Chemistry 1151k Exam 1 Study Guide
Chemistry 1151k Exam 1 Study Guide CHEM 1151K
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Argueta on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1151K at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Nilmi Fernando in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 178 views.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Chemistry 1151k Fernando First Exam Study Guide Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term Chapter 1: Intro to Chemistry Significant figures: - All non-zero digits are significant - Ex: 0012500 – 3 sig figs - Imbedded zeros are significant - Ex: 000120500 – 4 sig figs - Leading zeros are never significant, even after a decimal point - Trailing zeros are not significant UNLESS there is a decimal point - Ex: 00.0120500 – 6 sig figs - Another way to see how many sig figs there are in a number is by scienotation - 3.78 x 10^3 3 sig figs ** however, in order to write in sig figs , the numbers must be under 10 and more than 0 so, 00.90800 ( 3 sig figs) would be 9.08 x 10 ^-2 if the exponent is postive, move the decimal to the right if negative, move the decimal to the left - Multiplying/dividing numbers: the final answer is whatever the least number of sig figs in between the two numbers - Ex: 6.57 x 0.17 = 1.1169 = 1.1 (rounded to the next decimal place) -Adding/subtracting numbers: final answer is the least number of decimal places between the numbers - ex: 45.986 – 10.7 = 35.286 = 35.3 (rounded) Units Metric S.I U.S Length M M In, yd, ft Mass L M^3 Fluid oz, gal, qt Volume g Kg Lb, oz Temperature °C K °F Time s s S, hrs, mins - Density= mass/volume Temperature °C °F K Boiling point 0 32 273.15 Freezing point 100 212 373.15 - Temp K= °C = 273.15 - °F = 1.8 (°C) + 32 - Main Point - Main Point - Main Point Chapter 2/3: Heat: measured in joules in SI and calorie in the older metric system - 4.184 joules = 1 cal - specific heat is the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1 °C - specific heat ( c) = ℎ???????????? ???? /???????????????? ???? ????ℎ???????????????? ???????? ???????????????????????????????????????????? - Detail - Formating Tip - To toggle between Main Point --->Detail] (hit tab) [to toggle from Detail ------> to Main Point] (hit enter). - You’re welcome. - Main Point - Detail - Detail - Main Point - Main Point Mixtures: 2 or more substances physically combined - Composition is not constant - Can be physically separated by filtration, chromatography, extraction, recrystallization - Two types of mixtures: - Homogeneous: uniform throughout - Heterogeneous: varies from one part to another Chemical Properties/ changes - Properties - reactivity - flammability - combustion - toxicity - Changes: - Something oxidizes - Wood burning - Silver tarnishes - Heating sugar turns into caramel Physical Property/Changes - Properties - Odor/shape/color - Mass/density/volume - Melting/ boiling point - Changes: - Changes of state (gas, liquid, solid) - Main Point Chapter 4: Elements and Energy v The periodic table Ø 1872- Dmitri Mendeleev arranged elements into groups w/ similar properties & increasing atomic mass Ø each horizontal row: period Ø each vertical/column: group/family § each group number is written at the top and are sorted in representative elements have group numbers § A Groups & Period 1-3: main/representative groups § B Groups & Period 4-7: non-representative/transition elements group v Metals characteristics: shiny, low specific heat, good conductors, high melting point, ductile (bendable), mallabity v Non-Metal characteristics: dull (not as shiny), low melting points, can come in any state (liquid, solid, gas), poor conductors, brittle and easy to shatter v Metalloids: semiconductors, shiny, intermediate melting points Ø ONLY metalloids in table: Boron (B), Silicon (Si), Germanium (Ge), Arsenic (As), Antimony (Sb), Tellurium (Te), Polonium (Po), Astatine (Ab) v Group 1A: Alkali metals. Ø Soft, shiny metals w/ low melting points & good conductors Ø React vigorously with water & form white stuff when they mix with oxygen v Group 2A: Alkaline Earth Metals. Ø Shiny but not as reactive as Alkali v Group 7A: Halogens Ø Highly reactive and form compounds with most elements v Group 8A: Noble Gases Ø Unreactive and seldom found in combinations w/other elements v The Atom: the smallest particle of an element that retains characteristics of that element. v Dalton’s Atomic Theory: Ø All atoms in an element are equal Ø All atoms of an element are similar but different from atoms of other elements Ø Atoms of two or more different elements create compounds Ø ATOM CANNOT BE CREATED NOR DESTROYED. They’re merely rearranged and separated/combined w/other atoms. v The subatomic particles: Ø Proton: a positively charged particle that lives within the nucleus. It was found in Ernest Rutherford’s famous gold foil experiment § § Protons weigh about 1.007 amu, a twelfth of a carbon atom mass (protons + neutrons = 1.67 x 10 e24) Ø Electron: a negatively charged particle outside of the nucleus. It was found in J.J Thomson’s cathode ray experiment § § Electrons weigh about .00056 amu, however a group of electrons in an atom can weigh up to a whopping 9.11 x 10 e28 (still pretty small). Ø Neutron: has no charge, just a neutral sub-particle that added to the mass of the atom v Amu- atomic mass unit v Atomic number is the amount of protons in the element. It also identifies the element since no two elements have the same number of protons. Ø Atomic number can also say the amount of electrons in an atom, which will also be the equal amount of protons in the atom too v Mass number = # of protons + # of neutrons Ø # of neutrons in nucleus = mass number – number of protons v Isotopes & Atomic Mass Ø Isotopes have the same atomic number but different amount of neutrons (i.e different atomic mass) § Ex: C-12, C-13, C-14 Ø Atomic mass is the average mass number § How to calculate atomic mass: • Ø Electron energy levels: § Orbitals that electrons follow from the nucleus to the outer regions of the atom. Note: The closer the energy level is to the nucleus, the less energy it is and more stable. The farther it is, it will be more unstable due to more energy within the level. § There are four sublevels: • S sublevel: 1 s orbital • p sublevel: 3 p orbitals • d sublevel: 5 d orbitals • f sublevel: 7 f orbitals ¨ therefore, the energy within these sublevels are (increasing order): s < p < d < f
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