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Geography 104- EXAM 1 NOTES

by: Ariel Notetaker

Geography 104- EXAM 1 NOTES 104

Ariel Notetaker

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These notes include definitions and explanations of the concepts for exam 1.
Social and Cultural Geography
David Wilson
Study Guide
poverty, Culture, growthmachine, importantgeographers
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ariel Notetaker on Sunday September 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 104 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by David Wilson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Social and Cultural Geography in Geography at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.


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Date Created: 09/18/16
Geography 104 Study Guide Ariel Note taker Note: This Study Guide will only cover the HIGHLIGHTS of each topic. INTRODUCTION 1. Human Geography a. Spatial Forms- Macro Scale-scale of the Globe ex: Northern Hemisphere Maso Scale- the scale in between macro and micro ex: region Micro Scale- Small scale, ex: abandoned building 2. Focus of Geography - A discipline characterized by the study of unique perspectives, not a unique subject Examples of fields with unique subjects: anthropology= dynamics of cultures 3. Method of Geography (Form vs. Process) a. Form is synonymous with Description b. Process is synonymous with Explanation Cluster Index Cluster Random Dispersion Sitting on each other 50% of the points occupy Every Point is as far away the same space, other as it is allowed to be points don’t 4. Spatial Mismatch-Place where people want to work vs. where they actually live Note: Association does not imply causality TWO TYPES OF REGIONS Formal (Uniform) Region- • characterized by Functional Region- Homogeneity based • characterized by a high a specific criteriadegree of functional linkage within it (core and tributary) 2. reductionist tendency in geography- as we opt for more generalization and universal principle, we gain, we loose, In other words: the more we simply, the more we loose place-specific details HISTORY OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY objectives, that weather overwhelmed people's ability to act indpendently Cru•e Form of Explanation- belief that the physical environment was a major determinant of human goals, values, and Des•ribing Commodity Flows accross Space (1900-1920) Map•ing New Portions of the Earth's Surface DEnvironmental Fir•t attempt at explaining human geography, commercial cataloging, the era of exploration Sem•le Thesis: the existence of mountains pass has an efect of turning mountain dwellers in theives Ho• & Dry Climates- socities charaterized by a low degree of technological advancemment Co•l Climates-societies characterized by a high degree og technological development EXAMPLES Hu•tington Thesis: Ph•sical Environment is still infuential, but people's actitons are given more weight Lo•g Term- Represented by a only slsight modification Sh•rt Term- humans preseented as a more active agent 1930) Possibility (1920- Ex• Grifth Taylor Environmental 3. •nique Method: Description of Uniqueness 2. •nique Perspective- Focus on Space 1. •nique Subject Matter- regions formal and functional (1930-1960) Th•ee Attributes Given: Regionalism Da•k Ages of Geography , ex: Richard Hartshorne-A retreat from explaining, just describe We •annot find laws, if we keep looking for diferences, commonality is key Uni•ue Method: the description of uniqueness dooms geography to a descriptive non-science Per•psective: Focus on space EXAMPLES Reg•ons ( are mere artificaial constructs) Fr•d Schaefer- "Exceptionalism in Geography , 1953) Er• of mathematical geography (quantitative revolution Se•rch for Universal Parallels (1960-1970) Spatial Analysis Ne• Subject Matter: application of theory to contemporary real world problems Present) Revelance (1970- School of ROOTS AND MEANING OF CULTURE 1.Culture- goals, values, objectives of a population that guides their behavior and activities, the glue that structures actions and norms in societies 2. Material Culture- the physical manifestation of culture Example: suburbia culture and malls 3. Gentrification- the physical and social restructuring of neighborhoods got affluent consumption ex: Chicago, new York Facets of Culture: 1.Cultures are dynamic entities, ( not static, can change compositions and aerial extent) 2.Cultures move by difusion process: Difusion Theory- a general body of knowledge which seeks to understand how real world entities move across space TWO TYPES OF DIFFUSION Contagious Difusion- Hierarchical Difusion- probability of adopting Probability of Adopting an innovation is a an innovation is NOT a function of distance to function of distance core innovative area EX: high fashion HAS CULTURE BEEN EXXAGERATED? Question: Is Bad Culture the problem? Or Too few jobs? Bad gov/ policy? SUBCULTURE OF POVERTY THESIS • Participant Observation • The Low-income adapt to dispair Ocsar • 1. Unwilling to defer gratifcation • 2. Low Aspirations Lewis • 3. Telelogical Thinking (Pre- Determination) • The poor have to be culturally rehabed Banefie • The submainstream have thier own ld - directives, goals, and norms, • Three kinds of present Orientedness "SO- • Cognitive- poeple acting for the moment CALLED • Situational- People acting ouf of desperate circumstances Heaven • Volitional- people acting for the moment because they refexively chose this ly City" lifestyle • Heterogenous Poverty Population Herbert • Only A Select Group resides in the normslture, most know regular societal Gans • aspirations and ability to achieve aspirations • Evident in 1980 • Most Poverty-Stricken and Non Mobile Group • Forces Responsible Wilson (The • Spataial Mismatch Black UnderClass) • Evolution of Service Econonomy, loss of industrial jobs with benefits • Out-Migration of Black Middle Class • Decline of Institutions Major Causes of This: - Industries became “ foot-loose”, looking for places that had lower wage requirements, taxes - Post-Industrial State pushing lower-wage jobs Tertiary Secondary Sector Sector • Expanding • Contracting • Low-wage • ex: manufacturin • No Benefits g • ex:fast food industry DEATH OF URBAN SPACE -changing the purpose of public space -Public Space is now about the gathering of money, no-free events, surveullant-heavy atmospheres - Public Space is now meant to be a extention of the creative class only GROWTH MACHINE MODEL U S E V A L U E • liv in g o f o f re a l e s ta te p a rc e ls • U s e Va lu e A d v o c a te s : • S e e k to d e fe n d s o c ia l fa b ric s o f c o m m u n iti e s • h o m e o w n e r a s s o c ia tio n s E X C H A N G E V A L U E • L a n d Pa rc e ls a n In s tru m e n t fo r c a p ita l a c c u m u la tio n • e x : G e n trifi c a tio n • E x a h n g e Va lu e A d v o c a te s : • s e e k to g e n e ra te fi n a n c ia l m a x fi n a n c ia l re tu rn s fro m p ro p e rty • G ro w th O rg a n iz a ti o n s : C C C C h ic ag o


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