Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 1000
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cydney Tinsley on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1000 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Alex Northcutt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 09/17/16
Cydney Tinsley Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 Exam 1 Study Guide NOTE: My study guides are set up so that you can cover answers with a sticky note or something and read the question, and then see if you know the answers. The answers will have a side note in parenthesis saying where the definition of that word is under the “Vocabulary” part of each section. This particular study guide has three sections that are based loosely off of the topics covered in the chapters in the book and the associating lectures. Part 1: The 3 factors that influence a person’s behavioral and mental processes are: 1. Biological Influences (vocab word 2) 2. Psychological Influences (vocab 3) 3. Social-Cultural Influences (vocab 4) Psychology is multiply-determined (vocab 5) because: 1. Isolating traits is nearly impossible. 2. Multiple factors contribute to the behavioral and mental processes. For example, a behavioral trait also impacts a personal and environmental factor. The 6 Levels of Analysis are: 1. Social 2. Behavioral 3. Mental 4. Neurological/Physiological 5. Neurochemical 6. Molecular The 5 main biases that affect our mind, brain and behavior are: 1. Hindsight Bias (vocab 6) 2. Confirmation Bias (vocab 7) 3. Belief Perseverance (vocab 8) 4. Naïve Realism (vocab 9) 5. Patternicity (vocab 10) The four ways we can detect pseudoscience (vocab 13) are: 1. Ad Hoc Immunizing (vocab 14) 2. Lack of Self Correction (vocab 15) 3. Exaggerated Claims (vocab 16) 4. Overreliance on Anecdotes (vocab 17) The 3 logical fallacies that cause us to hang on to pseudoscience (vocab 13) are: 1. Emotional Reasoning Fallacy (vocab 18) 2. Bandwagon Fallacy (vocab 19) 3. ‘Not Me’ Fallacy (vocab 20) Cydney Tinsley Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 The six critical thinking skills that you can use as a Scientific Skeptic (vocab 20) are: 1. Ruling out rival hypothesis. 2. Correlation does not equal causation. 3. Falsifiability. 4. Replicability. 5. Extraordinary claims. 6. Occam’s razor. Vocabulary: 1. Psychology: The scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior. 2. Biological Influences: Environmental factors that influence a person’s behavioral and mental processes. 3. Psychological Influences: Personal Factors that influence a person’s behavioral and mental processes. 4. Social-Cultural Influences: Behavioral factors that influence a person’s behavioral and mental processes. 5. Multiply Determined: There are multiple factors influencing something. 6. Hindsight Bias: The “I Knew it All Along” bias. When you overestimate the likelihood that you will have predicted an outcome. 7. Confirmation Bias: The tendency to seek information supporting something that you already believe. 8. Belief Perseverance: When someone gives you evidence that disproves your belief but you hold on to your belief anyways. 9. Naïve Realism: The belief that we see things as they really are. 10.Patternicity: The tendency to perceive patterns in the world when there actually are none. 11.Theory: Explanation for natural findings in the world. Requires lots of evidence. 12.Hypothesis: A testable prediction. 13.Pseudoscience: False science. Things claiming to be science but that don’t have any actual proof. 14.Ad Hoc Immunizing: When loopholes are being created to defend a belief. 15.Lack of Self Correction: When someone will not admit when there has been a change or fluke in their study or findings. 16.Exaggerated Claims: Large statements that are made that only show special cases or are manipulative statements. 17.Overreliance on Anecdotes: When all or most of a study is based purely on personal experiences. 18.Emotional Reasoning Fallacy: When you discount or believe evidence or a scientific finding because of emotional reasons. 19.Bandwagon Fallacy: When you believe something because it’s the belief of a majority or because the people closest to you believe it. Cydney Tinsley Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 20.Scientific Skepticism: When you are skeptical of a science or study. Part 2: Wilhelm Wundt is: 1. The “Father of Psychology”. He opened up the first psychology lab in 1879. The 5 theoretical frameworks of psychology are: 1. Structuralism (vocab 1) 2. Functionalism (vocab 2) 3. Behaviorism (vocab 3) 4. Cognitivism (vocab 4) 5. Psychoanalysis (vocab 5) The Nature vs Nurture Debate was/is: 1. The debate on whether it’s your genes (nature) or your environment (nurture) that effects our behavior. 2. Helped founded by John Locke, who believed it was your environment that shaped your behavior. 3. Now ‘over’, as most scientists agree that both your genes and your environment affect your behavior. The Free Will-Determinism Debate was/is: 1. The debate of to what extent our behaviors is freely selected and what are caused by factors outside of our control. 2. Most psychologists believe we don’t actually have ‘free will’ but rather we are just unaware of the environmental influences that are impacting us constantly. This idea was created by Psychologist B. F. Skinner. The 3 possible research methods are: 1. Correlation Research 2. Descriptive Research 3. Experimental Design What are the pros and cons of correlation research? Pros: Helps you to predict behaviors. It’s a good stepping-stone for research. Cons: It can lead you astray. What are the pros and cons of descriptive research? Pros: Able to study unusual circumstances or phenomenon. Able to study scenarios you can’t typically study in a lab. Cydney Tinsley Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 Cons: Anecdotal. Subject to bias. Cannot infer causality. You cannot infer causality. What are the pros and cons of experimental design? Pros: The only research method of which you CAN infer causality. Has high internal validity (vocab 12) Cons: Difficult because of ethics. Low external validity (vocab 11) Descriptive Research has two different ways to perform a study. They are: 1. Naturalistic Observation (vocab 13) 2. Case Study (vocab 14) The three measures of central tendency discussed in psychology are: 1. Mean (vocab 24) 2. Median (vocab 25) 3. Mode (vocab 26) Vocabulary: 1. Structuralism: The framework of psychology that believed the mind could be broken into parts and studied via introspection. 2. Functionalism: The framework of psychology that studied the functions of the brain and their purposes. 3. Behaviorism: The framework of psychology that wanted to measure behavior and the things that you can see. 4. Cognitivism: The framework of psychology that wanted to understand the role of mental processes as it relates to behavior. 5. Psychoanalysis: The framework of psychology that studied your unconscious mind and how it can influence your behavior. 6. Positive Correlation: When one variable in a study increases, the other variable also increases. 7. Negative Correlation: When one variable in a study increases, the other variable decreases. 8. Correlation Research: The degree to which two variables are related. 9. Illusory Correlation: When there appears to be a correlation, but the two variables don’t actually influence each other. 10.Validity: When your study measures what it is supposed to measure. 11.External Validity: A measure of how true to real life circumstances a study is. Cydney Tinsley Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 12.Internal Validity: A measure of how much a study applies to the population. 13.Naturalistic Observation: A scientist, or team of scientists, who observe organisms in their natural environment. 14.Case Study: When a scientist, or team of scientists, ‘zoom in’ on only one individual to study. 15.Generalizability: How much or little a study applies to the population. 16.Independent Variable: The part of a study that you can change. 17.Dependent Variable: The part of a study that you can measure. 18.Control Group: A group that you can use in comparison to your independent variable. 19.Random Assignment: A group chosen by random. By doing this, you should cancel out any pre-existing variables that influence your study. Additionally, it helps psychologists to understand the Placebo Effect. 20.Placebo Effect: When someone gets a result solely because they expected to get that result. 21.Experimenter Bias: When the person or people performing a study is expecting a certain outcome and that expectation influences their interpretation of the results. 22.Double-Blinded: When both the experimenter and the subject(s) are blind to the treatment conditions. 23.Mean: The average of a group of numbers. 24.Median: The number in the middle of a group of numbers, when the numbers are in numerical order. 25.Mode: The number that occurs most often in a group of numbers. 26.Demand Characteristics: When a subject behaves differently because of the way the experiment is set up or conducted, or because of the way the experimenter behaves. 27.Confounding Variables: Variables that influence a study, but are not variables you intended to test. 28.Standard Deviation: The plot of scores or results in relationship to the mean. 29.Normal Distribution: Essentially a ‘Bell-Curve’. When graphed, it should look like a U or an upside-down U. 30.Standard Error: How much variability is there in your sample? Also tells you how reliable your finding is. 31.Reliable: When your study gets the same result every time. 32.Standardization: A system structured with rules on how to conduct a study. Part 3 The two parts of the nervous system are: 1. The Central Nervous System (vocab 1) 2. The Peripheral Nervous System (vocab 2) Cydney Tinsley Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 The parts of a neuron are: 1. Cell Body (vocab 3) 2. Axon (vocab 4) 3. Myelin Sheath (vocab 5) 4. Nodes of Ranvier (vocab 6) 5. Terminal Branches (vocab 7) 6. Dendrites (vocab 8) Three things that control a cell are: 1. Concentration Gradient (vocab 20) 2. Electrostatic Gradient (vocab 21) 3. Exocytosis (vocab 22) A cell becomes depolarized (vocab 15) when the cell’s ____1____ channels open. The cell becomes polarized when the cell’s ____2____ channels close and the ____3____ channels open. 1. Sodium 2. Sodium 3. Potassium The four views of the brain are: 1. Sagittal (vocab 43) 2. Coronal (44) 3. Horizontal (45) 4. Cross (46) The six views of the limbic system are: 1. Thalamus (vocab 65) 2. Hypothalamus (vocab 66) 3. Corpus Callosum (vocab 63) 4. Amygdala (vocab 68) 5. Hippocampus (vocab 67) 6. Prefrontal Cortex (vocab 57) Vocabulary 1. Central Nervous System: The part of the nervous system that includes your brain and spinal cord. 2. Peripheral Nervous System: The part of the nervous system that is not your brain and spinal cord. 3. Cell Body: The “Power-House” of a cell. Has all the basic cell parts; nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, etc. 4. Axon: How a nerve impulse travels and the function used to help cells communicate. 5. Myelin Sheath: Insulates the axon so its electric signals don’t degrade. Cydney Tinsley Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 6. Nodes of Ranvier: Gaps in the Myelin Sheath where the signal can ‘recharge’. 7. Terminal Branches: Where the signal releases neural transmitters. 8. Dendrites: Receives signals from other cells. 9. Terminal Connection: Where the branches of different neurons connect to allow messages to be sent from cell to cell. 10.Synapse: The space between pre and post synaptic cells. 11.Vesicles: ‘Packages’ of neuro-transmitters that can be released. 12.Resting Membrane Potential: When a cell has the potential to do work. During this time, the cell is polarized. 13.Polarized: When a cell has a negative charge. 14.Action Potential: When the cell becomes depolarized. 15.Depolarized: When a cell has a positive charge. 16.Hyper-Polarization: When the cell gets polarized below the Resting Membrane Potential. 17.Refractory Period: The time during which a cell is hyper- polarized. During this time, the cell cannot do any ‘work’ or cannot get any Action Potential until it gets rebalanced to a normal level of negative charge. 18.Sodium-Potassium Hump: The part of the cell used to restore the balance of a cell’s charges. 19.Repolarization: When the cell balances out and goes back to Resting Membrane Potential. 20.Concentration Gradient: When a cell repels from like cells. 21.Electrostatic Gradient: When a positive cell is attracted to a negative cell. 22.Exocytosis: The process of neuro-transmitters being recycled into the synapse. 23.Ligand: Anything that binds to a receptor. 24.Receptor: Protein anchored in the membrane that binds two things to give off the signal on a post-synaptic cell. 25.Transporters: Re-uptakes 26.Enzymatic Deactivation: Enzymes that break down neuro- transmitters. 27.Enzymes: In the synapse. Makes it so that neuro-transmitters can no longer signal. 28.Oligodendrocytes: Myelinate axons of neuros. 29.Glia: The non-neuronal cells of the brain. 30.Astrocytes: Supports and sustains neurons. Modulates synaptic excitability and signaling. 31.Tripartite Synapse: Includes Pre-synaptic, post-synaptic, and astrocytes. 32.Microglial Cells: Immune cells in your brain that detect dead, dying, foreign, and infected cells, and then gets rid of them. When the microglial cells activate, they become inflammated, which then effects the astrocytes, which then effects the neurons, which then effects the human. 33.Medial: Towards the middle. (i.e., belly) Cydney Tinsley Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 34.Lateral: Outside/on the side. (i.e., hips) 35.Ipsilateral: The same side. (i.e., right arm and right leg) 36.Contralateral: Opposite side. (i.e., right arm and left leg) 37.Dorsal: The upper, rounded part of your back and the top, rounded part of your head. 38.Ventral: Front side. 39. Rostral: Back side. 40.Caudal: Back side of a brain. 41.Anterior: Back part of your brain. 42.Posterior: Front side of your brain. 43.Sagittal Section: The long-ways view. (If you were to cut your brain directly down the center from the top of your head down in the direction of the space between your eyes). 44.Coronal Section: “Crown” section; the view if you were to cut your brain directly down the center from the top of your head towards your ear on either side. 45.Horizontal Section: The view if you were to cut your brain straight across from the front of your face to the back of your head. 46.Cross Section: The view of the brain with the spinal cord. Gyrus: The bulges of the brain. 47.Sulcus: The grooves in between the bulges. 48.Parietal Lobe: The part of your brain in charge of sensory integration. Puts together information coming from your senses. 49.Occipital Lobe: The part of your brain in charge of processing visual information. 50.Temporal Lobe: The part of your brain in charge of memory and auditory functioning. 51.Frontal Lobe: The part of your brain in charge of ‘executive functioning; things like decision making, paying attention, and voluntary motor control. 52.Cerebellum: The part of your brain in charge of coordination, muscle memory, and balance. 53.Central Sulcus: The groove in the brain that divides the parietal and frontal lobes. 54.Motor Cortex: The part of your brain responsible for voluntary motor function, (Found inside your Frontal Lobe). 55.Somatosensory Cortex: The part of your brain in charge of processing sensory information about your body. Mainly gets information from touch. (Found inside the Parietal Lobe). 56.Auditory Cortex: The part of your brain in charge of auditory functioning. (Found inside the Temporal Lobe). 57.Prefrontal Cortex: The area of your brain dedicated to regulating your emotions. 58.Visual Cortex: The area of your brain in charge of visual processing. 59.Broca’s Area: The part of your brain in charge of the motor production of speech. Cydney Tinsley Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 60.Wernicke’s Area: The part of your brain in charge of speech comprehension. 61.Homunculus: The cartoon representation of Somatotopic Organization. 62.Somototopic Organization: How we have an inverted ‘map’ on our brain that shows the amount of space in the brain dedicated to an area of the body. The more space an area has in the brain, the more motor/sensory functions there are. For example, your eyes take up large space in the brain, where as your index finger nail would take up less space. 63.Corpus Callosum: The thick band that runs through and connects the two hemispheres of the brain. 64.Longitudinal Fissure: The big groove that separates the two hemispheres of the brain. 65.Thalamus: The area to which all sensory information, (except smell), goes through before going to the appropriate places. 66.Hypothalamus: The part of your brain in charge of regulating the ‘Four F’s’: Flight, Fight, Food, and Sex. 67.Hippocampus: The part of your brain dedicated to long-term memory. 68.Amygdala: The part of your brain dedicated to processing your emotions (almost exclusively fear and rage).
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