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MSU / Engineering / BMS 101 / What is the order of energy transformation?

What is the order of energy transformation?

What is the order of energy transformation?

Description

School: Missouri State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Biology in Your World
Professor: Kyoungtae kim
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology and bio101
Cost: 25
Name: Bio Chapter 6
Description: These notes cover chapter 6
Uploaded: 09/18/2016
3 Pages 48 Views 1 Unlocks
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Key: Light Blue = main idea Purple = important parts of the main idea Green =  examples Orange = key terms Pink = the definition of the key term Red = especially important


What is the order of energy transformation?



Chapter 6: An Intro to Energy  

 Energy is central to life

 Energy always runs down from more concentrated too less  The sun sends out light and heat but it will not shine forever  Its energy winds down gradually

 It’s important that living things learn to control the energy they get  from the sun

 Living things have mechanisms in place that let them utilize the sun’s  energy  

 The nature of energy  

 Energy: the capacity to bring movement against an opposing force  Energy is a tricky concept because we can only experience it’s affects,  we cannot see or grasp it  

 Forms of energy:

 Many types of energy:

∙ Mechanical energy


What is entropy in systems theory?



♦ Like the spring on a wound up toy

∙ Chemical energy  

♦ Chemical bonds

∙ Potential energy  Don't forget about the age old question of How do you use expert power effectively?

∙ Kinetic energy

 Potential energy: stored energy  

∙ Ex. The charged ions kept on one side of a cell membrane  Kinetic energy: energy in motion  

∙ Ex. Charge ions rushing through a protein channel

 Thermodynamics

 Thermodynamics: study of energy  

 The first law of thermodynamics: energy is not created or destroyed, only transformed

∙ The sun’s energy is not used up by plants only converted in  chemical form


Do the products or the reactants have more energy in an exergonic reaction?



 For every energy transaction at least some energy is converted into  heat  Don't forget about the age old question of Which liquid has the strongest intermolecular force?

 Energy transformation will spontaneously run only from greater  order to lesser order

 Second law of thermodynamics: energy transfer always results in a  greater amount of disorder in the universe

 Entropy: a measure of the amount of disorder in a system ∙ the greater the entropy the greater the disorder

Key: Light Blue = main idea Purple = important parts of the main idea Green =  examples Orange = key terms Pink = the definition of the key term Red = especially important Don't forget about the age old question of How does victimization affect the victim?

 Consequences of Thermodynamics

∙ Once heat is generated there is no spontaneous way it can make  its way back to orderly form (sunlight)

∙ The sun can sustain life, dispersed light cannot

 How energy is used by living things

 A growing plant builds itself up from smaller, simple molecules to  complex, big ones

 Living things are contributors to the universe’s entropy

 Any biological activity, like a leaf growing, generates heat increasing  disorder in the universe  

 Living things can make local increases in order in themselves with the  sun’s energy  

 Exergonic reactions: reactions where the starting set of molecules  (reactants) contain more energy than the final set (products)  Ex. Starches breaking down into sugars We also discuss several other topics like What was adam smith's purpose in writing the wealth of nations?

 Endergonic reactions: where the products contain more energy than  the reactants  

 Ex. Like when glucose molecules form glycogen  

 Coupled reactions: a chemical reaction where an exergonic reaction  powers are endergonic reaction  

 The energy dispenser ATP

 ATP releases that energy that allows say, muscle contraction  ATP receives energy from food and the doles it out for things like  muscle contraction

 Converts the energy in food to usable energy the body can use  Accepts large amounts of energy from a food source and then passes  on the energy to a range of molecules in the body

 ATP (adenosine triphosphate): the most important energy transfer  molecule in living things

 Enzymes

 Enzyme: a type of protein that accelerates a chemical reaction   Some enzymes combine molecules, some rearrange them   Enzymes facilitate almost every chemical process in living things  No organism can live without them  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of the diamond-water paradox in economics?

 These compounds accelerate reactions that would happen anyway   Specific enzymes are matched to specific tasks

 Substrate: substance worked on by an enzyme We also discuss several other topics like When does graded potential occur?

 Some activities in living things have many steps and require an  enzyme for each step (ex. Leaf growth)

Key: Light Blue = main idea Purple = important parts of the main idea Green =  examples Orange = key terms Pink = the definition of the key term Red = especially important

 Metabolic pathway: enzymatically controlled steps that result in the  composition of a product/process in an organism  

 Each enzyme performs its task and then leaves the next step to the  next enzyme

 Metabolism: the sum of all the chemical reactions that cell or larger  organism carries out  

 Enzymes and the Activation Barrier

 Enzymes lower the amount of energy needed to get chemical reactions going

 The reactions can also get going faster  

 Activation energy: the energy required to initiate a chemical reaction   How enzymes work

 Enzymes lower activation energy by binding substrates making  them more vulnerable to chemical alteration  

 Enzymes are catalysts

 Catalysts: substances that retain their original chemical composition while changing a substrate  

 Enzymes take form of ball like proteins with a pocket for substrates  Active site: the portion of an enzyme that binds with a substrate,  helping transform it

 Participants at this site include coenzymes  

 Coenzymes: molecules other than amino acids that facilitate the  work of enzymes by binding with them

 How an enzyme carries out its work depends on the enzyme

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