Study guide for Test 1
Study guide for Test 1 KNES 3260
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Roberts on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KNES 3260 at University of North Carolina at Charlotte taught by Mrs. Tracy Bonoffsk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Kinesiology at University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Study Guide for Test 1 Chapter 1 1. What is Nutrition? (p.4) a. A science that studies all the interactions that occur between living organisms and food 2. Macro/micro nutrients (p. 9-11) a. Macronutrient-a nutrient needed by the body in large amounts (ex. Water, carbs, lipids, and proteins) b. Micronutrient-a nutrient needed by the body in small amounts (ex. Vitamins and minerals) 3. Factors affecting food choices (p.4-6) a. Personal preference (i.e. Taste) b. Social (who you hang out w/) c. Culture d. Psychological/Emotional (eating to help w/ stress) 4. Types of nutrients a. 6 classes of Nutrients (Alcohol provides energy but is not essential to support life): Class of nutrients Energy Yielding Macronutrient Micronutrient Carbs X X Lipids X X Proteins X x Water x Vitamins X Minerals X b. Energy Provided by Macronutrients (Figure 1.7 p.9) Kcalories/gram Kjoules/gram Carb 4 16.7 Protein 4 16.7 Fat 9 37.6 Alcohol 7 29.3 5. Variety, balance, moderation (p. 16-18) a. Variety-choosing from different food groups helps ensure an adequate nutrient intake b. Balance-balance calories with exercise c. Moderation-all types of food & beverages are okay, as long as they are taken in moderation 6. Nutrient density (p.14 & 16) a. Nutrient density is a measure of the nutrients a food provides compared to its energy content (ex. Broccoli) 7. Types of nutrition studies (p. 20-25) a. Case-control Studies-a type of observational study that compares individuals with a particular condition under study with individuals of the same gender b. Human Intervention Studies-a study of a population in which there is an experimental manipulation of some members of the population c. Laboratory Studies-are conducted in research facilities such as hospitals and universities d. Depletion-repletion Studies-a study that feeds a diet devoid of a nutrient until signs of deficiency appear and then adds the nutrient back to the diet to a level at which symptoms disappear e. Balance Studies-a study that compares the total amount of a nutrient that enters the body with the total amount that leaves the body Chapter 2 1. Nutrition facts label (p. 52-55) a. It provides info about serving size, total Calories (kcal), calories from fat, the amounts of total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars, protein per serving size b. Also how the food fits into the overall diet 2. DRI, UL, EAR, AMDRs, etc. (p. 38-41, 52) a. DRI (dietary reference intakes)-are recommendations for food components that healthy people should consume in order to stay healthy, reduce the risk of chronic diseases and prevent deficiencies b. UL (Tolerable Upper Intake Levels)-these are NOT recommended levels but are levels of intake that can probably be tolerated) c. EARs (Established Average Requirements)-it is the amount of a nutrient that is estimated to meet the needs of 50% of people in the same gender and life- stage group d. AMDRs (Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges)-these are expressed as ranges e. AIs (Adequate Intakes)-are estimates used when there is insufficient scientific evidence to set an EAR and calculate an RDA f. RDAs (Recommended Dietary Allowances)-they are determined by starting with the EAR value and using the variability in the requirement among individuals to increase it to an amount that meets the needs of 97-98% of healthy individuals g. EERs (Estimated Energy Requirements)-they provide the number of calories needed to keep weight stable in a healthy person h. RDIs (Reference Daily Intakes)-its values stabled for vitamins and minerals that are based on the highest amount of each nutrient recommended for any age group i. DRVs (Daily Reference Values)-its values established for protein and seven nutrients for which no original RDAs was established 3. Empty calories a. Calories from solid fats and/or added sugars 4. Dietary guidelines (p.40) a. Adequate nutrients within calorie needs b. Weight management c. Physical activity d. Food groups to encourage e. Fats f. Carbohydrates g. Sodium and potassium h. Alcoholic beverages i. Food safety 5. myPlate (p. 45-51) a. It’s the most updated food guide b. It emphasizes balancing calories, what foods to increase, and what to decrease c. Shows portions for 5 food groups Chapter 3 1. Figure 3.1 (p. 74) a. The organization of life begins with atoms that form molecules, which are then organized into cells to form tissues, organs, and whole organisms 2. The 2 functions of the digestive system are digestion and absorption (p.75) 3. Understand the anatomy of the GI tract (Figure 3.2 p.76) a. The digestive system includes the GI organs (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine) and the accessory organs (salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas) b. The general set up of the wall of GI tract contains 4 layers of tissue (which are made out of connective tissue and smooth muscle). 4. Figure 3.3 p.77) a. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions without themselves being altered by the reaction. b. In this example, the enzyme amylase helps break a large carbohydrate molecule (a starch molecule from bread) into 2 smaller ones 5. Figure 3.5 (p.77) a. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions without themselves being altered by the reaction 6. Key enzymes in digestion (role and location) (Table 3.2-p. 77)**shorten version** Enzyme Where it is Where it works What it does Salivary amylase Salivary glands Mouth Breaks down starch Lingual lipase Lingual glands in Mouth Breaks down tongue triglycerides Pepsin Stomach Stomach Breaks down proteins Gastric lipase Stomach Stomach Breaks down triglycerides Trypsin Pancreas Small Intestine Breaks down proteins Chymotrypsin Pancreas Small Intestine Breaks down proteins Carboxypeptidase Pancreas Small Intestine Breaks polypeptides and amino acids Pancreatic lipase Pancreas Small Intestine Breaks down triglycerides Pancreatic amylase Pancreas Small Intestine Breaks down starch Aminopeptidase Small Intestine Small Intestine Breaks down and dipeptidase polypeptides Sucrase Small Intestine Small Intestine Breaks down sucrose Lactase Small Intestine Small Intestine Breaks down lactose Maltase Small Intestine Small Intestine Breaks down maltose Dextrinase Small Intestine Small Intestine Breaks down short chains of glucose 7. Key hormones (role and location) (Table 3.3 p. 78)***shorter version*** Hormone Where it comes from What it does Gastrin Stomach mucosa Stimulates secretion of HCl Ghrelin Stomach mucosa Stimulates appetite and increases gastric emptying Secretin Duodenal mucosa Inhibits gastric secretion and motility and increases output of water and bicarbonate from the pancreas Cholecystokinin (CCK) Duodenal mucosa Stimulates contraction of the gallbladder to expel bile Gastric inhibitory peptide Duodenal mucosa Inhibits gastric secretion and motility 8. Figure 3.4 (p. 79) a. When a bolus of food is swallowed, it pushes the epiglottis down over the opening to the air passageways 9. Figure 3.5 (p. 80) a. The food we swallow is pushed along by the rhythmic muscular contractions of peristalsis 10. Figure 3.6 (p.81) a. The stomach wall contains 3 layers of smooth muscle, which contract powerfully to mix food b. The lining of the stomach is dotted with gastric pits. Inside these pits are the gastric glands, made up of different types of cells that produce the components of gastric juice 11. Figure 3.7 (p. 82) a. Stomach activity is affected by food that has not yet reached the stomach, by food that is in the stomach, and by food that has left the stomach 12. Figure 3.8 (p. 82) a. A larger meal with more protein and fat such as bacon, eggs and buttered toast leaves the stomach more slowly, keeping you full longer 13. Figure 3.9 (p.83) a. The small intestine contains circular folds, fingerlike projections called villi, and tiny projections, called microvilli, all of which increase the absorptive surface area. 14. Figure 3.10 (p.84) a. Segmentation involves alternating contraction and relaxation of the circular muscles of the small intestine. This movement mixes food with intestinal juices and brings it in contact with the intestinal wall. 15. Figure 3.11 (p.85) a. Most digestion and absorption occur in the small intestine 16. Figure 3.12 (p.86) a. Absorption mechanisms: simple diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and active transport 17. Figure 3.13: A and B (p. 88) a. What we eat affects the gut microbiota, and the gut microbiota in turn enables the digestion of substances that can’t be broken down by human enzymes b. A healthy microbiota helps prevent the growth of disease-causing organisms and moderate inflammation. 18. Figure 3.14 (p. 89) a. Peyer’s patches are made up of immune system tissue and are embedded throughout the mucosa of the small intestine; they contain cells that help prevent harmful organisms or materials present in the GI tract from making us ill b. Phagocytic cells can engulf and destroy invading substances. Lymphocytes are specific with regard to which invaders they can attack; they directly kill invaders, while others secrete antibiotics that help destroy antigens 19. Figure 3.15 (p.92) a. When stomach contents leak through the gastroesophageal sphincter, which separates the esophagus from the stomach, the acid irritates the lining of the esophagus 20. GERD, Ulcers, other common GI disorders a. Heartburn is the most common digestive complaint (occurs when the acidic stomach contents leak back into the esophagus, causing a burning sensation in chest i. GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease)-technical term for leakage of stomach contents back in to the esophagus; this is chronic b. Peptic ulcers(p. 92) i. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the leading cause of ulcers ii. They are open sores that develop in the lining of the esophagus, stomach or upper portion of the small intestine c. Pancreatic Problems (p.92) i. Examples: Pancreatic cancer and pancreatitis ii. If the pancreas is not functioning normally, the availability of enzymes needed to digest carbs, fat, and protein may be reduced, thus limiting the ability to digest and absorb them d. Gallbladder Problems (p.92) i. The most common condition is gallstones ii. If gallbladder is not releasing bile, fat absorption can be impaired e. Diarrhea and Constipation (p.92, 95) 21. Figure 3.16 (p.96)-Alternate feeding methods a. Enteral feeding can be delivered by a narrow tube passed through the nasal passages and into the stomach or intestine so that a liquid diet can be delivered for digestion and absorption b. If a person’s GI tract is not functional, total parenteral nutrition can deliver a solution providing all of the essential nutrients directly into the bloodstream through a large vein in the upper arm or chest 22. Figure 3.17 (p.97) a. There are some differences in the way the digestive system functions during pregnancy, infancy, and with advancing age 23. Figure 3.19 (p.101) a. The hepatic portal circulation carries blood from the stomach and intestines to the hepatic portal vein and then to the liver. Nutrients absorbed directly into the blood reach the liver via the hepatic portal vein. 24. Role of Lymphatic system (p.101) a. The lymphatic system is important for absorption because fat-soluble materials such as triglycerides, cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins are taken up by the lymph vessels and are eventually emptied in the blood system 25. Figure 3.20 (p.102) a. All human cells are surrounded by a cell membrane and most contain a nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and ribosomes in their cytosol 26. Figure 3.21 (p.103) a. ATP consist of an adenosine molecule attached to 3 phosphate groups. The bonds between the phosphate groups are very high in energy, which is released when the bonds are broken 27. What are metabolic reactions? (p. 102-103) a. Metabolic reactions are a series of reactions needed to transform food into a final product that can be used by the body b. ATP is lined between catabolism and anabolism i. Catabolic reactions release energy trapped in chemical bonds ii. Anabolic reactions use energy to combine molecules to form more complex substances 28. Figure 3.22 (p. 104) a. Cellular respiration uses oxygen to convert glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids into carbon dioxide, water, and energy, in the form of ATP 29. Figure 3.23 (p.105) a. Substances in food that cannot be absorbed are eliminated in the feces. Wastes generated from nutrient metabolism, called metabolic wastes, are eliminated from the body by the integumentary (skin), urinary, and respiratory system Chapter 4 1. Carbohydrates in Our Food (p.110) a. It provides more than half of calories in the American diet 2. Figure 4.1: Carbs come from whole and refined sources (p.110) a. Grains, vegetables, legumes, fruits, nuts, seeds, and milk are all sources of carbs b. Corn and sugarcane are unrefined sources of carb, but the corn in cornflakes and sugar in table sugar has been processed by grinding, cooking, and extruding, and drying. These refined products are missing some of the fiber and other nutrients present from the original source 3. Figure 4.2 (p. 111) a. A kernel of grain, such as wheat, is made up of 3 major components: the bran, the germ, and the endosperm 4. Figure 4.3 (p.114) a. Kiwis are a more nutrient-dense snack than red licorice. Although 3 kiwis provide about the same number of calories as four pieces of licorice, the kiwis are an unrefined source of sugar that also provides fiber, vitamin C, folate and calcium. Most of the calories in the licorice are from added refined sugars and contains less nutrients 5. Types of Carbohydrates (p. 114-118) a. Simple carbs-a class of carbs, known as sugars, that include monosaccharides and disaccharides i. Ex. Of monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose ii. Ex. Of disaccharides: maltose, sucrose, lactose, b. Complex carbs-are composed of sugar molecules linked together in straight or branching chains i. They include oligosaccharides (3-10 sugar units) and polysaccharides (a carbohydrate made up of many sugar units) ii. Examples of polysaccharides are: glycogen (a polysaccharide made up of many molecules of glucose-the storage form of carb in animals), starch (made up of many molecules-the storage form of carb in plants), fiber (a mixture of indigestible carbs and lignin that is found in plants) 6. Figure 4.5 (p.115) a. Glucose, fructose, and galactose are monosaccharides that have the same chemical formula but their atoms are arranged differently b. Maltose, sucrose, and lactose are disaccharides made up of different pairs of monosaccharides 7. Figure 4.6 (p.116) a. In the dehydration reaction, 2 glucose molecules are joined to form the disaccharide maltose and a molecule of water. In the hydrolysis reaction, the addition of a molecule of water breaks maltose into its component glucose molecules 8. Figure 4.7 (p.117) a. Glycogen, starches, and the fiber cellulose are complex carbs made up of straight of branching chains of glucose 9. Carbohydrate in the Digestive Tract (p.119-122) a. Digestion of carbs starts in the mouth, where the enzyme salivary amylase starts breaking the starch into shorter polysaccharides b. The majority of starch and disaccharide digestion occurs in the small intestine c. Lactose intolerance-occurs when there is not enough of the enzyme lactase in the small intestine to digest lactose d. Fiber is NOT digested but it helps with the growth of beneficial intestinal microbiota (in large intestine) and inhibit the growth of undesirable bacteria 10. Figure 4.8 (p.118) a. Whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables are good sources of soluble and/or insoluble fiber 11. Figure 4.9 (p.119) a. The process of carb digestion begins in the mouth and continues throughout the GI tract. Enzymes break starches and sugars into monosaccharides, which are absorbed. Most of the fiber is excreted in the feces 12. Figure 4.11 (p.121) a. Stool weights were greater and transit times shorter for participants with a diet high in fiber 13. Figure 4.12 (p. 122) a. The bulk and volume of a fiber-rich meal dilute the GI contents. This dilution slows the digestion of food and absorption of nutrients. With a low-fiber meal, nutrients are more concentrated and absorption occur more rapidly. 14. Figure 4.13 (p. 123) a. Blood glucose rises higher and more rapidly after a person eats white bread than it does after the person eats an equivalent amount of carb from kidney beans 15. Figure 4.14 (p. 124) a. Blood glucose levels are regulated by the hormones insulin and glucagon secreted in the pancreas 16. Carbohydrates in the Body a. Glycemic response-the rate, magnitude, and duration of the rise in blood glucose that occurs after a particular food or meal is consumed (p.123) b. Glycemic index-a ranking of the effect on blood glucose of a food of a certain carb content relative to an equal amount of carb from a reference food such as white bread or glucose (p.123) c. Glycemic load-an index of the glycemic response that occurs after eating specific foods. (p. 124) d. Figure 4.15 (p. 126) i. The reactions of cellular respiration split into the bonds between carbon atoms in glucose, releasing energy that is used to add a phosphate to ADP, to form ATP. ATP is used to power the energy- requiring processes in the body e. Figure 4.16 (p.127) i. When carbs are limited, glucogenic amino acids can be broken down to provide glucose. Fatty acids and ketogenic amino acids are used to make ketones, but cannot be used to synthesize glucose 17. Carbohydrates and Health a. Figure 4.17 (p. 128) i. Blood glucose levels are elevated in diabetes. This graph compares levels measured after an eight-hour fast two hours after consuming a test solution containing 75-g of glucose. The result can be used to determine whether an individual has normal blood glucose levels, prediabetes, or diabetes b. Figure 4.18 (p.129) i. 20 years ago, type 2 diabetes was rare in this age group, but as in adults, the incidence is rising, especially in certain minority groups. c. Figure 4.19 (p.130) i. The long-term complications of diabetes result from damage to both the large blood vessels, which leads to an increased risk of heart attack and stroke, and changes in small blood vessels, which can blindness, kidney failure, and nerve dysfunction d. Figure 4.20 (p.131) i. The management of diabetes requires controlling blood glucose levels with diet, exercise, and, in many cases, medication. Carb intake must be coordinated with medication and exercise schedules so that glucose and insulin are available proportions at the same time to maintain normal blood glucose e. Figure 4.21 (p.134) i. Sucrose is the most cariogenic carbohydrate because it is needed for plaque formation and is rapidly metabolized by bacteria to form acid, which damages enamel. f. Figure 4.23 (p.134) i. When diet is low in soluble fiber, dietary cholesterol and bile acids, which are made from cholesterol, are absorbed into the blood and transported to liver, where they are reused. When soluble fiber is present in the digestive tract, the fiber binds cholesterol and bile acids so that they are excreted rather than absorbed. g. Figure 4.24 (p.136) i. Diverticulosis is a condition in which outpouchings form in the wall of the colon. h. Figure 4.25 (p. 136) i. Colon cancer, like other cancers, progresses from a single mutated cell to a tumor to a malignancy 18. Meeting Recommendations for Carbohydrate Intake a. Table 4.1 (p.138) i. The % of energy from carbs in your diet can be calculated by using the equations b. Table 4.2 (p.138) i. The amount of carb in a food or in a diet can be estimated from the Choice (Exchange) Lists c. Table 4.3 (p.139) i. This compares the fiber content of a variety of grains, fruits, vegetables, and other plant foods d. Figure 4.28 (p.143) i. The Nutrition Facts panel lists the grams of total carbs, fiber, and sugar in foods. e. Figure 4.27 (p. 141) i. To keep added sugars to no more than 10% of calories, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, cereals, snacks, and desserts must be kept to a minimum. f. Table 4.4 (p.145) i. The main competitors in the nonnutritive sweetener market in the US today are saccharin, sucralose, acesulfame K, and stevia
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