Communications & Public Life – STUDY GUIDE TEST 1 KNOW THESE
Dean of Students
Dean of SMC
SMC Career Center O Freuide nichte Töne!
>>> Technological Determinism (TD)
Dean Stephanie Ive, Ed. D
Dr. Kimberly Guire
Dean David Boardman
>> The poem of the inspiration for Beethoven’s 9th symphony. O = O
Freudne = friends
nicht = not
diese = these
Töne = tone
- In German anything that is capitalized is a noun and to make a a noun singular to plural from add an e.
- Freudne & Töne are both plural and a noun.
>>> (1857-1929) –
- Technological Determinism Referred to as TD.
o Noted by Thorstein Veblen
▪ Did not focus on the true technology but rather the
difference in social classes.
▪ Explored social & economical experience of immigrants ▪ Critiqued 19th century capitalism
▪ Resulting in – “The Theory of the Leisure Class: An
Economic of Institutions.”
▪ Compared social progress & economic in
o men & women
o Norwegian immigrants vs. English townspeople
o Social progress was tired to class differences
• Differed with later theorists
• Concept of technology as specific element of
>>> Asserted 3 groups were emerging in U.S
The role of self, collective and tech mesh
• We linked from who to what we are.
• Tech affects everything we do & who we are.
• Tech is anything that advances In life – contacts, hearing aids, pace makers, etc.
• Tech advances are everywhere.
Areas of Tech
Augmented Reality (AR)
- The WHEEL is the most significant technological advancement, next is the boat.
- Cameras are everywhere
- Tech as communication link social progress
- Current events, news gathering, newspapers evolved because tech advances. We also discuss several other topics like The legal maximum on the price at which a good/service can be sold.
o furthered positioning study of tech.
- Grounded tech in a framework of politics, social
advancements & historical conflict.
- Active economist
- History as being grounded in class iniatives, position that advanced his own personal sense of advocacy & activism.
Concept originally noted by Veblen
Concept furthered by Charles Beard [seven-league boots – CB] “Technological marches in seven-league boots from one ruthless, revolutionary concession to another, tearing down older factories and industries.”
- Beard believed tech is important role as a primary motivator for social change, but negatively affected human communication. - Beard believes tech advances are sometimes negative o Human interaction negatively affected because of tech advances. If you want to learn more check out What are the basic concepts of microeconomics
▪ Dating, socially inept, relationships
▪ Effects interpersonal communication
TD is noted as:
>>> “The believe that social progress is driven by technological innovation, which in turn follows an ‘inevitable course.’” – Smith >>> “The idea that technolgica development determines social change…” If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of sociology?
>>> “Technology determines history.” – Williams
social/cultural progress by technology innovation.
TWO Important Areas Tech is:
1. Predictable path largely beyond culture or political influence. 2. Society organizes itself to support and develop a technology & technology overall once being introduced.
Live in real time display
Live, real world environment
Computer generated images overlapping real time pictures.
Impact of AR
Allows reality info to come interactive and digitally obtainable. Advertising, education, entertainment
>> tracking devices, fiducial markers
How does it work?
Tracking devices – tech involved in AR & abilitiy to see position of input devices & images of objects in view of the device. Fiducial Markers – objects placed in field view of imaging system appears in image for point of reference.
Replicated environment, stimulates presense in real/image worlds User interacts within worlds, generated world.
>>> Producter --- Eran May-Raz & Daniel Lazo
“excellent, perfect” – constant affirmation
character always looking to computer to tell him how wonderful he is nothing is actually present
sight system is just generating images
constant screen in his world
tells him what do on the date
telling him to smile
tells him about her and what to say If you want to learn more check out what is Marketing?
points for compliments
forgets to take down the art she was interest in
alcohol is real
sees the dating app on the walls
negatively affects the human interaction, pays attention to the info
- Prophet of mediated determinism in the age of TV
Background of McLuhan
- English literature, University of Toronto
- Compared US media to Canada media
- First major book The Mechanical Bride (1951) based on advertising
Book structured on popular culture
Focused on newspaper & magazine advertising
Images of mechanical tech dominated popular consciousness First time advertising student in texts
To see how media effects our own identity
Ages of Tech
Media document who & what we are – determines who & what we are - Developed in the idea the form or tech of media was more important than the content.
Argued tech & media leads to great cultural changes - Reach accessible at any time, immediate information
MD – form of TD, furthered by McLuhan & Harold Innis (economist) o focused on the impact media
o philosophy that puts the power of media has on society, institutions, culture, and individuals. We also discuss several other topics like what is Proximal Stimulus?
Discussion of TV age – by the 60s TV was becoming international - Focused on streaming and screens, watch TV from phone and iPad, Netflix, Apple TV, Hulu.
Multiple screens, multiple media functions
- Will the TV eventually overpower from culture based on new tech?
4 Technology Ages
1. Oral/Primitive Age – dominate sense was oral, listening 2. Literate Age – visual sense became important (pre-printing press) no writing or reading.
3. Print Age – two words: printing press. dominance of visual with print, changed culture, growth of religion, bibles (Latin) 4. Electronic Age – computer ages dominated & involve all senses never ending age – all senses became major players
Part of History based on tech.
- Real way to study history is what tech used.
Example of history & tech – health tech, pacemakers, defibulators
“More senses make us true to a natural of human kind.” “Technology is the prime mover of the world; it can change the world.”
Media supplies each other – systems, technique, styles, social significance
- All media are extensions of each other, combo of old things.
At Toronto McLuhan worked with economic historian Harold Innis. “All media are extensions of some human faculty-physic or physical…” We also discuss several other topics like What is Binomial Random Variable?
- Wheel extension of the foot
horses ???? wagons ???? cars – created roads & highways - Book extension of the eye
Other Major Works Original Thesis
- Printing Press extension of the hand & eye (visual) Ink ???? written book ???? printing press ???? typewriter ???? computer
- Clothing extension of the skin
Senses control the world and revolution of technology & its progress. - Technology is an extension of the function of the human body.
The Gutenberg Galaxy (1962)
- Self-explanatory ???? the printing press (PP) created by Johannes Gutenberg ???? The message is the title of the book
- PP created printing culture which lead to the rise of public culture - pushed for extreme uses of senses.
Understanding the Media: The Extension of Man (1964) MEDIUM IS THE MESSAGE
- road did not create transportation or the wheel in culture, simply extended human functions to progress society in tech. - it’s not the content it’s the medium.
- medium is the main role & delivers the message
- the medium molded “the scale and form of human association and action”
- uses the lightbulb as example ???? lightbulb doesn’t provide information or ‘content’ but it changes society because it allows us to exist in darkness.
The shift from visual to electronic media societies will change. - not a good thing as systems of control will be deep seated in the world.
o motivated McLuhan’s research
- learn languages through tech
- connect with someone & their art
Hot vs. Cold Media
Extends single sense in HD ie: sharp image, HDTV Low audience
Use of senses in low definition High audience
Robert Heilbroner Major Work
Original Thesis $$$
American historian economist
researched economist, Adam Smith.
- Suggest other way to look at economics in tech.
Harvard studied government and economics.
Served in United States Army in WWII
Earned PhD in Economics at New School for Social Research The Worldly Philosophers (1953) – looked deeper into the works of most Adam Smith, Karl Marx, Henry George, John Keynes, Thomas Malthus, John Mil.
DO MACHINES MAKE HISTORY?
What makes machines? ???? humans
Humans that have access to $$
- Something moved society from feudalism – economic ownership by landowners who became so by exchanged military service for lads to capitalism.
ie: what is it?
- Asserts that history is divided between modern and pre-modern, not chronological periods but as styles ???? how people think about themselves and what affects them.
- The car in 1920s not change economy but also changed style & culture.
Henry ford invented assembly line.
No need education to be successful, just spot on assembly line. Human kind can now act beyond our control.
There was no change in years, but rather how we view ourselves and our mentality.
It’s not about periods in time, but how people think about themselves & what effects.
Who controls what?
- Asserts in premodern times, humans were acted upon beyond our control. Now, machines that we create end up affecting us. Technological Determinism is a symbiotic relationship. History marked by the reaction to the environment around us, not the year.
Change history by changing the material condition of human existence – rely on them to understand who we are:
- Palimpsest – very old document on which the originaly wiring has been eras and replace with new writing
o In relation to MEDIA – it’s written on top of history, you cannot erase history, but you can “write on top of it to replace it.
- Proposed that economics work in tandem with technology, allowed us to loosen or constrict our behavior
To change the course of human progress you change technology. change in technology ???? change economy ???? change the world they work in tandem, they are semiotic
Tech is driven by economics and those technologies allow us to operate in a more open or constricted manner – the construction of time.
Tech is constant – always a viable force.
• These three things work in balance, one offsetting the other and affecting it but never being removed from it.