Intro to the Horse: Exam 1 Review Sheet
Intro to the Horse: Exam 1 Review Sheet ASCI097
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Malcomson on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ASCI097 at University of Vermont taught by Dr. Jennifer Wilkinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro to the Horse in Animal Science at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
Hannah Malcomson Intro to the Horse: Exam 1 Review Sheet Main Themes: Domestication o Physical Signs in fossils of horses Krasnyi Yar (Eurasian Steppes) Botai Culture: o Fossils show bit wear on horse molars o Thin cannon bones o Comsumption of horse milk Bit wear was the most common sign of domestication Lower genetic variability If horses appeared to be evolving in a specific direction (larger, thinner cannon bones, taller, etc), this was a sign that humans were selectively breeding the horses for traits that would benefit the humans. o Physical evidence in archeological ruins Krasnyi Yar (Eurasian steppes) Corrals High phosphorus levels in soil indicative of horse manure Botai Culture: o Fossils show bit wear on horse molars o Thin cannon bones o Comsumption of horse milk- horse milk was preserved in covered clay pots Weapons Saddles Carts o Art Cave paintings from Pleistocene Epoch Ice Age (35,000- 15,000 years ago) More cave paintings in: o Abri du Cap Blanc (France) o Kapova Cave (Russia) o Chauvet Cave (France) Vogelherd Horse (35,000 years ago, made of mammoth tusk, found in southern Germany, 1 by 2 inch sculpture of a horse) Evolution o General Trends in fossil records o Different ancestors through time o EVOLUTIONARY PATH Condylarth (75 mya, 5 toes, low crowned teeth) Eohippus (56 mya, 4 toes in front, 3 hind, low- crowned teeth) Epihippus (46-38 mya, few fossil records) Mesohippus (38 mya, 3 toes, low crowned teeth) Merychippus (28 mya, 3 toes but only middle toe supported weight, high crowned teeth) Pliohippus (12 mya, 1 toe 2 splint bones, high crowned teeth, grazers) Equus caballus (1 mya, longer legs, larger body, larger skull and elongated jaw bone, high crowned teeth) Uses: o Food o Transportation 1920’s began the decline of horses in the US- cars, tractors, and other machines took their jobs. Riding Bareback- 3000 BC Pads with girths 700 BC Saddle 100 BC Stirrups 100 AD Wagon Eastern Europe 3500 BC- Ceramic pot was discovered bearing images of horses pulling wagons 3150 BC- Ljubljana Marches Wheel was discovered, providing the first concrete evidence that wagons were being used Chariots Stagecoach First bus system, each coach ran on a schedule with specific stops Horse and Buggy Light, fast, cheap Automobiles Led to the decrease in horses in the US as they were no longer needed for transportation o Work Agriculture Plowing fields Oxen and donkeys were originally used, but horses began to be selectively bred and became larger and stronger- more capable of doing heavy farm work Tractors in 1920’s- decline of horses in agriculture 1970’s- horses were reintroduced to the agricultural industry as a sustainable, green alternative to tractors and fossil fuels o War Used all through history, up to Afghanistan Very strong, fast, large, and willing Draft horses generally used for hauling, warm bloods used for carrying armored knights, pulling wagons, etc. Light weight horses were used for pulling chariots, raiding, and light cavalry. Gunpowder- Horses pulled cannons, armored knights were no longer needed Shrapnel and Automatic weapons- horses were at risk when these weapons were developed- no longer as useful on the battlefield. Horses were generally just used for hauling, troop movement, and specialized cavalry. o Recreation Riding Driving Huge economic impact- $101.5 billion/ year
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