Exam 1 STUDY Guide
+ O or N
fatty acids Amino acids > nucleotides →
in plants a larger organic mdeales o polysaccharides, glycogen, & Starch
falts fats & membrane lipids proteins nucleic acids
what is a condensation to Hydrolysis cxn?
condensation removes H2O
R-OH + HR
- R-R + H2O
Hydrolysis rans use tho to break a boadi Ex wl aa's e Re If you want to learn more check out What comprises a community?
H2N-C-C-N-C-COOH + H2g
H Don't forget about the age old question of How do we recognize the style of an object?
• What forces determine the folding shape
of a macromoleccle ?
noncovalent bonds between the subunits
of a macromolecule
Ex ionic bonds, t-bonds of van derwaals,
& hydrophobic interactions (covalent bonds link the polypeptide string
together) If you want to learn more check out Who came up with pasteurization?
Remember that noncoralenta c. weak in aqueous soln
) Study Soup
proteins by heating
can easily be unfolded the soln
Also, the shape of a protein is specified by the AA sequence
I proteins fold into a conformation of lowest energy I structure linear sequence
& helices & & sheets H-bonding, ionic, covalent,
Van der waal Can have backline + R-group banding : multiple subunit noncovalent If you want to learn more check out What is bioremeditation?
Don't forget about the age old question of How much of our body is made up of water?
bonds a helices The R-groups stick outwards.
H bonds between the backbone atoms stabilize a helices
• B Sheet H bonds are formed
the backbone atoms
There is no R-group bonding in B shelts The R-groups extend above & below the plane of the ß sheet, Don't forget about the age old question of What are the general routes for pathogens to enter the body?
y This could result in 2 totally different chemical environments (the
top above the ß sheet & below it,
Acidic a R-groups cold poke up above the & sheet while below it hydropobic r groups polce din.
o chaperone proteins
even though on their own
proteins fold up,
can fold up
Lysozyme - catalyzes hydrolysis to
a break a part polysaccharides in the cell walls of bacteria
Glutamic acid Aspartic acid help the run in the activesite
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• Protein regulation
Feedback inhiblica e an enzyme is either inhibited or stimulated by its product
o positive feedback loop feedback loop "negative regulation" "positive requanin!
Conformational changes whether a substrate
active site or not
of enzymes influence
can hit in the
phosphorylation can cause a confermananal change either activating or deactivating
I an enzyme The phosphate group comes from an ATP moeccle (the terminal Phosphate
grap) catalyzed by protein kinase The reverse rxn is done by
protein phosphatase Other covalent modifications, that can change
the shape of an enzyme /protein: --acetylation
- attachment of Ubiquitin.
- double stranded - ATGC
- singlestrandled usually
- (can be double
Stranded) - AU G C
• genomeno correlation between
T the size of an organism's genome & the complexity of I organism
8 histone proteins
H2A H 2 B H3 HY
- 147 nucleotides of dabe stranded
DNA wraps around a histone
( 1.7 times around). - The linker DNA can vary in length
Histones are 0 charged
DNA is one each Histone protein in the octamer has a long terminus tail
that stickas out. Conformation changes of this tail regulates the chromatin
expressed DNA most likely is
kept as euchromatin unexpressed ONA > Heterochromatin
RNA polymerase reads the template strand 3 5 ' and synthesises
the new RNA strand 5 31 5' is capped w/ a methylated
Guanine & the 3 end is poly adenylated
Introns are also spliced out before mRNA can be exported from the nucles.
The post TX modifications the mRNA more stable
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codon → 3 nucleotides on warna anticodon on the tRNA translation is 5'-3
a nbosome begins translation when the Met tRNA in the posite of the ribosome identities the start codon
AUG. ERNAS come in starting @ the
A site of the nbosone, moving to the P-site & then Este as the nbosome translocates down the mRNA transcript
- in proks , there is no nucleus so
translation can start immediatley, after even if the mRNA is still being transcribed.
- a lot of
prok mRNAS code for proteins that can be
from the same mRNA