning Circadian rhythm- brain activity and other psychological processes regulated into patterns. (body temp, sleep cycle, sleep cycles) Circadian Rhythm theory- theory that proposes that sleep has evolved to keep animals quiet and inactive during times of the day when there is great danger (night time) Producing circadian rhythms 1. Suprachiasmatic nucleus- receives info about light detected by eyes 2. Then send signals to the pineal gland that secretes 3. Melatonin- a hormone that travels through the bloodstream and effects various receptors of the body including the brain Brain activity during sleep 1. Alert/awake – Beta waves 2. Just before sleep- alpha waves 3. Stage 1 – theta waves. Easily aroused light sleep 4. Stage 2 – K complex. Sleep not easily woken with sleep spindles 5. Stage 3 and 4 slow wave sleep- delta waves. Hard to wake and disoriented when awoken. 6. REM- beta waves. Brain is active and starts to dream. After bout 90 minutes the brain reverses to stage one with beta waves. Eyes dart back in forth. Muscles are paralyzed Sleep disorders Insomnia- people’s mental health and ability to function are compromised by their inability to sleep sleep disorders- insomnia, narcolepsy, parasomnia, sleep apnea, restless leg sleep disorders go hand In hand with psychological disorders idiopathic transient – distraction such as a breakup, loud noise that effect sleep iatrogenic- doctor cause sleep due to bad use of medication psychological disorders- schitz narcolepsy- sleeping during the day / aridic sleep REM behavior disorder- disorder where the normal parts of REM sleep don’t happen. People often act out of their dreams while sleep. Somnambulism- AKA sleepwalking Obstructive sleep apnea – a disorder In which a person while sleep stops breathing because his or her throat closes. should take 15-20 minutes to fall asleep According to the restorative theory sleep allows the body and brain to restore and rest itself (tissue repair) Sleep deprivation can cause mood swings, trouble comprehending simple task, poor immune system , and microsleeps (falling asleep during the day for seconds or minutes) Dreams – products of an altered sate of consciousness in which images and fantasies are confused as reality Everyone dreams Usually don’t remember REM dreams bizarre and intense dreams with hallucinations Non REM dreams very dull basic dreams Manifest content – what the person remembers in the dream Latent content – what the dream symbolizes Activation-synthesis theory- a theory of dreaming that says the brain tries to make sense of random brain activity that occurs during sleep by synthesizing the activity with stored memories Hypnosis – a social interaction during which a person, responding to suggestions experiences change in memory, perception, and or voluntary action Posthypnotic suggestion- lack of memory after hypnosis session Only happens if voluntary Hypnotic analgesia – a form of pain reduction Meditation- a mental procedure that focuses attention on external object or on a sense of awareness (concentrative meditation focuses on one thing such as breathing. Mindless meditation- free flow of thoughts no reaction) Religious ecstasy- after religious ceremony person is unaware of external world (often chant or dance) Flow- a particular experience that is so enjoyable and engrossing that the person may have no conscious awareness while doing it Escaping – offering a distraction to escape another state of mind Drugs affecting consciousness Addiction- drug use that remains compulsive despite its negative consequences Type Psychological Examples Neurotransmitter effect system Stimulant Increases Cocaine, nicotine, Dopamine behavioral and caffeine mental activity depressant Decreases Anti-anxiety drug, GABA behavioral and alcohol mental activity Opiates/narcotics Reduces pain Morphine, heroin Endorphins Hallucinogens/ Alters thoughts or LSD, shrooms Serotonin pyschedelics perceptions Combination Mixed effect Weed, MDMA all Insula- part of the brain responsible for craving Addiction?- a central factor to addiction is Dopamine activity in the limbic system. Only 5-10% of people who try drugs become addicted
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