Chapter 2 Study Guide:
1. Although all forms of life require ion, other elements are required only by certain species.
2. Elevated concentrations of some trace elements such as cobalt and chromium can be toxic.
3. Compounds have emergent properties that are different than the properties of the elements that form them.
4. There are 92 naturally occurring elements.
5. The main essential elements are carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen. 6. The four most abundant elements in living systems are hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen.
7. Electrons have negligible mass.
8. Neutrons’ mass affects the atomic mass but neutrons lack a charge. 9. In an uncharged atom, the number of protons equals the number of electrons.
10.If an element has 8 protons, 9 neutrons, and 8 electrons, its atomic number is 8 and its atomic mass is 17.
11.An uncharged atom of nitrogen would have seven protons and seven electrons.
12.Isotopes of an element will always differ in atomic mass.
13.A carbon isotope with an atomic number of 6 and an atomic mass of 14 would have 6 protons, 6 electrons, and 8 neutrons.
14.Phosphorus-32 is a radioactive isotope of phosphorus-35. Phosphorus-32 has 3 less neutrons than phosphorus-35.
15.If calcium usually has 20 protons, 20 neutrons, and 20 electrons, an isotope of calcium would have the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons.
16.Radioactive isotopes are useful in scientific research because they can be used to trace particular atoms and molecule through metabolic breakdown. 17.A neutral atom of chlorine, atomic number 17, has 7 electrons in its third shell.
18.The chemical characteristics and reactivity of an element depends mainly on the number of electrons in the outermost shell.
19.Similarities in chemical characteristics and reactivity occur when different elements have similar numbers of valence electrons.
20.The valence shell of a sulfur atom with an atomic number of 16 and a mass number of 32 would have six electrons in its valence shell.
21.A stable configuration of an atom is attained when the atoms has eight electrons in its outermost shell. Don't forget about the age old question of astro 001 penn state
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22.An atom that normally has eight electrons in its valence shell typically does not form chemical bonds with other atoms.
23.An atom with an atomic number of 4 and a net charge of +1 would have 4 protons and 3 electrons. The number of neutrons could only be determined if we knew its atomic mass.
24.Covalent bonds are formed when one or more pairs of valence electrons are shared by two neutral atoms.
25.A covalent bond is polar if the atoms sharing the electrons have different electronegativities.If you want to learn more check out p-edu110
26.When an atom or molecules has an unequal number of protons and electrons, the atom or molecule is an ion.
27.Copper has an atomic number of 29 and an atomic mass of 64. If an uncharged copper atom lost two electrons, the atomic number would still be 29, the atomic mass would still be 64, but the atom would be a cation with a +2 charge. Don't forget about the age old question of ucsc computer science
28.When CaSO4 ionizes into a calcium ion and sulfate ion, the calcium has two electrons in its outer shell that it loses so the sulfate ion gains a charge of -2. 29.Ionic bonds form between ions with opposite charges. Don't forget about the age old question of venturesome personality
30.A hydrogen bond is a weak chemical bond.
31.Hydrogen bonds occur when a partial charge on one molecule attracts the opposite partial charge on another molecule.
32.Van der Waals reactions are weak but they help to reinforce the 3D shapes of large molecules.
33.Methane has the shape of a completed tetrahedron.
34.The shape of a molecule is the most important property when it comes molecular recognition.
35.Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. 36.A reversible reaction has reached chemical equilibrium when the rate of the reverse reaction equals the rate of the forward reaction.
Chapter 3 Study Guide:
1. Cells are surrounded by water and cells themselves consist of mainly water. Because of this, the temperature of living things changes slowly, a variety of nutrient molecules can dissolve as solutes, waste products can be easily removed, and dissolved substances can be easily transported within a cell or between cells.
2. Water is a polar molecule because the atoms in a water molecule have partial charges due to unequal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond. 3. The partial charges on water molecules occur because of the unequal sharing of electrons between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms of a water molecule. 4. In a group of water molecules, hydrogen bonds form between the oxygen atom of one water molecule and the hydrogen atom of another water molecule.
5. Ice floats because it is less dense than water. Floating ice insulates water below the surface and provides a habitat for species. Increasing air temperature in the Arctic is causing a reduction in ice, compromising these insulated underwater habitats. Don't forget about the age old question of kenneth chaiprasert
6. If water were not a polar molecule, the effects of global warming would be worse because the loss of polar nature would decrease water’s specific heat and its ability to moderate temperature.
7. The tendency of water molecules to stay close together as a result of hydrogen bonding is called cohesion, helps moderate temperature, provides surface tension, and helps water move up through vessels in tree trunks.
8. Cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension are all properties related to hydrogen bonding.
9. Most of water’s unique properties are a result of oxygen having a higher electronegativity than hydrogen.
10.Water’s partial charges allow it to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules as well as allow it to dissolve substances that have charges or partial charges.
11.Cohesion keeps the upward movement of water through vessels in a tree trunk.
12.Adhesion is the clinging of one substance to another substance. 13.Surface tension explains why you can fill a glass of water to just slightly above the rim without it spilling over the glass.
14.Condensing 5 grams of steam to liquid water would involve a great transfer of heat.
15.If organisms consisted mainly of alcohol instead of water, systems for temperature regulation would have to be much more efficient. 16.Specific heat is the amount of heat required to change the temperature of 1 gram of any substance by 1 degree Celsius.
17.Heat of vaporization is the heat required to convert 1 gram of any substance from a liquid to a gas
18.Coastal climates are more moderate than inland climates due to water’s high specific heat.
19.Sweating has a cooling effect because of water’s high heat of vaporization. 20.Water has a higher boiling point than other liquids so it can absorb larger amounts of heat.
21.Ice floats because water molecules are farther apart in solid ice than liquid water, making ice less dense than water.
22.Water is a versatile solvent because it is polar.
23.Water’s polarity allows its negatively charged oxygen atoms and positively charged hydrogen atoms to be attracted to other negatively and positively charged ions and molecules.
24.Hydrophobic molecules are nonpolar molecules that move away from water molecules.
25.A molecule with all nonpolar covalent bonds would be hydrophobic. 26.Cell membranes are composed of hydrophobic molecules in order to separate the aqueous solutions outside and inside the cells. They cannot be soluble in water.
27.Hydrophilic substances have charges and partial charges that attract water molecules.
28.Sucrose has a molecular mass of 342 daltons. To make a 2 molar solution of sucrose, stir 342 grams of sucrose into water to dissolve the sugar and then add enough water to bring the total volume up to 0.5 L.
29.A mole of ethyl alcohol weighs 46 grams. 0.092 grams are needed to produce 1 L of a 2 millimolar solution.
30.An acid is a compound that increases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.
31.Adding acid to a solution increases the hydrogen ion concentration and lowers the pH.
32.Hydrofluoric acid breaks down to release hydrogen ions, making it an acid. 33.A glass of juice with a pH of 3 contains ten times as much hydrogen ions as a glass of tomato juice with a pH of 4.
34.A solution with a pH of 6 contains 100 times more hydrogen ions than the same amount of solution with a pH of 8.
35.Adding a base lowers the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution and increases the pH.
36.When a pH changes from 7 to 3, the hydrogen ion concentration has increased by 10,000 times.
37.Buffers minimize the changes in the concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in a solution.
38.The increasing amount of carbon dioxide being taken up by the oceans is a cause for concern because more carbon dioxide increases the presence of carbonic acid, which leads to a decrease in the concentration of carbonate ion.
39.The absorption of human generated carbon dioxide by the oceans increases the hydrogen ion concentration of the oceans but decreases that carbonate ion concentration and threatens the livability of oceans for organisms that produce calcium carbonate shells.
Chapter 4 Study Guide:
1. The six most important chemical elements for life are carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, phosphate, and sulfur.
2. Methane is an organic molecule.
3. Carbon is always associated with organic chemistry.
4. When carbon bonds with four other atoms, it forms a tetrahedron with carbon in the center.
5. Enantiomers are mirror images of each other flip-flopped around an asymmetrical carbon.
6. 6 hydrogen atoms and 3 carbon atoms in a straight chain carbon compound would contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond.
7. Carbon is the most versatile building block used by living organisms because it acts as an intersection point from which a molecule can branch off in up to four directions.
8. Carbon is tetravalent because it only needs to form 4 covalent bonds to complete its valence shell.
9. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic, nonpolar, and a good source of stored energy. 10.Two cis-trans isomers exist for a molecule with one carbon-carbon double bond and four monovalent atoms.
11.Isomers have the same chemical formulas but different structures. Hydrocarbons are compounds made solely of carbon and hydrogen. Organic compounds contain carbon. Double bonded compounds are represented by double lines.
12.One enantiomer may provide effective treatment in a drug while the other enantiomer may be ineffective or toxic.
13.All amino acids contain an amino group.
14.All amino acids contain an amino group and a carboxyl group. 15.Ethanol, propanol, and methanol can be grouped together because they are three simple alcohols sharing a hydroxyl functional group.
16.A carboxyl functional group can be written as –COOH
17.NH2 amino group is a weak base.
18.–COOH is a weak acid.
19.Amino groups, carboxyl groups, -COH, and –OH all increase the solubility of organic compounds in water.
20.Carboxyl groups are unique because the covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar that hydrogen ions tend to dissociate from oxygen. 21.A phosphate group is associated with a release of energy when removed from a carbon skeleton with water. The phosphate group comes from leaving ATP. 22.Carboxyl groups are part of abscisic acid.
23.Carbonyl groups, hydroxyl groups, amino groups, and carboxyl groups are all capable of hydrogen bonding with an oxygen atom on another functional group.
24.Carboxyl is to acid as amino is to base.
25.A thiol is a molecule containing a sulfhydryl but just the –SH alone is NOT a thiol.
26.ATP is important to cells because it stores the potential to react with water, thereby removing a phosphate group and releasing energy for cellular processes.
Chapter 6 Study Guide:
1. A cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live.
2. A light microscope is the best microscope to use to observe the movement of chromosomes in cell division because the specimen is alive.
3. Cell fractionation separates cells into their component parts. 4. Two cells with the same volume can have different surface areas due to differences in shape. The cell with the larger surface area is likely to be involved in rapid uptake of compounds from the environment.
5. The shape of a cell, the cell’s surface to volume ratio, and the time it takes molecules to diffuse across the cell are likely to limit the maximum size of the cell.
6. Eukaryotic cells have mitochondria while prokaryotic cells do not 7. A substance must pass through the plasma membrane to get in and out of the cell.
8. Eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized through membrane bound organelles which allows for specialization. Prokaryotic cells lack this
compartmentalization and specialization.
9. Bacteria cells are prokaryotic so they lack membrane bound organelles in their cytoplasm.
10.Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have ribosomes, a plasma membrane, and cytoplasm.
11.A cell with a nucleus and chloroplasts in addition to the other fundamental structures of life could be a photosynthetic protest cell or plant cell. 12.Subunits of ribosomes are assembled in the nucleolus and pass through the nuclear membrane via the nuclear pores.
13.Chromosomes are always present in a cell, even before it divides. 14.If radioactive phosphorus was found in nucleotides, it probably accumulates in the nucleus.
15.The ribosomes, rough ER, and smooth ER are involved in synthesizing molecules needed by the cell.
16.Free cytoplasmic ribosomes will be less common than bound ribosomes in pancreatic cells because pancreatic cells produce enzymes for secretion. 17.The rough endoplasmic reticulum is the site of manufacturing for proteins. 18.A cell with an extensive Golgi apparatus will secrete large amounts of protein. 19.The Golgi apparatus alters protein.
20.If a protein is finished and located in the ER membrane, it might also be found in the plasma membrane.
21.A protein made in the rough ER moves through the endomembrane system through the Golgi apparatus and then lysosomes.
22.Free cytoplasmic ribosomes are most likely to be involved in producing proteins for the chloroplast or mitochondria.
23.A protein that ultimately functions in the plasma membrane of a cell was most likely made in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
24.Mitochondrial outer membranes are distinct.
25.Chloroplasts and mitochondria are thought to be of prokaryotic origin. One piece of evidence that supports this hypothesis is that these organelles contain prokaryotic-like ribosomes. These ribosomes are probably most similar to ribosomes found in bacterial cells
26.Chloroplasts and mitochondria synthesize some of their own proteins. 27.Peroxisomes, chloroplasts, and mitochondria all appear to increase in number by dividing.
28.Muscle cells in the legs of a marathon runner are most likely to have the largest number of mitochondria.
29.Mitochondria do not contain ribosomes in the intermembrane space but they do have more than one membrane, have inner folds called cristae, are involved in energy metabolism, and possess their own DNA.
30.Protein synthesis typically occurs in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and rough ER of eukaryotes.
31.Ribosomes can be found inside other organelles.
32.Ribosomes do not have membranes.
33.Microtubules and microfilaments often work with the Golgi apparatus to perform their functions.
34.Centrioles are found in animal cells but not plant cells.
35.Components of the cytoskeleton mediate the movement of organelles within the cytoplasm.
36.Cilia and flagella move due to the interaction of the cytoskeleton with motor proteins.
37.Proteins involved with movement of structures within the cell are found on the cytoskeleton.
38.Basal bodies are associated with cilia.
39.Dye injected into a plant cell can enter an adjacent cell through plasmodesmata.
40.Intestinal cells do not leak fluids because they are bound by tight junctions. 41.Plant cell walls and animal cell extracellular matrices are permeable to water and small solutes.