Study Guide CHEM 1307
Study Guide CHEM 1307 CHEM 1307
Popular in Experimental Principles of Chemistry 1
Popular in Chemistry
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kyle A. Headen on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1307 at Texas Tech University taught by Whittlesey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Experimental Principles of Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Texas Tech University.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Study Guide for Chapter 1 & 2 Chapter 1 Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving: What you should know: The Scientific Method S.I. Base Units S.I. Prefixes Unit Conversions Mass, Volume, and Density Accuracy and Precision Significant Figures, and Scientific Notation Definition of Matter, and The States of Matter Physical vs Chemical Changes Elements, Compounds, Mixtures, and Molecules Calculation of Energy Scientific Method Steps 1. Define the Problem 2. Exploratory Experiments 3. Data Analysis 4. Hypothesis 5. Validation Experiments 6. Data Analysis 7. Conclusions S.I. Units & Prefixes Charts meter for length= m kilogram for mass= kg second for time= s ampere for electric current= A kelvin for temperature= K candela for luminous intensity= ca mole for amount of substance= mole or mol Factor Name Symbol 10^21 zetta Z 10^24 yotta Y 10^18 exa E 10^15 peta P 10^-2centi c 10^12 tera T 10^-3milli m 10^9 giga G 10^-6micro µ 10^6 mega M 10^-9nano n 10^3 kilo k 10^-12 pico p 10^2 hecto h 10^-15 femto f 10^1 deka da 10^-18 atto a 10^-21 zepto z Factor Name Symbol 10^-24 yocto y 10^-1deci d Length Conversion Units EX: Phases of Matter 1) Solid 2) Liquid 3) Gas 4) Plasma Definitions to remember: Mass- is the amount of matter that an object has. Weight- is the amount of force due to gravity that an object experiences. Accuracy- how close the measured value is to the "true" value. Precision- how close the values of repeated measurements of the same quantity are to each other, i.e. how "reproducible” the measurements are. Matter- is anything that has mass and occupies space. the composition remains the same. Chemical Change- A chemical change (a chemical reaction) is when a substance is changed into another substance that has a different composition. Pure Substances: A pure substance can be classified as an element or a compound. Compound- A compound can be broken down into simpler pure substances by chemical changes. Element-An element cannot be broken down into simpler pure substances by chemical changes. Mixtures: Mixtures consist of two or more pure substances. Heterogeneous Mixture- Mixtures that have regions that differ in composition from other regions in the mixture are called heterogeneous mixtures. Homogenous Mixture- Mixtures that have a uniform composition throughout are called homogeneous mixtures. Energy- The scientific description of changes that take place in the physical world is centered around the concept of energy. Kinetic Energy- Objects in motion are said to have kinetic energy. Potential Energy- The ability to cause an object to move at some future time is called potential energy. Thermodynamics- Thermodynamics is a field of science that describes the changes in energy that occur when substances undergo a chemical or physical change. Equations: Kinetic Energy = ½ m*v2 Mass= d*v Volume= m/d Density= m/v Chapter 2 Atoms and Elements: What you should know: Atomic Structure, Atomic Symbols, and Atomic Charges Atomic Mass, Isotopes, Natural Abundance Atomic Weight, The Periodic Chart, Molar Mass Calculation Definition of Mole Definitions and Things to remember- Atoms are made up of three types of particles: Electrons- have a single negative electrical charge. Protons- have a single positive electrical charge. Neutrons- are neutral – they have no electrical charge. The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom. It is designated by the symbol Z. The number of protons that an atom has determines which element it is. The atomic number can be found over the symbol for the element in the periodic chart. The mass number of an atom is defined as the total number of protons and neutrons in it. Mass number = number of protons + number of neutrons Atomic Charges- Electrons have a single negative electrical charge. Protons have a single positive electrical charge. If an atom has the same number of electrons as protons, the negative and positive charges will cancel each other and the overall charge will be zero. The atom is then said to be neutral. If electrons are added to a neutral atom it will have a negative charge, and if electrons are removed from a neutral atom it will have a positive charge. An atom that has unequal numbers of electrons and protons, and therefore has an overall electrical charge, is called an ion. An ion that has an overall negative charge is called an anion. An ion that has an overall positive charge is called a cation. A way to remember the terms is that they match alphabetically. A (for anion) comes before C (for cation), and N (for negative) comes before P (for positive). Atomic Mass Isotopes are atoms of an element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Atomic Weight The atomic weight (a.k.a. relative atomic mass) of an element is the average of the atomic masses of all of its naturally-occurring isotopes that is weighted according to the natural abundance of each isotope. Equations: atomic weight of element X = A A (% abundance of isotope X) x (mass of isotope X) (100) B B + (% abundance of isotope X) x (mass of isotope X) (100) + all other naturally-occurring isotopes of the element 1 gram = 6.022 x 1023 atomic mass units (u) 6.022 x 1023 is called Avogadro's number. One mole of atoms of any element has a mass that is equal to its atomic weight in grams. The Periodic Chart Flow: The rows in the periodic table are called "periods". The columns are called "groups". Elements that are in the same group tend to have similar chemical properties (they tend to react with other substances in the same way). Metals are located to the lower left of the diagonal from Al to Po across the periodic table in the p-block. Nonmetals are located on the upper right of the diagonal across the periodic table. They do not have metallic properties. The metalloids are the elements that are on the border between the metals and the nonmetals. These elements have properties that are intermediate between metals and nonmetals. Metalloids: boron (B), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), tellurium (Te) Group Name 1 (not H) alkali metals 2 alkaline earth metals 3 to 12 transition metals no group lanthanide metals (Elements #57-71) (also called the “rare earths”) no group actinide metals (Elements #89-103) Group Name 15 pnictogens 16 (not O) chalcogens 17 halogens 18 noble gases Group Name 1&2 the s-block elements 3 - 12 the d-block elements 13 - 18 the p-block elements The lanthanide and actinide metals together are called the f-block elements. The s and p-block elements together are called the "main group" elements.
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