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Gen Chem 141

by: Tiffani Marie

Gen Chem 141 CHMY 141

Tiffani Marie

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About this Document

This a study guide for the first exam of the semester and covers chapters 1 through 3 in depth, with details that are expected to be on the exam.
College Chemistry I
Bahn, Christian S
Study Guide
General Chemistry, Exam 1, Chemistry
50 ?




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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tiffani Marie on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHMY 141 at Montana State University taught by Bahn, Christian S in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 601 views. For similar materials see College Chemistry I in Chemistry at Montana State University.


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Date Created: 09/17/16
Chemistry 141 Study Guide - The difference between atoms and molecules. o A molecule is a combination of two of more atoms in a definite arrangement that is held together by chemical bonds and example would be one molecule of water (H2O) which has 3 atoms Hydrogen = atom Hydrogen = atom Oxygen = atom H2O = Molecule o An atom is the smallest constituent of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element. - The three main states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas o Solid: particles in a solid are tightly packed, usually in a regular pattern. These particles vibrate but do not generally move from place to place o Liquid: particles in a liquid are close together but have no regular arrangement. They move about and slide past each other. o Gas: particles in a gas are well separated with no regular arrangement. These particles vibrate and move freely at high speeds. - The difference between mixtures and pure substances; elements and compounds; and heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures o Mixtures and pure substances  Pure substances only have one kind of atom or molecule. An example would be salt (NaCl)  Mixtures have a number of different pure substances mixed together. An example of this would be salt that has been dissolved in water (NaCl and H2O) o Elements and compounds  An element is a pure chemical substance made of the same type of atom. An example would be things like iron (Fe), copper (Cu), silver (Ag), gold (Au), and nickel (Ni)  A compound contains atoms of different elements that have been chemically combined together in a fixed ratio. An example would be water (H2O), salt (NaCl), and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) o Heterogeneous and homogeneous  Homogeneous mixtures are a mixture that are uniformly distributed throughout the mixture. The composition of the mixture is the same throughout, an example would be air, sugar water, vinegar, and dishwashing detergent.  Heterogeneous mixtures is a mixture where the components of the mixture are not uniform or have localized regions with different properties. Examples of this would be milk and cereal, pizza, soil, and mixed nuts - The law of conservation energy o This law states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only changed from one form to another or transferred from one object to another  An example of this would be when a moving car hits a parked car and causes the parked car to move, energy is transferred from the moving car to the parked car - Conservation of mass o This law states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy, the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as system mass cannot change quantity if it is not added or removed.  Only applies to chemical and physical reactions, the total mass in a reaction must be conserved  Mass of reactants = Mass of product - Correct units with measurements (SI) o Length = Meter o Mass = Kilogram o Time = Second o Temperature = Kelvin o Amount of a substance = Mole o Electric current = Ampere o Luminous intensity = Candela o SI modifiers  Nano (n)  Micro  Milli (m)  Centi (c)  Kilo (k)  Mega (M) - The law of definite proportions o This law states that in a pure compound the elements combine in definite proportions to one another by mass. In other words, we know that water is always composed of two hydrogens and one oxygen. - The law of multiple proportions o If elements A and B react to form two different compounds, the different masses of B that combine with a fixed mass of A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers. - The four postulates of Daltons atomic theory o Each element is composed of tiny, indestructible particles called atoms (No longer true, atoms are destructible) o All atoms of a given element have the same mass and same properties (same properties is 99.99% true, however mass is not true due to isotopes) o Atoms combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds (Law of Multiple proportions) o Atoms of one element cannot change into another element - J.J. Thompson’s experiments with the cathode ray tube o Once the electron was discovered, models began to be proposed to fit the new data o Thomson proposed the plum pudding model (looks similar to a rasin cookie) - Robert Millikan’s oil-drop o Robert Milliken determined the charge on an electron  -1.6 x 10^-19 C (Colom – massive charge)  By combining this value with Thomson’s charge-to-mass ratio the mass of the electron was determined  = 9.1 x 10^-28g - Understanding the terms o Nucleus - A group of atoms bound in a structure, such as a benzene ring, that is resistant to alteration in chemical reactions. o Proton - a negatively charged particle in the center of the mass to counter the negative electrons o Neutron - a subatomic particle, symbol n or n0, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton. o Atomic mass unit - Masses are often expressed in atomic mass units (amu) o Atomic number – The number of protons in the nucleus, this is how the periodic table is organized o Chemical Symbol – This is the abbreviation for the elements on the periodic table o Isotopes – atoms of an element have a different number of neutrons o Mass number – can be found by taking the number of protons, and adding the number of neutrons o Natural abundance - refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet - Full atomic symbol o Anion – A gain of an electron(s) will lead to a negative ion o Cation - A loss of an electron(s) will lead to a positive ion - How ions are formed o an atom that has obtained a charge - Accuracy and Precision o Accuracy – How close measurements are to an actual value o Precision - the relative closeness of a set of measurements to each other of how reproducible they are - Systematic vs Random error o Systematic – usually refers to errors related to how you are measuring something o Random - usually related to repeated attempts to measure the same quantity but not getting the same answer each time - Density o Density = Mass (g)/volume (mL) - Types of energy o Kinetic energy – associated with motion o Potential energy – associated with position (ball at top of hill) or chemical composition (bombs) o Thermal energy - the internal energy present in a system due to its temperature - Moles and Avogadro’s number o Moles - unit of measurement in the International System of Units (SI) for amount of substance. It is defined as the amount of a chemical substance o Avogadro’s number - number of units in one mole of any substance (defined as its 23 molecular weight in grams), equal to 6.022140857 × 10 - Converting between moles and atoms o x moles * [(6.022 * 10 atoms)/1 mole] = y atoms 23 o [ x atoms/ (6.022 * 10 atoms/moles] = y moles - Converting between moles and mass o 1 mole/ # of grams = Moles o # of grams/ 1 mole = Grams - Macroscopic objects o Objects on the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible practically with the naked eye, without magnifying devices - Electromagnetic radiation o the radiant energy released by certain electromagnetic processes. Visible light is electromagnetic radiation, as is invisible light, such as radio, infrared, and X-rays. o The light that we see with our eyes makes up the small portion of the EM spectrum called visible light - Amplitude, wavelength, and frequency o Amplitude – is the related to vertical height of the crest and determine the intensity of the light o Wavelength – the physical distance between crests of the light wave o Frequency - the number of crest that pass a point in a given time - Converting between wavelength and frequency o C = Wave length * Frequency o C is our constant which is 3.00 x 10 m/s - Interference and Diffraction o Interference - The interaction of one light was with another depending on relative phase  Constructive interference, when the waves add to each other and the amplitude grows  Destructive interference, when the waves cancel out from being out of phase. o Diffraction - The lending of a wave around on obstacle, circular in nature - Converting energy, wavelength, and frequency of electromagnetic radiation o De Broglie Wavelength  This is the equation: -31  h = Planck’s constant = 6.626 x 10 J/s  m = mass in kg  v = velocity in m/s o Schrodinger Equation   H = Hamiltonian operator, E = Actual energy o Rydberg    E = actual energy  n f – end, n i – initial - Orbital and wave function o Orbital - the one (or two) electron wave functions (or probability distribution functions for one or two electrons) in quantum mechanics o Wave function - a probability amplitude in quantum mechanics describing the quantum state of a particle or system of particles. - Principal vs. magnetic quantum number  n – returning from (Principal)  m – returning to (Magnetic) - Nodes  What are they?  Points of destructive interference between two waves - Identifying the shapes of orbitals


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