Test 1 - Study Guide
Test 1 - Study Guide Nutr 1020
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by rgslc8 on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Nutr 1020 at University of Utah taught by Anandh Babu Pon Velayutham in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Scientific Foundations of Nutrition and Health in Nutrition at University of Utah.
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Date Created: 09/18/16
T est 1 – Study Guide – Nutrition 1020 Topics: Overview of Nutrition Nutrition information and analysis Menu planning Human body and a nutrition perspective Designing a healthy diet Digestive System Carbohydrates Overview of Nutrition Nutrition: science that links food to health and disease. Hunger: biological drive to eat. o Controlled by internal body mechanism. Appetite: psychological drive to eat. o Controlled by external food choice mechanisms Satiety: a feeling of satisfaction. o Temporarily halts our need to eat. Nutrients: Obtained from foods that are vital for growth and maintenance of a healthy body. 3 characteristics of essential nutrients: o At least of specific biological function o Removal leads to decline in certain biological function o Replacing the omitted nutrient in the diet will restore the normal biological function Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Water Carbohydrates Provide energy Two types: simple and complex o Simple: composed of 1 or 2 sugars Ex. Glucose and Sucrose(Fructose + Glucose) o Complex: composed of hundreds of glucose Ex. Starch and Cellulose Proteins Made up of 20 amino acids linked together o 9 essential and 11 non-essential Sources: Poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, beans, vegetables, grains, nuts, seeds Lipids Fats: Lipids solid at room temperature Oils: Lipids liquid at room temperature T est 1 – Study Guide – Nutrition 1020 Sources: Poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, nuts, seeds, olive oil, fish oil. Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins Produce no calories 13 total Water Soluble: B (1,2,3,5,6,7,9,12) C Fat Soluble: A,D,E,K Minerals Produce no calories 16 total Calories Unit of measurement of energy/heat Amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 Kg of water by 1 degree Celsius. Carbohydrates: 4 Kcal/g Fats: 9 Kcal/g Proteins: 4 Kcal/g Alcohol: 7 Kcal/g Calculating Calories: Grams x Kcal/g = Total Kcals Designing a Healthy Diet Healthy Diet: Why is it important? Heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes, hypertension: all possibly related to diet Unhealthy diet o Excess intake of: Calories, saturated fat, cholesterol, salt, trans fat, alcohol, and sugar Combined with physical inactivity causes death 1,000 nutrition related deaths per day Nutrient density: describes nutrient/calorie content of food. Provide large amount of nutrients for a relatively small amount of calories Empty calories: Foods that contain lots of calories but offer low nutritional value. Functional foods: Foods rich in phytochemicals T est 1 – Study Guide – Nutrition 1020 My Plate A Menu-Planning tool “Federal Government’s food icon” o 50% plate should be fruits/vegetables o 25% plates should be grains, with a focus on whole grains o 25% plate should be protein o Dairy Physical Activity guidelines Adults: Moderate/intense physical activity o 150 min/week Children and adolescents physical activity o 60 min/day Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) : the dietary intake level is sufficient enough to meet the nutrient requirements Adequate Intake (ID): A recommended intake value – approximations of needed nutrient intake Daily Value (% DV) Guide to the nutrients in one serving of food. Based on consuming 2,000 calories per day. According to the FDA, 5% or less is low and 20% or more is high Human Body – A Nutrition Perspective Organization of Human Body 1. Chemical Level 2. Cellular Level 3. Tissue Level 4. Organ Level 5. System Level 6. Organism Level Components of the Cell Plasma Membrane – Separates inside and outside of the cell Regulates flow of substances Controls cell to cell communication Made up of lipids, protein (allows hormones to go in and out of cell), and carbohydrates (sends messages, identification markers of the cell) Cytoplasm T est 1 – Study Guide – Nutrition 1020 Fluid material and organelles (expect nucleus) Small amount of energy produced – the sole source of energy production in RBC Mitochondria Power plant of the cell o Converting food energy to form ATP that cells can use. This is an aerobic process that uses oxygen, water, enzymes All cells contain mitochondria except red blood cells Nucleus All cells contain a nucleus expect RBC Contain genetic material o Chromosomes, DNA, Genes Endoplasmic Reticulum Network of tubes outside nuclear membrane Plays important role in protein synthesis Lysosomes (suicide bags) Sacs that contain enzymes o Digest foreign materials and damaged cell components Golgi Complex (Fedex of the cell) Packing and transporting site for proteins Cell Metabolism Metabolism: chemical processes involved in maintaining life. o Anabolism: puts different molecules together Requires energy o Catabolism: takes molecules apart Releases energy Digestive System Responsible for: Digestion – breaking complex foods into simple nutrients Absorption of nutrients Elimination of waste Gastrointestinal Tract (GI tract) 1. Mouth (enter) 2. Esophagus 3. Stomach T est 1 – Study Guide – Nutrition 1020 4. Small Intestine 5. Large Intestine (colon) 6. Rectum (exit) Accessory organs: Liver, pancreas, gall bladder Mechanical and Chemical Processes in Digestive System Mechanical o Chewing food o Peristaltic movement: muscle contractions mix and move food simultaneously through the GI tract Chemical o Breakdown of foods by acid and enzymes in GI tract Components of the Digestive System Mouth Chewing – break complex foods into smaller pieces Senses and tastes the food Signals the GI tract to prepare for the digestion of the food Production of saliva (salivary glands) Esophagus Long tube that connects the pharynx with the stomach No digestion/no absorption Main purpose: transport food from the mouth to the stomach Stomach Food + gastric juices = chyme Pyloric sphincter – controls the rate at which the chime is released into the small intestine Very little absorption: some water and alcohol Stomach Problems Peptic Ulcer: occurs when stomach or small intestine is eroded by the acid secreted by the stomach cells Heartburn/Acid Reflux o Movement of acid from the stomach to esophagus, loose esophageal sphincter Small Intestine Where most digestion and absorption occurs Lining of small intestine: mucosa – folded – finger like projections called villi T est 1 – Study Guide – Nutrition 1020 Small Intestine Problems Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity Large Intestine No digestion. Absorbs: water, some vitamins, some fatty acids, and minerals Na, K Major role: excretion No digestive enzymes Rectum No digestion/ absorption Sole purpose: excretion Rectum Problems Diarrhea o Increased fluidity, frequency, or amount of bowel movements comparted to a person’s usual pattern. Constipation o Slow movement of fecal matter o Difficulty or infrequent evacuation of the bowels Carbohydrates Functions Energy o Carbs as the most important energy source o Red blood cells, central nervous system, and brain derive energy from glucose Protein Sparing Effect o Enough carbs in diet prevent the breakdown of proteins for energy needs Intestinal Health Protecting Against Disease Classification of Carbohydrates Simple Carbohydrates: o Monosaccharides - one sugar Glucose, Galactose, Fructose (fruit sugar) o Disaccharides - two sugars Sucrose (Glucose and Fructose), Lactose (Glucose and Galactose) Complex Carbohydrate: o Polysaccharides - hundreds or thousands of sugars Glycogen T est 1 – Study Guide – Nutrition 1020 o Fiber Monosaccharides Glucose o Basic unit of all carbohydrate structure Fructose o Fruit sugar/ half of sucrose o Most of fructose in diet is from high fructose corn syrup o If consumed in too high amounts it will be converted to fat Disaccharides Milk Sugar: Lactose Table Sugar: Sucrose o Sugar cane, sugar beets, honey, maple syrup Polysaccharides Starch o 20% amylose and 80% amylopectin o Amylose – linear o Amylopectin – many branches, raises blood glucose rapidly: more places for enzymes to attack compared to the two ends of amylose Glycogen o Can be broken down very quickly: many branches o Liver glucose- contributes to blood glucose o Muscle glucose – supply glucose for muscle use Fiber Soluble fiber o Attract water and form a gel in GI tract, which slows digestion o Delays emptying of the stomach, keeping you feeling full which helps to control weight Insoluble fiber o Act as a natural laxative: speeds up the transmit of food through GI tract o Prevents constipation Dietary Fiber vs. Functional Fiber Dietary Fiber: Fiber that occurs naturally in plant foods Functional Fiber: Synthetic fibers that may be added to foods or used as a supplement “Total Fiber”: dietary and functional fiber combined Carbohydrates in Food Whole Grains T est 1 – Study Guide – Nutrition 1020 Bran: outer layer that protects the seed Endosperm: middle later Germ: small nutrient rich core Processing: grinding, milling, separating Refined grains – whole grains that have been processed Endosperm: Just some proteins and carbs Sweeteners Nutritive Sweeteners – provide calories for the body Ex: sucrose All monosaccharides and disaccharides Alternative Sweeteners – provide no calories for the body Ex: Splenda High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) Nutritive sweetener used in a lot of foods 55% fructose = “high” fructose Food manufactures prefer HFCS: low cost, better shelf-life, and broad range of processing applications Higher consumption is related to obesity because fructose is converted to fat in the body ‘Added’ Sugars Caloric sweeteners added to foods during processing and preparation o Example: HFCS, sucrose High in calories and low in nutrients Sugar and Oral Health Sugar and other carbohydrates are turned into acids by oral bacteria o Acids dissolve the tooth enamel and underlying structures Leads to dental cavities/tooth decay Bacteria use the sugar to make plaque o Plaque adheres acid- producing bacteria to teeth and diminishes acid- neutralizing effect of saliva. Health Risks of Consuming too much Added Sugar Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (liver failure) Weight gain and obesity Dental Decay Diabetes T est 1 – Study Guide – Nutrition 1020 Heart Disease Alternative Sweeteners Synthetic sugar substitutes: derived from naturally occurring substances, including herbs or sugar itself. Intense sweeteners because they are many times sweetener than regular sugar (sucrose). Acceptable daily intake – safe Little or no calories Protein Sparing Effect of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates for energy, protein for building and maintaining muscles and vital organs A diet that supplies enough digestible carbs to prevent breakdown of proteins for energy use. Low Carb Diets When carbs are less in diet, the body is forced to make glucose from body proteins. Not enough carbs in diet: o The metabolism of fat is insufficient Regulation of Blood Glucose Normal blood glucose: 10-120 mg/100 ml of blood Hyperglycemia: high levels of glucose in the blood Hypoglycemia: low levels of glucose in the blood Immediately after a meal: o Blood glucose in elevated Pancreas releases insulin Glycemic Index: The measurement of how a carbohydrate containing food raises blood glucose Bodies react uniquely to different sources of carbs Diabetes Fasting blood glucose is more than 126 mg glucose/ 100 ml of blood o Type 1: the body is not producing enough insulin o Type 2: the cell is not binding to the insulin Test 1 – Study Guide – Nutrition 1020
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