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UA / Biology / BSC 114 / isotopes of an element will always differ in

isotopes of an element will always differ in

isotopes of an element will always differ in

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Biology
Course: Principles of Biology I
Professor: Kimberly caldwell
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: BSC 114 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: The first exam is over chapters 2-7. This study guide covers chapters 2, 3, 4, and 6. I will post the study guides for chapters 5 and 7 soon.
Uploaded: 09/18/2016
6 Pages 10 Views 14 Unlocks
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Chapter 2 Study Guide:


Why intestinal cells do not leak fluids?



1. Although all forms of life require ion, other elements are required only by  certain species.

2. Elevated concentrations of some trace elements such as cobalt and  chromium can be toxic.

3. Compounds have emergent properties that are different than the properties  of the elements that form them.

4. There are 92 naturally occurring elements.

5. The main essential elements are carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen. 6. The four most abundant elements in living systems are hydrogen, oxygen,  carbon, and nitrogen.

7. Electrons have negligible mass.

8. Neutrons’ mass affects the atomic mass but neutrons lack a charge. 9. In an uncharged atom, the number of protons equals the number of  electrons.

10.If an element has 8 protons, 9 neutrons, and 8 electrons, its atomic number is 8 and its atomic mass is 17.

11.An uncharged atom of nitrogen would have seven protons and seven  electrons.


What is the difference between Eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells?



12.Isotopes of an element will always differ in atomic mass.

13.A carbon isotope with an atomic number of 6 and an atomic mass of 14 would have 6 protons, 6 electrons, and 8 neutrons.

14.Phosphorus-32 is a radioactive isotope of phosphorus-35. Phosphorus-32 has  3 less neutrons than phosphorus-35.

15.If calcium usually has 20 protons, 20 neutrons, and 20 electrons, an isotope  of calcium would have the same number of protons and electrons but a  different number of neutrons.

16.Radioactive isotopes are useful in scientific research because they can be  used to trace particular atoms and molecule through metabolic breakdown. 17.A neutral atom of chlorine, atomic number 17, has 7 electrons in its third  shell.

18.The chemical characteristics and reactivity of an element depends mainly on  the number of electrons in the outermost shell.


Why Carbon is tetravalent?



19.Similarities in chemical characteristics and reactivity occur when different  elements have similar numbers of valence electrons.  

20.The valence shell of a sulfur atom with an atomic number of 16 and a mass  number of 32 would have six electrons in its valence shell.

21.A stable configuration of an atom is attained when the atoms has eight  electrons in its outermost shell. Don't forget about the age old question of astro 001 penn state
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22.An atom that normally has eight electrons in its valence shell typically does  not form chemical bonds with other atoms.

23.An atom with an atomic number of 4 and a net charge of +1 would have 4  protons and 3 electrons. The number of neutrons could only be determined if  we knew its atomic mass.

24.Covalent bonds are formed when one or more pairs of valence electrons are  shared by two neutral atoms.

25.A covalent bond is polar if the atoms sharing the electrons have different  electronegativities.If you want to learn more check out p-edu110

26.When an atom or molecules has an unequal number of protons and electrons, the atom or molecule is an ion.

27.Copper has an atomic number of 29 and an atomic mass of 64. If an  uncharged copper atom lost two electrons, the atomic number would still be  29, the atomic mass would still be 64, but the atom would be a cation with a  +2 charge. Don't forget about the age old question of ucsc computer science

28.When CaSO4 ionizes into a calcium ion and sulfate ion, the calcium has two  electrons in its outer shell that it loses so the sulfate ion gains a charge of -2. 29.Ionic bonds form between ions with opposite charges. Don't forget about the age old question of venturesome personality

30.A hydrogen bond is a weak chemical bond.

31.Hydrogen bonds occur when a partial charge on one molecule attracts the  opposite partial charge on another molecule.

32.Van der Waals reactions are weak but they help to reinforce the 3D shapes of  large molecules.  

33.Methane has the shape of a completed tetrahedron.

34.The shape of a molecule is the most important property when it comes  molecular recognition.

35.Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. 36.A reversible reaction has reached chemical equilibrium when the rate of the  reverse reaction equals the rate of the forward reaction.

Chapter 3 Study Guide:

1. Cells are surrounded by water and cells themselves consist of mainly water.  Because of this, the temperature of living things changes slowly, a variety of  nutrient molecules can dissolve as solutes, waste products can be easily  removed, and dissolved substances can be easily transported within a cell or  between cells.

2. Water is a polar molecule because the atoms in a water molecule have partial charges due to unequal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond. 3. The partial charges on water molecules occur because of the unequal sharing of electrons between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms of a water molecule. 4. In a group of water molecules, hydrogen bonds form between the oxygen  atom of one water molecule and the hydrogen atom of another water  molecule.

5. Ice floats because it is less dense than water. Floating ice insulates water  below the surface and provides a habitat for species. Increasing air  temperature in the Arctic is causing a reduction in ice, compromising these  insulated underwater habitats. Don't forget about the age old question of kenneth chaiprasert

6. If water were not a polar molecule, the effects of global warming would be  worse because the loss of polar nature would decrease water’s specific heat  and its ability to moderate temperature.

7. The tendency of water molecules to stay close together as a result of  hydrogen bonding is called cohesion, helps moderate temperature, provides  surface tension, and helps water move up through vessels in tree trunks.

8. Cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension are all properties related to  hydrogen bonding.

9. Most of water’s unique properties are a result of oxygen having a higher  electronegativity than hydrogen.

10.Water’s partial charges allow it to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules  as well as allow it to dissolve substances that have charges or partial  charges.

11.Cohesion keeps the upward movement of water through vessels in a tree  trunk.

12.Adhesion is the clinging of one substance to another substance. 13.Surface tension explains why you can fill a glass of water to just slightly  above the rim without it spilling over the glass.

14.Condensing 5 grams of steam to liquid water would involve a great transfer of heat.

15.If organisms consisted mainly of alcohol instead of water, systems for  temperature regulation would have to be much more efficient. 16.Specific heat is the amount of heat required to change the temperature of 1  gram of any substance by 1 degree Celsius.

17.Heat of vaporization is the heat required to convert 1 gram of any substance  from a liquid to a gas

18.Coastal climates are more moderate than inland climates due to water’s high  specific heat.

19.Sweating has a cooling effect because of water’s high heat of vaporization. 20.Water has a higher boiling point than other liquids so it can absorb larger  amounts of heat.

21.Ice floats because water molecules are farther apart in solid ice than liquid  water, making ice less dense than water.

22.Water is a versatile solvent because it is polar.  

23.Water’s polarity allows its negatively charged oxygen atoms and positively  charged hydrogen atoms to be attracted to other negatively and positively  charged ions and molecules.

24.Hydrophobic molecules are nonpolar molecules that move away from water  molecules.

25.A molecule with all nonpolar covalent bonds would be hydrophobic. 26.Cell membranes are composed of hydrophobic molecules in order to separate the aqueous solutions outside and inside the cells. They cannot be soluble in  water.

27.Hydrophilic substances have charges and partial charges that attract water  molecules.

28.Sucrose has a molecular mass of 342 daltons. To make a 2 molar solution of  sucrose, stir 342 grams of sucrose into water to dissolve the sugar and then  add enough water to bring the total volume up to 0.5 L.

29.A mole of ethyl alcohol weighs 46 grams. 0.092 grams are needed to produce 1 L of a 2 millimolar solution.

30.An acid is a compound that increases the hydrogen ion concentration in a  solution.

31.Adding acid to a solution increases the hydrogen ion concentration and  lowers the pH.

32.Hydrofluoric acid breaks down to release hydrogen ions, making it an acid. 33.A glass of juice with a pH of 3 contains ten times as much hydrogen ions as a  glass of tomato juice with a pH of 4.

34.A solution with a pH of 6 contains 100 times more hydrogen ions than the  same amount of solution with a pH of 8.

35.Adding a base lowers the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution and  increases the pH.

36.When a pH changes from 7 to 3, the hydrogen ion concentration has  increased by 10,000 times.

37.Buffers minimize the changes in the concentrations of hydrogen ions and  hydroxide ions in a solution.

38.The increasing amount of carbon dioxide being taken up by the oceans is a  cause for concern because more carbon dioxide increases the presence of  carbonic acid, which leads to a decrease in the concentration of carbonate  ion.

39.The absorption of human generated carbon dioxide by the oceans increases  the hydrogen ion concentration of the oceans but decreases that carbonate  ion concentration and threatens the livability of oceans for organisms that  produce calcium carbonate shells.

Chapter 4 Study Guide:

1. The six most important chemical elements for life are carbon, nitrogen,  oxygen, hydrogen, phosphate, and sulfur.

2. Methane is an organic molecule.

3. Carbon is always associated with organic chemistry.

4. When carbon bonds with four other atoms, it forms a tetrahedron with carbon in the center.

5. Enantiomers are mirror images of each other flip-flopped around an  asymmetrical carbon.

6. 6 hydrogen atoms and 3 carbon atoms in a straight chain carbon compound  would contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond.

7. Carbon is the most versatile building block used by living organisms because  it acts as an intersection point from which a molecule can branch off in up to  four directions.

8. Carbon is tetravalent because it only needs to form 4 covalent bonds to  complete its valence shell.

9. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic, nonpolar, and a good source of stored energy. 10.Two cis-trans isomers exist for a molecule with one carbon-carbon double  bond and four monovalent atoms.

11.Isomers have the same chemical formulas but different structures.  Hydrocarbons are compounds made solely of carbon and hydrogen. Organic  compounds contain carbon. Double bonded compounds are represented by  double lines.

12.One enantiomer may provide effective treatment in a drug while the other  enantiomer may be ineffective or toxic.  

13.All amino acids contain an amino group.

14.All amino acids contain an amino group and a carboxyl group. 15.Ethanol, propanol, and methanol can be grouped together because they are  three simple alcohols sharing a hydroxyl functional group.

16.A carboxyl functional group can be written as –COOH

17.NH2 amino group is a weak base.

18.–COOH is a weak acid.

19.Amino groups, carboxyl groups, -COH, and –OH all increase the solubility of  organic compounds in water.

20.Carboxyl groups are unique because the covalent bond between oxygen and  hydrogen is so polar that hydrogen ions tend to dissociate from oxygen. 21.A phosphate group is associated with a release of energy when removed from a carbon skeleton with water. The phosphate group comes from leaving ATP. 22.Carboxyl groups are part of abscisic acid.

23.Carbonyl groups, hydroxyl groups, amino groups, and carboxyl groups are all  capable of hydrogen bonding with an oxygen atom on another functional  group.

24.Carboxyl is to acid as amino is to base.

25.A thiol is a molecule containing a sulfhydryl but just the –SH alone is NOT a  thiol.

26.ATP is important to cells because it stores the potential to react with water,  thereby removing a phosphate group and releasing energy for cellular  processes.

Chapter 6 Study Guide:

1. A cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live.

2. A light microscope is the best microscope to use to observe the movement of  chromosomes in cell division because the specimen is alive.

3. Cell fractionation separates cells into their component parts. 4. Two cells with the same volume can have different surface areas due to  differences in shape. The cell with the larger surface area is likely to be  involved in rapid uptake of compounds from the environment.

5. The shape of a cell, the cell’s surface to volume ratio, and the time it takes  molecules to diffuse across the cell are likely to limit the maximum size of the cell.

6. Eukaryotic cells have mitochondria while prokaryotic cells do not 7. A substance must pass through the plasma membrane to get in and out of  the cell.

8. Eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized through membrane bound organelles  which allows for specialization. Prokaryotic cells lack this  

compartmentalization and specialization.

9. Bacteria cells are prokaryotic so they lack membrane bound organelles in  their cytoplasm.

10.Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have ribosomes, a plasma membrane, and  cytoplasm.

11.A cell with a nucleus and chloroplasts in addition to the other fundamental  structures of life could be a photosynthetic protest cell or plant cell. 12.Subunits of ribosomes are assembled in the nucleolus and pass through the  nuclear membrane via the nuclear pores.

13.Chromosomes are always present in a cell, even before it divides. 14.If radioactive phosphorus was found in nucleotides, it probably accumulates  in the nucleus.

15.The ribosomes, rough ER, and smooth ER are involved in synthesizing  molecules needed by the cell.

16.Free cytoplasmic ribosomes will be less common than bound ribosomes in  pancreatic cells because pancreatic cells produce enzymes for secretion. 17.The rough endoplasmic reticulum is the site of manufacturing for proteins. 18.A cell with an extensive Golgi apparatus will secrete large amounts of protein. 19.The Golgi apparatus alters protein.

20.If a protein is finished and located in the ER membrane, it might also be  found in the plasma membrane.

21.A protein made in the rough ER moves through the endomembrane system  through the Golgi apparatus and then lysosomes.

22.Free cytoplasmic ribosomes are most likely to be involved in producing  proteins for the chloroplast or mitochondria.

23.A protein that ultimately functions in the plasma membrane of a cell was  most likely made in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

24.Mitochondrial outer membranes are distinct.

25.Chloroplasts and mitochondria are thought to be of prokaryotic origin. One  piece of evidence that supports this hypothesis is that these organelles  contain prokaryotic-like ribosomes. These ribosomes are probably most  similar to ribosomes found in bacterial cells

26.Chloroplasts and mitochondria synthesize some of their own proteins. 27.Peroxisomes, chloroplasts, and mitochondria all appear to increase in number by dividing.

28.Muscle cells in the legs of a marathon runner are most likely to have the  largest number of mitochondria.

29.Mitochondria do not contain ribosomes in the intermembrane space but they  do have more than one membrane, have inner folds called cristae, are  involved in energy metabolism, and possess their own DNA.

30.Protein synthesis typically occurs in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and rough  ER of eukaryotes.

31.Ribosomes can be found inside other organelles.

32.Ribosomes do not have membranes.

33.Microtubules and microfilaments often work with the Golgi apparatus to  perform their functions.

34.Centrioles are found in animal cells but not plant cells.

35.Components of the cytoskeleton mediate the movement of organelles within  the cytoplasm.

36.Cilia and flagella move due to the interaction of the cytoskeleton with motor  proteins.

37.Proteins involved with movement of structures within the cell are found on  the cytoskeleton.

38.Basal bodies are associated with cilia.

39.Dye injected into a plant cell can enter an adjacent cell through  plasmodesmata.

40.Intestinal cells do not leak fluids because they are bound by tight junctions. 41.Plant cell walls and animal cell extracellular matrices are permeable to water  and small solutes.

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