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Phys 018 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Jennifer Mendoza

Phys 018 Exam 1 Study Guide Phy 018

Marketplace > University of California - Merced > Phy 018 > Phys 018 Exam 1 Study Guide
Jennifer Mendoza

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I tried to write her lecture notes out more in detail and highlight what I thought was important! I hope it helps! Study hard!
Dr. Antoinette Stone
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Mendoza on Saturday September 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Phy 018 at University of California - Merced taught by Dr. Antoinette Stone in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 171 views.

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Date Created: 09/17/16
Ch.1  Introduction­ Essential University Physics Objective ­different realms of physics and their applications ­The SI unit system  ­How to express and manipulate numbers in a  physics calculation   Scientific notation  Unit conversions  Accuracy and significant figures ­A universal state for solving physics problems Realm of Physics ­ Physics provides a unified description of basic  principles that govern physical phenomena. ­ It’s convenient to divide physics into a number  of different realms.   Oscillations, waves and fluids  Mechanics  Modern physics  Thermodynamics  Electromagnetism   Optics The SI Unit  ­Provides precise definitions of seven  System fundamental physical quantities:  Length: the meter  1m = 100 cm; 1km =  1000m  Time: the second  1ms = .001s  Mass: the kilogram  1kg = 1000g  Electric current: the ampere C/s: C=  coulomb (unit of Charge)  Temperature: the kelvin: K= ­273 Degrees  Celsius  The mole; Avogadro’s number 6.02 * 10^23 mole^­1  Luminous intensity: the candela ­Supplementary units describe angles­ Plane  angel: the radian  The angel theta in radians is defined as the  ratio of the subtended arc length s to the  radius. r: theta= s/r. Scientific Notation ­The vast range of quantities that occur in physics are best expressed with ordinary sized numbers  multiplies by powers of 10:  31416.5=3.14165 * 10^4  0.002718= 2.718 * 10^­3 ­The SI prefixes describe the powers of 10:  Every three powers of 10 gets a different  prefix. o Ex. 3.0*10^9= 3.0 Gw (3  gigawatts) Operational  ­Of the three most basic units­ Length, time and  mass­ two are defined operationally, so their  definition can be implemented in any laboratory. ­The meanings of both these definitions will  become clearer later:   The meter is the length of the path traveled  by light in vacuum during a time interval of  1/(299, 792, 458) of a sec.  The second is the duration of 9,192, 631,  770 periods of the radiation corresponding  to the transition between tow hyperfine  levels.  Example ­UNITS MATTER!!! ­ Cancel units you don’t want ­Since 1ft =.3048 m; a 5280ft race is equal to  Clicker Question ­2.00 gallons/hr, how many milliliters per  minute is this? Rules for  ­ex. (3.1416N0(2.1m) = 6.6N­m Significant Figures ­ Use the least significant figures in the equation  given for your answer.  A Strategy for  ­IDEA Path to the  solution in  problem solving.  Problem Solving   Interpret  Develop  Evaluate   Assess ­Interpret­ Identify the physical principles  involved             *Three laws of motion  ­Develop­ draw a diagram and label  EVERYTHING! ­Evaluate­ execute by using your mathematical  tool box.              *Differential Calculus ­Assess­ check the units in your answer ­MAKE SURE ANSWER MAKES SENSE! Ch.2  Motion in a Straight Line Objective ­Fundamental quantities that describe motion   Position  Velocity  Acceleration ­difference between average and instantaneous  quantities Average Motion ­Average Speed­ is distance divided by time  =d/t ­Average velocity­ over a time interval delta t is  defined as the displacement divided by the time;  Distance is the total distance travelled  Displacement is where you started minus  where you left off  = Displacement/ time interval  Example ­For a round­trip, the average velocity is zero  even though the average speed is not zero. Position and  ­In one dimension, position can be described by a Displacement  positive or negative number on a number line,  also called a coordinate system.  ­ (­) means south: vectors give you a direction  of something  Instantaneous  ­Differs from average velocity by: It tells us how  Velocity (IV) fast, and in what direction we are going at a given instant *limit delta t 0 ­Instantaneous Velocity is a derivative! ­The derivative is a slope  ­Slope doesn’t change­ derivative is constant­ IV  doesn’t change Average and  ­For motion with no acceleration, x=vt, v=c, a=0 Instantaneous  ­For motion with constant acceleration: Velocity  and a=c ­Uniform motion happens when a graph is in a  straight line on a position vs. time graph. ­Average velocity is the slope of the position vs  time graph Example #1 ­Information given in a position vs time graph can be used to construct a graph of velocity vs time  graph.          *Student’s pace as they walk home ­A continuous line shows the position at all  instants of time.  Example #2 ­Below is a graph of a balls motion. Which of the  following gives the best interpretation of the  ball’s motion? ­Answer: The ball doesn’t move at first. Then it  moves backwards and then finally stops. Example #3 ­Which graph illustrates the following: an object  Position Graph starts at the origin and moves backwards steadily  for 6 seconds, stops for 6 seconds and then moves forward steadily but now twice as fast  ­Answer:  ­How would the velocity graph look for the  Example #4 position graph above? (hint: it’s just the  Velocity graph derivative) ­Answer:  What is  ­it is the rate of change of velocity. acceleration? Position and  Velocity Graphs ­No Motion ­Motion w/no acceleration (uniform motion) ­Motion w/constant acceleration (accelerated  Motion) ­Velocity changes, but it does so in a constant  rate.  Kinematic Eqution ­x=vt no acceleration ­x=xi+vit+((a(t^2))/2) constant acceleration ­v=vi+at The Acceleration  ­At a given point, objects in free fall have the  of Gravity same acceleration, regarding less of mass. ­ Near Earth’s surface the value of this  acceleration is essentially constant at g=  9.8m/s^2. ­Therefore the eq. for constant accelertion apply:  In a coordinate system with y axis  upward, they read  v=v0­gt  y=y0+1/2(v0+v)t  y=y0+v0t­1/2gt^2  v^2=v0^2­2g(y­y0)  v=vi­gt  y=yi+vit­(gt^2)/2  v^2=vi^2­2(g)(yf­yi) Ch.3 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions Projectile Trajectories  The trajectory of an object in projectile motion is a parabola,  unless the object has no horizontal component of motion.  o Horizontal motion is unchanged, while vertical motion  undergoes downward acceleration o Equation for the trajectory: y=xtanθ0­(g/ (2v0^2cos^2θ0))x^2 (0’s are supposed to be subscripts) Uniform Circular Motion  Object moves in circular path of radius r at constant speed v, its  acceleration has magnitude  o a=v^2/r o Constant acceleration in two dimensions implies a parabolic  trajectory.  Nonuniform Circular Motion  An object moves on a circular path with changing speed its  acceleration has both radial and tangential components: o a=ar+at (arrows should be on top) o a=sqrt(at^2+ar^2) (r and t are subscripts)  ****Recommend looking at her PowerPoints to see the real format of  the equations**** Vectors  A vector is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. (ex.  Position, velocity, etc.)  o For two dimensions it takes two number to specify a vector o For three dimension it takes three numbers.   A scalar is a quantity that has only magnitude. (ex. Speed, energy,  etc.) Ch. 4 Force and Motion What to know? o Newton’s three laws of motion What Causes Motion? o Three people who shared different views o Aristotle o Galileo o Newton Newton’s First law o Projectile motion is not uniform motion! o An object at rest, or moving uniformly, will stay at rest or  moving uniformly, unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.  o Fnet=0 2  law o If there is an unbalance fore acting on an object, the  object will accelerate.  rd 3  law o F12=­F21 ****If you need further clarification go on to the lecture slides!!! **** I tried to get out what I saw was most important, but her slides do  have more information!!! ****Go to the book Also**** Use your resources like office hours! Study hard!!!


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