Psych Exam 1 Study Guide
Psych Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 1101
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Akila Webb on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Kristin Atchinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Psych Exam 1 Study Guide What is psychology? Psychology- a science that seeks answers to age-old questions about why people think, feel, and act as they do, aiming to separate uniformed opinions from examined conclusions. Applied vs Basic Research Basic: understand process and reasons/attempt to answer questions about behavior Applied: conducted to address practical problems/ useful solutions within a few years *CAN’T HAVE APPLIED RESEARCH IF YOU DON’T HAVE BASIC* Scientific Methods and Research Designs: Case Study: a descriptive research technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles; describes behavior Correlational: indicates how closely two things vary together, and thus how well either one predicts the other A positive correlation (above 0 to +1.00) indicates a direct relationship, meaning that two things increase together or decrease together. For example, height and weight are positively correlated. A negative correlation (below 0 to −1.00) indicates an inverse relationship: As one thing increases, the other decreases. The weekly number of hours spent in TV watching and video gaming correlates negatively with grades. Experimental: powerful form of investigation that allows researchers to draw conclusions about cause and effect relationships between different factors; independent variable, dependent variable, controlled and cause and effect relationships Naturalistic Observation: observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation; describes behaviors with no explanation Survey: self-reports in which people answer questions about their behavior or attitudes Theory : help us explain and predict behavior by offering ideas that organize what we have observed - Tentative explanation - A whole body of research Hypothesis (predictions): prediction/ idea you can test *testable* - Operational definition description of how variables will be measured Independent cause; manipulated variable and Dependent Variables effect; measured variable Operational definition a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study. [ex: Human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures . Replication do the study over in hopes of getting the same results - Reproduction of results - Partial reproduction, things are repeated Research Ethics: Informed Consent : giving potential participants enough information about a study to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate Debriefing: the post experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions to its participants Confidentiality: don’t disclose personal information about others to others Structure, function, and communication of neurons (both inside a neuron and between neurons) The often bushy dendrite fibers receive information and conduct it toward the cell body. From there, the cell’s single lengthy axon fiber passes the message through its terminal branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands. Dendrites listen. Axons speak. Neurons transmit messages when stimulated by signals from our senses or when triggered by chemical signals from neighboring neurons. A neuron sends a message by firing an impulse, called the action potential—a brief electrical charge that travels down its axon. Central vs. Peripheral Nervous System Central: (CNS) Peripheral: (PNS Brain and Nervous The sensory and motor neurons that System connect the nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body The PNS contains the nerves, which leave the brain and the spinal cord and travel to certain areas of the body. The PNS main job is to send information gathered by the body's sensory receptors to the CNS as quickly as possible. Parasympathetic vs Sympathetic nervous system The peripheral nervous system divides into two parts: somatic and autonomatic Somatic Nervous System: enables voluntary control of our skeletal muscles Autonomic Nervous System: controls our glands and out internal organ muscles The Autonomic Nervous System has two functions: Sympathetic Nervous System: Parasympathetic Nervous System: Arouses the body and expends Conserves energy, calming you energy These two parts work together to create homeostasis Brain Structures and functions: especially focus on: Hippocampus : the elongated ridges on the floor of each lateral ventricle of the brain, thought to be the center of emotion, memory, and the autonomic nervous system. Amygdala: a roughly almond-shaped mass of gray matter inside each cerebral hemisphere, involved with the experiencing of emotions. Pons: a part of the brain stem/ a band of nerve fibers in the brain connecting the lobes of the midbrain, medulla, and cerebrum. Thalamus : between the cerebral hemispheres relaying sensory information and acting as the brains sensory control center Occipital:the rearmost lobe in each cerebral hemisphere of the brain/visual information (visual cortex) Temporal: each of the paired lobes of the brain lying beneath the temples, including areas concerned with the understanding of speech/ hearing and language (auditory cortex) Frontal: located immediately behind the forehead includes areas concerned with planning, judgement memory, reasoning, abstract thinking (motor cortex) Partial:located at the top of the head information about touch (sensory cortex) Corpus callosum: a broad band of fibers joining the two hemisphere of the brain and carrying messages between them Evolution of brain regions: Brain Lateralization Study Topics Continued: Brain Plasticity - Genes: heredity; flexibility of the brain based off genome 1. Modifiability: function/structures can be attained; if you’re around it for a while you’re familiar with it, but if you change environments then you lose familiarity. Occurs early in life, sensitive periods 2. Compensation: cells substitute for others, enabling recovery. Deaf show activation of auditory cortex when presented w/visual stimuli, depends on age, timing and damage. If one area of the brain isn’t useful [ie; deaf or blind] another portion of the brain will compensate Role of experience - Experience: changes in life are adjusted to use of the brain Non enriched vs. enriched environments: with more dendrites, more synaptic connections Heavier & thicker cortexes, larger neurons Brain Imaging 1. EEG: measures event potential (ERP) measures neuronal activity through electorates not useful for where, not USED spacial info for time, not images. Shows connections and MOST communication OFTEN 2. NIRS: (Near-Infrared Spectroscopy) measures blood flow in the brain as an indicator of function 3. CAT: combines a series of x-ray images taken from different angles and uses computer processing to create cross-sectional images. Looks just for structure no use for function. 4. PET (Positive Emission Topography): measures metabolic activity. Info about function drink radioactive fluid 5. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): uses a magnetic to USED record changes in the oxygen level 6. fMRI (Functional MRI): same as MRI just done while patient MOST is alive OFTE N Consciousness: our awareness of ourselves and our environment Dual Processing: the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious track conscious vs unconscious processing/attention In attentional Blindness/deafness: failing to see/hear visible/audible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere Selective Attention: the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Change Blindness: failing to notice changes in the environment Sleep : periodic, natural loss of consciousness Stages of sleep and associated brain waves o alpha: the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state. o Delta: the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep REM: (Rapid eye movement) sleep, a reoccurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur REM vs NREM (1, 2 & 3) NREM 1: sleep you may experience fantastic images resembling ex: feel like you’re falling in your sleep NREM 2: sleep, with its periodic sleep spindles—bursts of rapid, rhythmic brainwave activity. Although you could still be awakened without too much difficulty, you are now clearly asleep. NREM 3: During this slowwave sleep, which lasts for about 30 minutes, your brain emits large, slow delta waves and you are hard to awaken. (slow wave sleep, children may wet the bed) o Circadian Rhythms: the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms like temperature and wakefulness that occur on a 24hour cycle o Sleep Deprivation Dream Theories: WishFulfillment: dreams preserve sleep and provide a “psychic safety valve” expressing otherwise unacceptable feelings; contain manifest content (remembered) and deeper layer of latent content (hidden meaning) ActivationSynthesis: regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may help develop and preserve neural pathways Cognitive Development: dream content reflects dreamers’ level of cognitive development, their knowledge and understanding. Dreams simulate our lives, including worstcase scenarios Memory Consolidation/InformationProcessing: dreams help us sort out the day’s events and consolidate our memories Developmental Psychology: understanding that we never stop changing throughout the life span Stage vs Continuity Theories of Development 1. Continuous theories: gradual development: 2. Discontinuous theories: understanding and responding emerge at specific times 3. Stage theories: Development isn’t clear cut Nature and nurture are interwoven Stages of Prenatal Development: zygotic, embryonic, fetal Zygote (germinal phase)- The two weeks’ period after conception; when the sperm cell combines with can egg cell to form a zygote. The zygote then continues to multiply and become a blastocyst. The blastocyst moves along the fallopian tube and attaches to the uterus, this is called implantation. The placenta is formed through access tissue shortly after implantation. Embryonic phase- The third week starts the embryonic period. The embryo begins to divide into three layers that each become a body system. The neural tube forms after 22 days which later develops into the central nervous system including the brain and spinal cord. During the 4 week the head forms then the eyes, nose, ears, and mouth. The cardiovascular system is then formed during this week, as the blood vessel that will become the heart to start a pulse. During the 5 week buds from harm and legs. By the 8 th week the embryo has all the basic organs except the sex organs. Fetal phase- The fetal stage is the longest stage of development from 9-38 weeks. The organ systems from the embryonic phase continue to develop and further develop the baby. Period of The Fetus (9-38 weeks) 3 month (8-12 weeks) 1 Trimester Behavioral development differentiates Tactile memory intends cephalocaudally: infant beings to feel 2dTrimester (13-24 weeks) Brain development Responds to sound, light, and sucking behavior Age of viability 22-26 weeks (how early they can be born w/ medical attention.) Teratogens Teratogens: any disease drug or other environmental agent that can harm a developing embryo or fetus o legal & illegal drugs o environmental pollutants o maternal disease o nutrition o stress- extreme stress o Age (35 +) o Prenatal Care Impact of teratogen depends on genotype of organism Not universally harmful Species- specific Harm particular structures during particular points in development Effects during periods of rapid change How Teratogens Influence Development Same defect can be caused by different teratogens Different results from same teratogen Dose and exposure influence impact Other negative factors can worsen impact of teratogen, poor nutrition other teratogens Quality of postnatal environment Teratogens in News Zika virus causing microcephaly- small head= small brains Can cause feeding problems and seizures Infantile Amnesia Infantile Amnesia Lack of memory for events during infancy/toddler period Memories not stores “sense of self” essential for anchoring autobiographical memories/develops at 2 years Social interaction facilities memory Piaget’s Stage Theory Conservation (achieved concrete operational): the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the form of objects Object Permanence (achieved sensorimotor): the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived Egocentrism (achieved preoperational): preoperational child’s (26yrs old) difficulty taking another’s point of view Updates/Criticisms to Piaget Wynn’s sense of number (video in class and on youtube): showed 5montholds one or two objects. Then she hid the objects behind a screen, and visibly removed or added one. When she lifted the screen, the infants sometimes did a double take, staring longer when shown a wrong number of objects. But were they just responding to a greater or smaller mass of objects, rather than a change in number Violation of expectation (video in class): babies state longer at and explore an unexpected, impossible or unfamiliar scene Object permanence: the awareness that things are still there even if not viewable Symbolic thinking (video assigned on youtube): Judy DeLoache (1987) showed children a model of a room and hid a miniature stuffed dog behind its miniature couch. The 2½yearolds easily remembered where to find the miniature toy, but they could not use the model to locate an actual stuffed dog behind a couch in a real room. Threeyearolds—only 6 months older—usually went right to the actual stuffed animal in the real room, showing they could think of the model as a symbol for the room. Although Piaget did not view the stage transitions as abrupt, he probably would have been surprised to see symbolic thinking at such an early age. Theory of mind: (video in class and on youtube): people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states about their feelings, perceptions and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory (Kids as Scientists) Don’t skip stages Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; conservation is the logical principle that rearranging the form of appearance of objects doesn’t necessarily change the amount or number of objects. Young children in the preoperational stage (2-6) didn’t understand the principle of conservation By the time children enter the concrete operational stage, they can apply logical reasoning to the concrete objects used in conservation tasks Stages Characteristics Sensorimotor Infant experiences would through Birth-2yrs movement and senses, develops schemas, begins to act intentionally, and shows evidence of understanding object permanence Preoperational Child acquires motor skills but does not 2yrs-6yrs understand conservation of physical properties. Child begins this stage by thinking egocentrically but ends with a basic understanding of other minds Concrete Operational Child can think logically about physical 6-11yrs objects and events understand conservation of physical properties Formal Operational Child can think logically and abstract 11yrs & up propositions and hypotheticals Vygotsky Scaffolding: a process which teachers model or demonstrate how to solve a problem Vygotsky & The Sociocultural Approach (Kids as Apprentice) Cultural-historical Social origins are mental development Thoughts and action medicated by cultural events and artifacts Complex mental activities have their roots in social interaction Piaget vs. Vygotsky Attachment: an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation Harlow’s Monkey’s: (video on youtube): monkeys were taken from their mothers and placed in cages with blankets when blankets were taken away from monkeys, the Harlow’s recognized that this intense attachment to the blanket contradicted the idea that attachment derives from an association with nourishment. Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation (video assigned on youtube): Mary Ainsworth (1979) designed the strange situation experiment. She observed motherinfant pairs at home during their first six months. Later she observed the 1yearold infants in a strange situation (usually a laboratory playroom). Such research has shown that about 60 percent of infants display secure attachment. In their mother’s presence they play comfortably, happily exploring their new environment. When she leaves, they become distressed; when she returns, they seek contact with her. o Type of attachment (secure vs. insecure) and outcomes o Responsive parenting o Secure base Parenting Styles: Types, effects Authoritative: parents are confrontive. They are both demanding and responsive. They exert control by setting rules, but, especially with older children, they encourage open discussion and allow exceptions. Authoritarian: They impose rules and expect obedience: “Don’t interrupt.” “Keep your room clean.” “Don’t stay out late or you’ll be grounded.” “Why? Because I said so.” Permissive: parents are unrestraining. They make few demands and use little punishment. They may be indifferent, unresponsive, or unwilling to set limits. Uninvolved: no parenting Emerging Adulthood Changes in Cognition and Mental abilities in adulthood o Crystallized vs Fluid Intelligence o Changes in information processing speed
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