New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

CDFR 2000 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: AmberNicole

CDFR 2000 Exam 1 Study Guide CDFR 2000


Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what was on the study guide and will be on the test this week. Hope this helps and let me know if you have any questions! -Amber
Child Development I: Prenatal through Middle Childhood
Dr. Archana Hegde
Study Guide
Child, development, child development, Prenatal, Childhood, Infancy
50 ?




Popular in Child Development I: Prenatal through Middle Childhood

Popular in Child Development and Family Relations

This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by AmberNicole on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CDFR 2000 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Archana Hegde in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Child Development I: Prenatal through Middle Childhood in Child Development and Family Relations at East Carolina University.


Reviews for CDFR 2000 Exam 1 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/17/16
Study Guide For Exam 1 CDFR 2000 Chapter 1  Understand the difference between continuous and discontinuous development (pages 7-9) o Continuous development  Process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were to begin with o Discontinuous development  Process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times o Development takes place in stages – qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development o The stage concept also assumes that children undergo periods of rapid transformation as they step up from one stage to the next, alternating with plateaus during which they stand solidly within a stage  In other words, change is fairly sudden rather than gradual and ongoing  Understand the concept of id, ego and superego (text page 15) o Freud's psychosexual theory emphasizes that how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development o Three parts of personality  Id  Largest portion of the mind  Source of basic biological needs and desires  Ego  The conscious  Rational part of personality  Emerges in early infancy to redirect the id's impulses so they are discharge in acceptable ways  Superego  Between 3-6 years of age  The conscience  Develops as parents insist that children conform to the values of society  Understand John Locke's Theory (Read pages 12-14) o Viewed the child as a tabula rasa- Latin for "blank slate"  According to this idea, children begin as nothing at all; their characters are shaped entirely by experience o Locke saw parents as rational tutors who can mold the child in any way they wish through careful instruction, effective example, and rewards for good behavior o He also opposed physical punishment: "The child repeatedly beaten in school cannot look upon books and teachers without experiencing fear and anger  Negative view on spanking o Locke's philosophy led to a change from harshness toward children to kindness and compassion o Regarded development as continuous: Adultlike behaviors are gradually built up through the warm, consistent teachings of parents o View of the child as a tabula rasa led him to champion nurture- the power of the environment to shape the child  Nurture suggests the possibility of many courses of development and of high plasticity at later ages due to new experiences  Locke's philosophy characterizes children as doing little to influence their own destiny, which is written on"blank slates" by others  What are longitudinal studies and why are they important (pages 40-41) o The investigator studies the same group of participants repeatedly at different ages  Strengths  Permits study of common patterns and individual differences in development and relationships between early and later events and behaviors  Limitations  Age-related changes may be distorted because of biased sampling, selective attrition, practice effects, and cohort effects  Understand the difference between stage and non stage theories (Chart 1.3 on page 31) o Psychoanalytic perspective  Discontinuous development  Psychosexual and psychosocial development takes place in stages  One course of development  Stages are assumed to be universal  Relative influence of both nature and nurture  Innate impulses are channeled and controlled through child-rearing experiences  Early experiences set the course of later development o Behaviorism and social learning theory  Continuous development  Development involves an increase in learned behaviors  Many possible courses of development  Behaviors reinforced and modeled may vary from child to child  Emphasis on nurture  Development results from conditioning and modeling  Both early and later experiences are important o Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory  Discontinuous development  Cognitive development takes place in stages  One course of development  Stages are assumed to be universal  Both nature and nurture  Development occurs as the brain grows and children exercise their innate drive to discover reality in a generally stimulating environment  Both early and later experiences are important o Information processing  Continuous development  Children gradually improve in perception, attention, memory, and problem-solving skills  One course of development  Changes studied characterize most or all children  Both nature and nurture  Children are active, sense-making beings who modify their thinking as the brain grows and they confront new environmental demands  Both early and later experiences are important o Ethology and evolutionary developmental psychology  Both continuous and discontinuous development  Children gradually develop a wider range of adaptive behaviors  Sensitive periods occur, in which qualitatively distinct capacities emerge fairly suddenly  One course of development  Adaptive behaviors and sensitive periods apply to all members of a species  Both nature and nurture  Evolution and heredity influence behavior, and learning lends greater flexibility and adaptiveness to it  In sensitive periods, early experiences set the course of later development o Vygotsky's sociocultural theory  Both continuous and discontinuous  Language acquisition and schooling lead to stagewise changes  Dialogues with more expert members of society also lead to continuous changes that vary from culture to culture  Many possible courses of development  Socially mediated changes in thought and behavior vary from culture to culture  Both nature and nurture  Heredity, brain growth, and dialogues with more expert members of society jointly contribute to development  Both early and later experiences are important o Ecological systems theory  Not specified on continuous or discontinuous development  Many possible courses of development  Children's characteristics join with environmental forces at multiple levels to mold development in unique ways  Both nature and nurture  Children's characteristics and the reactions of others affect each other in a bidirectional fashion  Layers of the environment influence child-rearing experiences  Both early and later experiences are important o Dynamic systems perspective  Both continuous and discontinuous development  Change in the system is always ongoing  Stagelike transformations occur as children reorganize their behavior so components fo the system work as a functioning whole  Many possible courses of development  Biological makeup, everyday tasks, and social experiences vary, yielding wide individual differences in specific skills  Both nature and nurture  The child's mind, body, and physical and social surroundings form an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills  Both early and later experiences are important  Read the nature nurture controversy and formulate examples on how each influences development o Nature-nurture controversy: are genetic or environmental factors more important in influencing development o By nature, we mean the hereditary information we receive from our parents at the moment of conception o By nurture, we mean the complex forces of the physical and social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth o A theory's position on the roles of nature and nurture affects how it explains individual differences o Stability- that children who are high or low in a characteristic (such as verbal ability, anxiety, or sociability) will remain so at later ages- typically stress the importance of heredity o If they regard environment as important, they usually point to early experiences as establishing a lifelong pattern of behavior o Development as having substantial plasticity throughout life- as open to change in response to influential experiences  G. Stanley's and Jean Rousseau's contribution to the field of child development o G. Stanley  Founder of the child-study movement  Devised theories based on evolutionary ideas  Regarded development as a maturational process – a genetically determined series of events that unfold automatically, much like a flower  Normative approach measures for behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age related averages are compared to represent typical development o Jean Rousseau  Introduced new view of childhood  Children are noble savages, naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth  Maturation refers to a genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth  Understanding Vygotsky's concept of development and understand the concept of ZPD and Scaffolding o Vygotsky's concept of development  Sociocultural theory  Focuses on how culture- the values, beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group - is transmitted into the next generation  According to Vygotsky, social interaction – in particular, cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society - is necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community's culture  Concept of ZPD  Zone of proximal development  Difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help  Introduced by Vygotsky  Scaffolding  Variety of instructional techniques used ot move students progressively toward stronger understanding and, ultimately, greater independence in the learning process  Understand the various systems defined by Urie Bronfenbrenner (micro, meso, exo, macro and chrono o Ecological systems theory views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by mulitple levels of the surrounding environment o The microsystem  The innermost level of the environment consists of activities and interaction patterns in the child's immediate surroundings o The mesosystem  The second level encompasses connections between Microsystems, such as home, school, neighborhood, and child-care center o The ecosystem  The exosystem consists of social settings that do not contain children but that nevertheless affect children's experiences in immediate settings o The macrosystem  The outermost level consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources o An ever changing system  Temporal dimension  Life changes can be imposed on the child, as in the examples just given  Alternatively, they can arise from within the child, since as children get older they select, modify, and create many of their own settings and experiences  Understand how research can impact young children and what steps need to be taken when doing research with the young children  Because of their immaturity, children are especially vulnerable to harm and often cannot evaluate the risks and benefits of research  Ethical guidelines and institutional review boards that weigh the risks and benefits of research that help ensure that children's research rights are protected  Besides obtaining consent from parents and others who act on children's behalf, researchers should seek the informed assent of children 7 years and older  The use of deception in research with children is especially risky because it may undermine their basic faith in the honesty of adults  Understand the difference between informed consent and debriefing under ethics of research (pages 43-46) o Informed consent  The ethical principle of informed consent requires special interpretation when participants cannot fully appreciate the research goals and activities o Debriefing:  Researcher privides a full accont and justification of the activiites, occurs after the research session is over  Review well each type of methodology or strategy used to study children (review the PowerPoints well) o Naturalistic observations  Gathered in everyday environments and permit researchers to see directly the everyday behaviors they hope to explain o Structured observations  take place in laboratories, where every participant has equal opportunity to display the behaviors of interest o Clinical interview  Self report methods can be flexible and opened ended like the clinical interview, which permits participants to express their thoughts in ways similar to their thinking in everyday life o Structured interviews  Tests, and questionnaires are more efficient and permit researchers to specify activities and behaviors that participants might not think of in an open-ended interview o Clinical or case study method  Obtain in depth understanding of a single child  Involves synthesizing a wide range of information, including interviews, observations, and sometimes test scores o Ethnography  Researchers have adapted observational and self-report methods to permit direct comparisons of cultures  To uncover the cultural meanings of behavior, they rely on ethnography, engaging in participant observation o Correlational design  Examines relationships between variables, generally as they occur in natural life circumstances, without altering participants' experiences o Correlation coefficient  Describes how two measures, or variables, are associated with one another  Correlational studies do not permit inferences about cause and effect, but they can be helpful in identifying relationships that are worth exploring with a more powerful experimental strategy o Experimental design  Permits inferences about cause and effect o Independent variable  Researchers can manipulate an independent variable by exposing participants to two or more treatment conditions  Then they determine what effect this variable has on a dependent variable o Random assignment  Reduces the chances that characteristics of participants will affect the accuracy of experimental findings Chapter 2  What are genes o Segment of DNA along the length of the chromosome o Protein coding genes  Directly affect our body's characteristics  Lie along the human chromosomes  Send instructions for making a rich assortment of proteins to the cytoplasm, the area surrounding the cell nucleus o Regulator genes  Modify the instructions given by protein-coding genes, greatly complicating their genetic impact o Individuals around the world are about 99.6% genetically identical o It takes a change in only a single DNA base pair to influence human traits o Biological events of profound developmental significance are the result of both genetic and nongenetic forces  What are chromosomes o Rod like structures that store and transmit genetic information  What is a zygote o When a sperm and ovum unite at conception, the resulting cell, called a zygote, will again have 46 chromosomes  Understand the difference between mitosis and meiosis o Meiosis: halves the number of chromosomes normally present in body cells  Called gametes or sex cells o Mitosis: full number of chromosomes in human body cells  Understand the concept of identical and fraternal twins (how are they formed) o Fraternal (dizygotic twins)  Most common type of multiple offspring, resulting from the release and fertilization of two ova o Identical, or monozygotic twins  A zygote that has started to duplicate separates into two clusters of cells that develop into two individuals  Have same genetic makeup  Understand the concept of homozygous and heterozygous o Homozygous  Alleles from both parents are alike o Heterozygous  Alleles are different  Relationships between the alleles determine the phenotype  What causes Down syndrome o Most common chromosomal disorder, occurring in 1 out of every 700 live births o 95% of cases, it results from a failure of the twenty-first pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis, so the new individual receives three of these chromosomes rather than the normal two o Called trisomy 21 o Less frequent forms, an extra broken piece of a twenty-first chromosome is attached to another chromosome (called translocation pattern) o Or an error occurs during the early stages of cell duplication, causing some but not all body cells to have the defective chromosomal makeup (called mosaic pattern) o Because the mosaic type involves less genetic material, symptoms may be less extreme o Live to around 60 o More than half of affected individuals who live past age 40 show symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, the most common form of dementia o Genes on chromosome 21 are linked to this disorder o Environmental factors affect how well children with Down syndrome fare o 5 to 10 percent of cases, the extra genetic material originates with the father  What is Turner Syndrome (XO) o Missing X chromosome o Short stature, webbed neck, incomplete development of sex characteristics at puberty, sterility, and impaired spatial intelligence o 1 in 2,500 to 8,000 female firths o Hormone therapy in childhood to stimulate physical growth and at puberty to promote development of sex characteristics; special education to treat spatial ability problems  Definition of SES o Socioeconomic status o Combines three related, but not completely overlapping, variables  Years of education  Prestige of one's job and the skills it requires, both of which measure social status  Income, which measures economic status o High levels of stress contribute to low-SES parents' greater use of coercive discipline o As early as the second year of life, higher SES is associated with enhanced cognitive and language development and with reduced incidence of behavior problems o As a result, they attain higher levels of education, which greatly enhances their opportunities for a prosperous adult life  What distinguishes law and high SES parents o Law  To distinguish a case means a court decides the holding or legal reasoning of a precedent case will not apply due to materially different facts between two cases o High SES parents  Tend to be smaller  Emphasize psychological traits  Engage in warm, verbally stimulating interaction with children  Other factors impacting development o Neighborhoods  Neighborhoods offer resources and social ties that play an important part in children's development  Neighborhood sources have a greater impact on economically disadvantaged than on well to do young people  Higher-SES families depend less on their immediate surroundings for social support, education, and leisure pursuits  Social support  Parental self-worth  Parental access to valuable information and services  Child-rearing controls and role models  Direct assistance with child rearing o Schools  School is a formal institution designed to transmit knowledge and skills that chidlren need to become productive members of their society  Regular parent-school contact supports development at all ages Chapter 3  Understand the period of the zygote o Weeks 1 and 2  Week 1: the one-celled zygote multiplies and forms a blastocyst  Week 2: the blastocyst burrows into the uterine lining  Structures that feed and protect the devloping organism begin to form- amnion, chorion, yolk sac, placenta, and umbilical cord  Impact of DES on daughter of mothers o Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA)  A rare type of Vaginal and Cervical cancer  Approximately 1 in 1,000 (0.1%) DES Daughters will be diagnosed with CCA  The risk is virtually non-existent among premenopausal women not exposed to DES o Reproductive tract structural differences  Including T-shaped uterus, hooded cervix, cervical cockscomb, and pseudopolyp o Pregnancy complications  Ectopic (tubal) pregnancy and pre-term (early) delivery o Infertility  Difficulty becoming pregnant  Understand the functioning of ecto, endo and meso (derms) o In the first week of this period, the embryonic disk forms three layers of cells  The ectoderm  This will become the nervous system and skin  The mesoderm  Develops the muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and other internal organs  The endoderm  Become the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and glands  These three layers give rise to all parts of the body  Embryo's functioning during the second month o Growth continues rapidly o Eyes, ears, nose, jaw, and neck form o Tiny buds become arms, legs, fingers, and toes o Internal organs are more distinct: The intestines grow, the heart develops separate chambers, and the liver and spleen take over production of blood cells so that the yolk sac is no longer needed o Changing body proportions cause the embryo's posture to become more upright o At 7 weeks, the production of neurons (nerve cells that store and transmit informations) begins deep inside the neural tube at the astounding pace of more than 250,000 per minute  Once formed, neurons begin traveling along tiny threads to their permanent locations, where they will form the major parts of the brain o Around this time, ovaries in the female and testes in the male have begun to develop o By 8 weeks, the testes start to secrete the hormone testosterone, which will stimulate differentiation of male internal reproductive organs and the penis and scrotum during the coming month o In the absence of testosterone, female reproductive organs form o At the end of this period, the embryo – about 1 inch long and 1/7 ounce in weight - can already sense its world o Responds to touch, particularly in the mouth area and on the soles of the feet o It can move, although its tiny flutters are still too light to be felt by the mother  Fetus movements and events during the third month o Fetus kicks, bends its arm, forms a fist, curls its toes, turns its head, opens its mouth, and even sucks its thumb, stretches, and yawns o Body position changes are frequently, occurring as often as 25 times per hour  Sex determination timing and age of viability o Sex determination timing  By the twelfth week, the external genitals are well formed, and the sex of the fetus can be detected with ultrasound o Age of viability  During the third trimester the point at which the baby can first survive is between 22 and 26 weeks  Read interesting facts as it relates to the prenatal phase  Pages 95-112 notes o Prenatal Development o Conception o Ovaries: two walnut-sized organs located deep inside her abdomen, and is drawn into one of two fallopian tubes – long, thin structures that lead to the hollow, soft-lined uterus o While the ovum is traveling, the spot on the ovary from which it was released, now called the corpus luteum, secretes hormones that prepare the lining of the uterus to receive a fertilized ovum o Cervix is the opening of the uterus o Vast changes that take place during the 38 weeks of pregnancy are usually divided into three phases: o The germinal period o The period of the embryo o The period of the fetus o o Female Reproductive Organs o Zygote o As the zygote moves down the fallopian tube, it duplicates, at first slowly and then more rapidly o Blastocyst o By the fourth day it forms a hollow, fluid-filled ball, called a blastocyst o The inner cells, called the embryonic disk, will become the new organism o The outer cells, or trophoblast, will provide protective covering o Implantation o At the end of the first week, the blastocyst begins to implant in the uterine lining o o o Milestones of Prenatal Development o First trimester o Prenatal phase: Germinal o Week 1: o The one-celled zygote multiplies and forms a blastocyst o Week 2: o The blastocyst burrows into the uterine lining. o Structures that feed and protect the developing organism begin to form- amnion, chorion, yolk sac, placenta, and umbilical cord o Prenatal phase: Embryo o Weeks 3-4 o ¼ inch (6mm) o A primitive brain and spinal cord appear o Heart, muscles, ribs, backbone, and digestive tract begin to develop o Weeks 5-8 o 1 inch (2.5cm); 1/7 ounce (4 g) o Many external body structures (face, arms, legs, toes, fingers) and internal organs form o The sense of touch begins to develop, and the embryo can move o Prenatal phase: Fetus o Weeks 9-12 o 3 inches (7.6 cm); less than 1 ounce (28 g) o Rapid increase in size begins o Nervous system, organs, and muscles become organized and connected, and new behavioral capacities (kicking, thumb sucking, mouth opening, and rehearsal of breathing) appear o External genitals are well-formed, and the fetus's sex is evident o 2 Trimester o Prenatal phase: Fetus o Weeks 13-24 o 12 inches (30 cm); 1.8 pounds (820 g) o The fetus continues to enlarge rapidly o In the middle of this period, the mother can feel fetal movements o Vernix and lanugo keep the fetus's skin from chapping in the amniotic fluid o Most of the brain's neurons are in place by 24 weeks o Eyes are sensitive to lights, and the fetus reacts to sound rd o 3 Trimester o Prenatal phase: Fetus o Weeks 25-38 o 20 inches (50cm); 7.5 pounds (3,400 g) o The fetus has a good chance of survival if born during this time o Size increases o Lungs mature o Rapid brain development, in neural connectivity and organization, enables sensory and behavioral capacities to expand o In the middle of this period, a layer of fat is added under the skin o Antibodies are transmitted from mother to fetus to protect against disease o Most fetuses rotate into an upside-down position in preparation for birth o o o Germinal Period o Germinal period lasts about two weeks o The zygote's first cell duplication is long and drawn out; it is not complete until about 30 hours after conception o Blastocyst is a hollow, fluid-filled ball o Embryonic disk: The cells on the inside of the blastocyst o Embryonic disk will become the new organism; the thin outer ring of cells, termed the trophoblast o Implantation o Between the seventh and ninth days, implantation occurs: The blastocyst burrows deep into the uterine lining o Trophoblast (protective outer layer) multiplies fastest o It forms a membrane, called the amnion, the encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid, which helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant and provides a cushion against any jolts caused by the women's movement o A yolk sac emerges that produces blood cells until the developing liver, spleen, and bone marrow are mature enough to take over this function o o The placenta and umbilical cord o Protective membrane- the chorion, which surrounds the amnion o From the chorion, the fingerlike villi, or blood vessels, emerge o By bringing the mother's and the embryo's blood close together, the placenta permits food and oxygen to reach the developing organism and waste products to be carried away o Chorionic villus sampling is the prenatal diagnostic method that can be performed earliest, at nine weeks after conception o The placenta is connected to the developing organism by the umbilical cord, which first appears as a primitive body stalk and, during the course of pregnancy, grows to a length of 1 to 3 feet o The umbilical cord contains one large vein that delivers blood loaded with nutrients and two arteries that remove waste products o o Period of the Embryo o The period of the embryo lasts from implantation through the eighth week of pregnancy o During these brief six weeks, the most rapid prenatal changes take place, as the groundwork is laid for all body structures and internal organs o Last half of the first month o In the first week of this period, the embryonic disk forms three layers of cells o The ectoderm: will become the nervous system and skin o The mesoderm: from which will develop the muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and other internal organs o The endoderm, which will become the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and gland o These three layers give rise to all parts of the body o At first, the nervous system develops fastest o The ectoderm folds over to form the neural tube, or spinal cord o o Second month o Growth continues rapidly o o Period of the Fetus o The period of the fetus, from the ninth week to the end of pregnancy, is the longest prenatal period o During this "growth and finishing" phase, the developing organism increases rapidly in size, especially from the ninth to the twentieth week o o The third month o Prenatal development is sometimes divided into trimesters, or three equal time periods o At the end of the third month, the first trimester is complete o o The second trimester o 17-20 weeks o Mother can feel its movements o A white, cheese like substance called vernix protects its skin from chapping during the long months spent bathing in the amniotic fluid o White, downy hair called lanugo also appears over the entire body, helping the vernix stick to the skin o Glial cells, which support and feed the neurons, continue to increase at a rapid rate throughout the remaining months of pregnancy, as well as after birth o Neurons begin forming synapses, or connections, at a rapid pace o o The third trimester o During the final trimester, a fetus born early has a chance for survival o The point at which the baby can first survive, called the age of viability, occurs sometime between 22 and 26 weeks o The cerebral cortex, the seat of human intelligence, enlarges o Synchrony between fetal heart rate and motor activity peaks: A rise in heart rate is usually followed within five seconds by a burst of motor activity o Around 30 weeks, fetuses presented with a repeated auditory stimulus against the mother's abdomen initially react with a rise in heart rate, electrical brain-wave recordings, and body movements o Then responsiveness gradually declines, indicating habituation (adaptation) to the sound o Simple familiar melody (descending tones) versus an unfamiliar melody (ascending tones) o o Prenatal environmental influences o Teratogens o The term teratogen refers to any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period o Teras means malformation or monstrosity o Teratogens depend on o Dose o Larger loses over longer time periods usually have more negative effects o Heredity o Some individuals are better able than others to withstand harmful environments o Other negative influences o The presence of several negative factors at once o Age o Sensitive period concept refers to a limited time span in which a part of the body or a behavior is biologically prepared to develop rapidly o In the germinal period, before implantation, teratogens rarely have any impact o Embryonic period is the time when serious defects are most likely to occur because the foundations for all body parts are being laid down o During the fetal period, teratogenic damage is usually minor o o Biology and environments o Consistent attention to diet, weight, fitness, and distress-controllable factors that contribute to cardiovascular disease, adult-onset diabetes and cancer o Bidirectional influences between child and environment o o Prescription and nonprescription drugs o Sedative called thalidomide was widely available in Canada, Europe, and South America o Gave birth defects to about 7,000 infants worldwide o Many of these children scored below average in intelligence o Drug damaged the central nervous system directly, by modifying the expression of genes involved its development o Another medication, a synthetic hormone called diethylstilbestrol (DES), was widely prescribed between 1945 and 1970 to prevent miscarriages o Currently, the most widely used potent teratogen is a vitamin A derivative called isotretinoin, prescribed to treat severe acne and taken by hundreds of thousands of women of childbearing age in industrialized nations o Many women do not know that they are pregnant during the early weeks of the embryonic period, when exposure to medications (and other teratogens) can be of greatest threat o o Illegal drugs o Effects may contribute to an array of cocaine-associated physical malformations, especially of the central nervous system and heart; brain hemorrhages and seizures; and growth retardation o Marijuana, is used more widely than heroin and cocain o o Tobacco o Nicotine, the addictive substance in tobacco, constricts blood vessels, lessens blood flow to the uterus, and causes the placenta to grow abnormally o Reduces the transfer of nutrients o Passive smoking is also related to low birth weight, infant death, childhood respiratory illnesses, and possible long-term attention, learning, and behavior problems o o Alcohol o Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a term that encompasses a range of physical, mental, and behavioral outcomes caused by prenatal alcohol exposure o 3 severities of FASD o Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) o Distinguished by o Slow physical growth o Pattern of three facial abnormalities (short eyelid openings; a thin upper lip; a smooth or flattened philtrum, or indentation running from the bottom of the nose to the center of the upper lip) o Brain injury, evident in a small head and impairment in at least three areas of functioning- for example, memory, language and communication, attention span and activity level (overactivity), planning and reasoning, motor coordination, or social skills o Partial fetal alcohol syndrome (p-FAS) o Distinguished by o Two of the three facial abnormalities just mentioned o Brain injury, again evident in at least three areas of impaired functioning o Mothers of children with p-FAS generally drank alcohol in smaller quantities, and children's defects vary with the timing and length of alcohol exposure o Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) o At least three areas of mental funcitoning are impaired, despite typical physical growth and absence of facial abnormalities o Prenatal alcohol exposure, though confirmed, is less pervasive than in FAS o Even mild drinking, less than one drink per day, is associated with reduced head size (a measure of brain development), slow body growth, and behavior problems o No amount of alcohol is safe o o o Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Criteria for Diagnosis o Slow physical growth o FAS o Facial abnormalities (short eyelid openings, thin upper lip, smooth or flattened philtrum) o FAS- all three present o P-FAS: Two of the three are present o Brain injury o FAS: impairment in a minimum of three areas of funcitoning o P-FAS: Two of the three are present o ARND: Impairment in a minimum of three areas of functioning o o Radiation o Ionizing radiation can cause mutation, damaging DNA in ova and sperm o Environmental pollution o Astounding number of potentially dangerous chemicals are released into the environment o In the 1950s, an industrial plant released waste containing high levels of mercury into a bay providing seafood and water for the town of Minamata, Japan o For many years, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used to insulate electrical equipment, until research showed that, like mercury, they entered waterways and the food supply o Another teratogen, lead, is present in paint flaking off the walls of old buildings and in certain materials used is industrial occupations o Prenatal exposure to dioxins – toxic compounds resulting from commercial waste incineration and burning of fuels, such as coal or oil- has particularly injurious effects o o Effects of some infectious diseases during pregnancy o Viral o Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) o Miscarriage o Physical malformations (possible) o Intellectual disability o Low birth weight and prematurity o Chickenpox o Miscarriage o Physical malformations o Intellectual disability o Low birth weight and prematurity o Cytomegalovirus o Miscarriage o Physical malformations o Intellectual disability o Low birth weight and prematurity o Herpes simplex 2 (genital herpes) o Miscarriage o Physical malformations o Intellectual disability o Low birth weight and prematurity o Mumps o Miscarriage o No physical malformations o No intellectual disability o No low birth weight and prematurity o Rubella (German measles) o Miscarriage o Physical malformations o Intellectual disability o Low birth weight and prematurity o Bacterial o Chlamydia o Miscarriage o Physical malformations are possible o No intellectual disability o Low birth weight and prematurity o Syphilis o Miscarriage o Physical malformations o Intellectual disability o Low birth weight and prematurity are possible o Tuberculosis o Miscarriage o Physical malformations are possible o Intellectual disability o Low birth weight and prematurity o Parasitic o Malaria o Miscarriage o No physical malformations o No intellectual disability o Low birth weight and prematurity o Toxoplasmosis o Miscarriage o Physical malformations o Intellectual disability o Low birth weight and prematurity o o Viruses o In the mid 1960s, a worldwide epidemic of rubella (three-day, or German, measles) led to the birth of more than 20,000 American babies with serious defects and to 13,000 fetal and newborn deaths o The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a disease that destroys the immune system, has infected increasing numbers of women over the past three decades o Cytomegalovirus (the most frequent prenatal infection, transmitted through respiratory or sexual contact) and herpes simplex 2 (which is sexually transmitted) are especially dangerous o Virus invades the mother's genital tract, infecting babies either during pregnancy or at birth o No symptoms, very mild symptoms, or symptoms with which people are unfamiliar, thereby increasing the likelihood of contagion o Bacterial and parasitic diseases o Most common is toxoplasmosis, an infection caused by a parasite found in many animals o o o Exercise o Frequent, vigorous exercise, expecially late in pregnancy, results in lower birth weight than in healthy, nonexercising controls o Nutrition o Extra 100 calories a day in the first trimester o Prevention and treatment o Taking a folic acid supplement around the time of conception reduces by more than 70% abnormalities of the neural tube, such as anencephaly and spina bifida o Since many U.S. pregnancies are unplanned, government regulations mandate that bread, flour, rice, pasta, and other grain products be fortified with folic acid o Fortifying table salt with iodine virtually eradicated infantile hypothyroidism- a conditon of stunted growth and cognitive impairment caused by prenatal iodine deficiency, that is a common cause of intellectual disability in many parts of the world


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.